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lecture 8 观点论证类,解释类作文、分主题写作


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观点论证类作文 分主题句写作

观点论证类作文
典型题眼 : Is Thrift Necessary in Modern Society? Do You Agree with” Euthanasia"? Some people think that machine translation can replace our English study. Do you agree with these people? ? What’s your opinion about reducing children’s excessive assignment? ? What do you think of … ? ? ? ?

结构模板
? ( 当作文题目只出现单方面的观点时 ) ? 第一段 : 开头段
– – – – 介绍社会背景 交代这篇文章要辩论的话题 用自己的话转述原题观点(有时可省略) 陈述自己的态度或观点

? 第二段 : 主体段(至少两个分论点)
– 承上启下的过渡句 – 分主题1及发展 – 分主题2及发展

? 第三段 : 重申自己的观点并提出可行的建议或期望

? Some people argues as if it is a general truth that a…But to be frank, I cannot agree with them. There are numerous reasons why I hold no confidence in them, and I would explore only a few primary ones here. ? The main problem with this argument is that it is ignorant of the basic fact that…Another reason why I disagree with the above statement is that I beliveve that…What’s more, some students are interested in… ? In a word,…

? Nowadays, some may hold the opinion that…But others haves a negative attitude. As far as I am concerned, I agree that…My arguments for this point are listed as follows. ? I agree with the statement that…without reservation since… ? Another reason why I agree with the above statement is that I believe that… ? In a word,…(Taking into account of all these factors, we may reach/draw/come to the conclusion that…)

? 有些人认为, 电脑的发明极大地提高工作的效率。 ? Some people argues that the invention of computers greatly increases the efficiency of working. ? 因为很多原因,我丌这样认为。接下来我将分析几个主要的原因。 ? There are numerous reasons why I hold no confidence in them, and I would explore only a few primary ones here. ? 我的理由如下。 ? My arguments for this point are listed as follows. ? 我毫无保留地同意这样的观点,电脑使沟通更方便。 ? I agree with the statement that computers make communication much more convenient without reservation. ? 考虑到所有这些因素,我们可得出结论,电脑极大地改变了人们的生活。 ? Taking into account of all these factors, we may reach/draw/come to the conclusion that computers have greatly changed people’s life.

Writing Practice
? Directions: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication, such as letters,email, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

分主题句写作
? 两个概念: ? 主旨 (thesis statement) ? 主题句 (topic sentence)

发展模式 第一部分 : 主旨 第二部分 : 主旨 + 发展方法 ( 有两个理由 〉 分主题 1(理由一) 分主题 2 (理由二) 第三部分: 总结 适用情况: 通常要求议论或表态的场合 . 第一部分: 主旨 第二部分 : 分主题 = 主旨 + 一个具体理由 第三部分 : 总结 适用情况 : 通常要求议论或表态的场合 第一部分 : 主旨(利弊两面 ) 第二部分 : 分主题 1( 利〉 分主题 2( 弊 ) 第三部分: 总结 适用情况 : 要求利弊、优缺 面论说

范例 ( 提纲形式 ) I don’t think phones will kill letter writing. 分:My viewpoint that phones will never kill letter writing lies in the following two aspects. 分1:First, letter writing outweighs phones in some embarrassing situations inconvenient for face-to- face communication. 分2: Second, letter writing cannot be replaced by phones to record the everlast emotion. 主 :College life differs from middle school life in that I can enjoy more freedom in college. 分 :My preference for college life mainly lies in that I am much freer to arrange my life and academic study. 主 :Taking a part-time job for a college student can be a blessing and a curse. 分1: It can benefit a student in financia1independence and ability training. 分2:In spit of the advantages of taking a part-time job, without a proper plan, it can influence the student’s academic study. 点、褒贬两

第一部分 :主旨 第二部分 :主旨+事例 第三部分 : 总结 适用情况:要求以例子、细为主要内容的 一种方法

主:It is obvious that traveling can broaden our mind. 分:No one can deny the significance of traveling in broadening our mind. last winter, I went to ...

