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高考英语阅读理解技巧点拨—推理判断题


阅读理解解题技巧之 推理判断 在高考阅读理解试题中,推理判断题的考查每年都占阅读理解试题的 40%左右。 该题型主要考查考生根据文章的字面意思,通过语篇逻辑关系,研究细节的暗示,推 敲作者的态度, 理解文章的寓意等。 推理判断题属于主观性较强的高层次阅读理解题。 做这类题时,考生应在理解全文的基础上,从文章本身所提供的信息出发,运用逻辑 思维,同时借助一定的常识进行分析、推理、判

断。 一、题型特点与命题方式 这类题属于主观题,是层次较高的设题,它包括判断题和推理题。这两类题常常 相互依存,推理是为了得出正确的判断,正确的判断又依赖于合乎逻辑的推理。推理 题要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,做出一定判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐 含意义和深层意义。推理题所涉及的内容可能是文中某一句话,也可能是某几句话, 但做题的指导思想都是以文字信息为依据,既不能做出在原文中找不到文字根据的推 理,也不能根据表面文字信息做多步推理。所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面 文字信息推出的答案:即对原文某一句话或某几句话所作的同义改写或综合。 (一)、呈现阅读推理判断题类型 1. 推断隐含意义 2. 推断作者观点或态度 3. 推断写作目的 4. 推断文章出处 5. 推断人物的观点、情感、品性 6. 推断读者对象或文章的作者 7. 推断作者的情感 判断下列问题的类型 第 1 题 What does the author think of her mother ’ s English now? 判断题型 _______________ 第 2 题 This text is most probably taken from a ______. 判断题型_______________ 第 3 题 The author intends to____________. 判断题型_______________ 第 4 题 The second paragraph indicates the importance of ________. 判断题型 ___________ 第 5 题 How did the author probably feel after he talked with his friend? 判 断题型__________ 第 6 题 Rae Armantrout ’ s colleagues think that she________. 判 断 题 型 _______________ 第 7 题 Who probably wrote the letter? 判断题型___________ 【答案点拨】 第 1 题:推断作者观点或态度 第 2 题:推断文章出处 第 3 题:推断写作目的 第 4 题:推断隐含意义 第 5 题:推断作者的情感 第 6 题:推断人物的观点、情感、品性 第 7 题:推断读者对象或文章的作者 (二)、导出阅读推理判断题的提问形式和标志性词语 1. 推断隐含意义
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It can be inferred from the text that________________________. The story indicates that______________________. 标志性词语:infer, indicate, suggest, imply, conclude... 2. 推断作者观点或态度 What does the author think of __________________? What's the author's attitude toward_______________________? In the author's opinion, _________________________. 标志性词语:according to the writer, attitude, think, opinion, consider... 3. 推断写作目的 What is the author's main purpose in this passage? In the passage the author wants to tell__________________________. The article is intended to ____________________________________________. 标志性词语:purpose, intend to, show, want ... 4. 推断文章出处 Where would this passage most probably appear? The passage is most likely a part of ______________. 标志性词语:be taken from, appear, a part of, be taken out of ... 5. 推断人物的观点、情感、品性 Sb think that _________________. What do we know/learn about sb in the text? How did ?feel about?? 标志性词语:attitude, learn form, know from, feel about ... 6. 推断读者对象或文章的作者 Who probably wrote the letter? Who is the passage written for? Who are the intended readers of the passage? 标志性词语:the intended reader, writer, author? 7. 推断作者的情感 How does the author feel about_______________? The writer probably feels that______________________. 标志性词语:feel, feel about... 二、解题思路与应试技巧 考生做题时一定要从整体上把握语篇内容,在语篇的表面意义与隐含意义、已知 信息与未知信息之间架起桥梁,透过字里行间,去体会作者的“弦外之音”和“言外 之意”。 首先,考生在阅读时,要抓住文章的主题和细节,分析文章结构,根据上下文内 在联系,挖掘文章的深层含义。在进行推理时,考生一定要仔细阅读短文,千万不可 脱离原文而仅凭个人的看法主观臆断。 其次,对于暗含在文章中的人物的行为动机、事件的因果关系以及作者未言明的 倾向等要进行合乎逻辑的判断、推理、分析,进一步增强理解能力,抓住材料实质性 的东西。 再次,在解答推理性问题时,应清楚所要解答的问题是针对某个细节进行推断, 还是针对主题思想、作者的意图进行推断。针对细节的推断可运用略读的方法,迅速 在阅读材料中确定推理依据的位置或范围,然后再进行推理判断。针对主题思想作推
