Grammar & Usage
Step 1. To infinitive
We run every day to keep healthy. = ……in order to /so as to keep healthy.
In order to /To keep healthy
, we run every day. So as to keep healthy, we run every day.
NOTE :when to do is used to
express purpose, its logical subject is that of the sentence.
( T ) 1. To protect the Great Wall from being damaged, we should take measures.
( F ) 2. To protect the Great Wall from being damaged, measures should be taken.
1.***to do can be used to express purpose, (= in order to do, so as to do)
The parents were so angry as to punish the boy. ==The parents were So ___ angry that they punished the boy. ___
1.The baby is so young that he can’t go to school. 2.The baby isn’t old enough _______ ______ to go to school. 3.The baby is too _____ young to ___ go to school. 4.The baby is ____ young __ so as ___ ____ to go to school. not
Translation ? 1.It’s never too late to learn.
? 2. I’m only too glad to see you again. 我非常高兴再次见到你.
NOTE 1: ** pay attention to the
meanings of such phrases like “too
eager to do ; too willing to do ;too ready to do ”.
Translation I took a taxi to the railway station, only to find the train had already left.
译:我乘出租车赶到达火车站,不料却/结果却 发现火车已经离开了. NOTE 2 :**only to do… is used to express the unexpected result.
2.**to do can be used in the drills (enough to… ; so/such… as to…; too…to… ) to express result,and only to do refers to unexpected result.
____that his wife had left him.(2012山东卷) A. to be told B. telling c. being told D. told
1.George returned after the war, only
2.He was so foolish ______his car unlocked. A.to leave B. that leave C. as to leave D for him to leave
1.I was really sorry /sad/angry to hear about the bad news. 2.I was also disappointed /surprised to see so many people were cold-hearted.
3.**to do is usually used after the words “happy, sorry, glad, sad, surprised, disappointed” to express reason.
The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy ____ anything that happened to be on.(2012 全国卷)
A. to watch
D. to have watched
Step 2、Verb-ing & verb-ed
1.She got off the bus, but left her handbag on her seat. 2.She got off the bus, leaving her handbag on her seat.
1.**一个句子当中，已经存在一个 主句（谓语动词）,又没有连词 and, but ,so 的情况下,可用doing 或 done做状语.
1. ______ill , so he didn’t go to school B ___ today . A 2. ______ill , he didn’t go to school today . A. Being
B. He was
Studying ( study) hard, you 1）________ will pass the final exam. Study 2)_________ ( study) hard, and you will pass the final exam.
1. Because she was moved by the
hero, she decided to study harder.
2. When he walked in the street,
Moved by the hero,
he went home.
Walking in the street,
2**：active voice (doing )or passive voice (done) .
Seen 1.________from the top of the hill, our town is very beautiful. 2_________from the top of the hill, I Seeing find our town very beautiful. (see)
Buried 1.______in the book, he didn’t notice the sound. Burying 2._______himself in the book, he didn’t notice the sound. (bury)
After he graduated from Harvard, Obama worked as a lawyer, lecturer and then took up politics.
Having graduated from Harvard, Obama worked as a lawyer, lecturer and then took up politics.
Because he was trapped in traffic for hours, he was late for work.
Having been trapped __________________in traffic for hours, he was late for work.
3** “having done ,having been done” are used when they happen before the predicate verbs .
_____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. A. To wait B. have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited
1).Not knowing his address, we can’t get in
touch with him.
Not treated 2)___________(not treat) in time, the disease may cause death.
4.The negative word “not” always appear before doing or done.
1.While reading the novel, he nodded from time to time. 2.Once seen , it will never be forgotten. 3.Though feeling tired, he keeps on running.
5.**We can use doing or done after conjunctions（when, while, once, if, unless, though, although）.
True or false
1.Being an orphan, the nurse treated the boy 6 ：the agreement of the subject. kindly. F 1.Being an orphan, the boy was treated kindly. 2.The boy being an orphan, the nurse treated him kindly. T ,
2. Because the boy was an orphan, the 3.Everything prepared, we began to nurse treated him kindly. carry out the project.
Rewrite these sentences:
1.If time permits, I will call on you. Time permitting, I will call on you.
2.After my homework was finished, I could go to play outside. My homework finished, I could go to play outside.
The party will be held in the garden, weather_____（2012全国卷） A. permitting B. to permit C. permitted D. permit
8 . set phrases:
speaking; 2.judging from/by…; concerning 3.considering…; =taking …into consideration/account; 4.compared to/with… ; 5. seeing that…; given…, (鉴于，由于) ； 6. to be exact/honest, to tell( you )the truth, to make matters worse, to begin with, to make a long story short.
Generally speaking 一般说来), boys are ①__________________(
more interested in such activities than girls. from/by ② Judging _______________her accent(从口音判断), She must be from Henan.
tell you the truth 说老实话), I am not in ③ To __________________( favor of the plan. ④(坦白地说)---------- , we don’t trust him. To be frank
9.doing or done can be used to refer to reason or cause/time/condition/manner/result.
1.Being a student, I must work hard。 2.Walking the a countryside, I can see a ==Because in I am student, ...... variety of wild flowers. ==When I walk inyou thewill countryside,...... 3.Working hard, succeed one day.
==If you work hard,……
Psy went into the room, followed by his fans. ==……and he was followed by his fans.
Mo Yan won the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him famous worldwide.
B C E
? 1 Tony lent me the money, ____that I’d do as much for him. (2012全国) A. hoping B. to hope C. hoped D. having hoped
2. _______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks.(2012北京) A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use
3. He got up late and hurried to his office, _________the breakfast untouched.(2012天津) A. left B. to leave C. leaving D. having left
4.______to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film.（重庆） A. Having been asked B. To ask C. Having asked D. To be asked
5．Having finished her project, she was invited by the school_____ to the new students.（2012江西） A．speaking B．having spoken C．to speak D．to have spoken
Write a short composition about Liu Xiang ,trying to use
to do ,verb-ing or verb-ed as adverbials.
a well-known athlete;
●men’s 110-metre hurdle race ;
break the Olympic record; ●seriously injured; ● encouraged by ● have received good treatment;
● took part in the Asian Games
won the gold medal ●highly thought of by people
姓名 身份 出生 个人主要 经历及成 就
刘翔 刘翔是中国著名的运动员; 1983年7月13日出生于上海的一个家庭; (V-ed) ;
1.在2004年的雅典奥运会上赢得了男子110米栏(the men’s 110 meters hurdles)，打破了奥运记录(V-ing) ; 2.2008年，由于严重受伤，他离开了北京奥运会的鸟巢 (V-ed) ; 3.两年后，受到最好治疗后，刘翔回来了， 4. 在他教练孙海平的鼓励下,在2010年广州亚运会上赢得 了三连冠。 (V-ing and V-ed )。
Liu Xiang, born on July 13, 1983 in Shanghai, is a well-known athlete in China. At the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, he won the Men’s 110-metre hurdle race, breaking the Olympic record. In 2008, badly injured, he left the Bird’s Nest stadium. Two years later, having received the best treatment, Liu came back. Encouraged by his coach Sun Haiping, he succeeded, winning Asian Games for three times.
It is not easy to make it. To realize his dream, he works very hard with a firm faith and great determination, Liu Xiang ,who is thought highly of by people ,set a good example for us to follow.
1. Finish the composition and contact me if you have any questions or suggestions.