? 1.分主题的结构: 分主题 = 论题十具体观点 ( 主旨的某一 具体体现 ) ? 2006 年 TEM4:Is It Wise to Make Friends Online? ? Making friends online might result in lacking communications with friends in real life. ? Making friends online may help us enlarge our circle of friends considerably.

? 1996TEM4 :“A Major advantage/Disadvantage of Advertising on Television” ? The major advantage of TV advertising lies in its efficiency in message conveyance. ? The major Disadvantage of TV advertising lies in its negative influence on young children.

2.分主题写作: 观点不可过宽或过窄
病例 (l ) Making friends online is helpful. 问题分析及变通

(2 ) The first reason is that we need to keep a good mood.
(3)Cellphone is very important to our life. (4)Woman’s role is more difficult to play than that of man.

(5)One of my legs is longer

3· 分主题写作: 分主题要足够概括
病例
My statement of the importance of keeping a good mood is based on the following reasons. First, I know everyone has such an experience that when you are upset or gloomy, you are unwilling to do anything. You become lowspirited in study or work.

问题分析

First, a 100-year-old man was reported to do physical exercise every day. He said that it is sports that make him stay healthy.

4· 分主题写作: 分主题表达要充分自信、坚定
分析 (1) In this paragraph I will talk about why people go to college. (1')People have many complex reasons for going to college.

(1) In my opinion, everyone should exercise. (2' ) Everyone should exercise to reduce stress, maintain a healthy weight, and feel better overall.
(3)I think student fees are much too high. (3' )Student fees need to be explained and justified.

现象解释类作文
? 现象解释说明类型的文章,常见要求是分析现象产生的原 因或带来的结果,通常以why或者what问句开始: ? 典型题眼 : ? Teenage Smoking Soars ? Why College Students Have Difficulty in Finding Jobs? ? Reasons for the Young Children’s Crimes ? Why movies are popular? ? What are the reasons for…?

? 结构模板 ? 第一段: 通过数据展示和现象描述 , 提出问题可能的原因 有如下几个方面。 ? 第二段 : 承接首段观点 , 对本段内容加以限制 ; 分层次说 明现象的原因。
? 用固定句式 ( 表层次的 ) 引出原因之一 , 并对原因进行解释。 ? 用固定句式(表层次的) 引出原因之二 , 并对原因进行解释。

? 第三段 : 结论 , 简要提出建议。

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

可变通的语言模板 1 As is clearly shown by the (table, chart, graph), obviously there is a great rise in…, while there is a great failing in.... 现象 (According to the recent survey, 现象 ) There has been growing concern over… There are three reasons for this (tendency, phenomenon). The reasons for this phenomenon can be listed as follows. The following three reasons can explain the problem. This situation comes from the reasons below. (Several factors contribute to the... ) Priority should be given to …Besides,… One is that… Another important reason lies in the fact that ·· What’s more…, To the tendency (phenomenon), I suggest/think… (In a word, if...there is certain to be...) In light of the explanation of its causes, we suggest that… After analyzing the causes of this matter, I would like to suggest that… In summary,…are complicated; therefore,…

可变通的语言模板 2
? The rapid growth of …evokes many problems. A serious one is… This issue has drawn widespread attention. It is bovious that the causes of… are diverse. ? In the first place,… For instance… In the second place,… ? Accordingly/ In sum,…

? Practice: ? In recent years, there has been an obvious fall in college employment. What are the possible reasons in your opinion? Write a composition in about 200 words on the following topic: ? Why Do College Students Have Difficulty in Finding Jobs?

? 5.分主题写作: 分主题表达形式要规范 ? Why should we keep a good mood under whatever circumstance? First, to be calm enough to make decisions. ? Why shouldn’t we keep healthy by doing regular exercise? ? No one would doubt the importance of a good mood in keeping a good relationship with others.

? The reason for us to keep a good mood under whatever circumstance is that it can help us calm down to make a sensible decision. ? We should keep healthy by doing regular exercise. ? A good mood is very important in keeping a g ∞ d relationship with others.

? 6· 分主题写作: 分主题句表达要兼顾行文的连贯与衔接 ? 采用 " 主旨的重复或变体 + 发展观点 " 的方法可以保证分主题句 和主旨的呼应, 以及和其他分主题句的协调 , 使得文章显得连贯。 ? The best way to stay healthy ? 主旨应该是 ? 写作提纲: ? 主旨句 : ? 分主题 : (1 ) ? (2 ) ? (3 )

The best way to stay (分主题 1) The first reason for a balanced diet as the best healthy is to keep way to stay healthy is that it can guarantee us to get all the nutrition our body needs. a balanced diet.(主旨) (分主题 2) A balanced diet is the best wag to stay healthy also in that you can enjoy the tasty food while staying healthy ·

(分主题 3)We insist on a balanced diet as the best way to stay healthy, also because, compared with other ways, it is easy to be held on.

? 课堂练习: ? 1. 判断下列各句是否可以做分主题句 , 如有丌妥请说明理由。 ? (1)Because of the various advantages of cellphones, they are now widely used through the world. ? (2)It is true that the dining condition here is poor. Generally speaking, there are two main problems. ? (3)Last Sunday, I went to my sister’s wedding party. ? (4)Computer games are harmful to youngsters physically and mentally. ? (5)Extracurricular activities can develop students’ sense of cooperation.

?

? ? ? ? ?

2.下面是同学们在写作文前对 cellphone,traveling,cheating inexam,advertisements 等论题所做的头脑风暴练习, 他们已经产生了一系列的可 能联想。首先, 请你将这些思想划分出主要类别 ( 有些偏的、内容无法集中的材 料除外 ), 然后用一个词概括每一类内容, 再给每一类添加一个适当的(分) 主题句。 (1)Cheating in exam punishment, paper,skill,tricks,character,acceptable,unavoidable,dishonest,copy,whisper,high mark,disgraceful,not equal to others,mobile phone,short messages, not justified, attitude,ways,college entrance exam,guilty,do harm to trust (2)Advertisements fashion, art,cosmetics,colorfui,visual pleasure,rubbish,design,pictures,attract sb’s attention,rebroadcast,speciai effects,billboard,the image of the advertisements, promote sales,commercial cheat,commercials,public-interest advertisements,TV, SMS,poster,radio,newspaper,magazine,disturb people from watching TV play series

? ? ?

? ?

? ?

3.给下面的段落添加合适的主题句。 (1)_______________________________ We youngsters have many strong feelings about the world around us.Popular songs are a best way for us to express them. Rock music,for example, can easily evoke the resonance in young people.When we feel low in spirit, It can let our feelings out and fan the spark of life in our heart.When we feel sad or worried,some slow but soft popular music may soothe us. (2)_______________________________ Once, we lingered over every word of a classic novel or the latest best seller.Today, since faster is better,we read the condensed version. Once, we listened to every note of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony.Today,we don’t have the time; instead, we can enjoy 26 seconds of that famous "da-da-da-DUM" theme.Our magzine articles come to us pre-digested in Reader’s Digest. Even our personal relationships have become compressed. (Adapted from "Quick-fixed Society, by Janet Mendell Goldstein) (3)_______________________________ Studying abroad,a young student has to take care of himself,which seems more difficult for the one who has been used to being cared by parents at home. Also ,he has to bear the pressure to understand the difficult academic knowledge in a strange language.Furthermore,he has to face with the financial difficulties.

? (1 )Popular music is expressive of strong feelings. ? (2)Modem people treat things more superficially rather than thoroughly. ? (3)It is difficult for young children to study abroad.

Thanks for your attention!


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