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断时,其解题的主要依据是文章的主题思想,然后再分析句子之间的逻辑关系,区分 观点与例证、原因与结果、主观点与次观点等。 下面结合最新高考试题,对推理判断题的不同类型加以解读。 1. 抓住特定信息进行逆向或正向推理 做此类题目时要善于抓住某一段话中的关键信息,即某些关键词或短语去分析、 推理、判断,利用逆向思维或正面推理,从而推断出这句话所隐含的深层含义。 考例: (2010 年 全 国 卷 II , A 篇 ) 42. We can infer from Paragraph 2 that Brownie______. A. could eat anything when hungry B. felt sorry for her mistake C. loved playing hide-and-seek D. disliked the author’s dad 解析:B 考查利用特定信息进行正向推理。请看文章第二段:One day, as I was getting her food, she chewed up(咬破) one of Dad’s shoes, which had to be thrown away in the end. I knew Dad would be mad and I had to let her know what she did was wrong. When I looked at her and said, “Bad girl,” she looked down at the ground and then went and hid. I saw a tear in her eyes. Brownie 咬破了作者父亲的一只鞋,听到作者的话后低下了头并躲藏起来,眼睛 中还含着泪水,由此可推断 Brownie 这只小狗为自己犯的错误后悔。故答案选 B。 (2009 年广东卷,B 篇) 50. We can infer from the passage that the author ______. A. enjoyed grown-up tricks very much B. loved poster competitions very much C. felt surprised to win the competition D. became wise and rich after the competition 解析:C 考查利用特定信息进行逆向推理。请看文章最后两段: No one came along to give me the grand prize, and then someone distracted me, and I probably never would have thought about that poster again. I was still sitting at my desk, thinking, What poster? when the teacher gave me an envelope with a ten-dollar bill in it and everyone in the class applauded for me. 五年级艺术课举行出“海报”比赛,作者期盼着能够获奖。后来当希望渐渐破灭 的时候,老师给了他一个装有 10 美元的信封,教室里响起掌声。由此进行逆向推理, 作者的“海报”获奖了,而作者对这次获奖应该是感到意外的,由此选择 C 项。 2. 整合全文(段)信息进行推断 做推理判断题时,有时需要在弄懂全文意思的基础上,整合与题目相关的有用信 息,综合起来去推理判断,确定最佳结论,该种题型经常出现在记叙文体中。 考例: (2009 年浙江卷,A 篇) 43. Why did the writer give his flowers to the elderly lady? A. She told him a nice story. B. She allowed him to pay first. C. She gave him encouragement. D. She liked flowers very much. 解析:C 这是一篇记叙文体材的美文,记叙文的特点是文章的主题贯穿整篇文
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章。作者因为要赴女朋友的第二次约会,匆匆忙忙冲进一家杂货店买花,偶遇同样购 物的一位老太太。老太太明白年轻人的举动,在交谈过程中得知年轻人对那个女孩为 什么爱他不是很自信,于是老太太讲述了自己年轻时丈夫每周都送花给她,即使在日 子很艰难的时候也一如既往,这让她非常感动,所以即使丈夫去世了,她仍然怀念他。 听完老太太的故事后,作者毫不犹豫地走上前去,将鲜花献给了老太太。综合整篇文 章可以推测,老太太的话给了作者鼓励,让他变得自信,所以作者把鲜花送给了老太 太表示感激。由最后一段“I remember being slightly late for my date that night and telling my girlfriend the above story. A. couple of years later, when I finally worked up the courage to ask her to marry me, she told me that this story had helped to seal it for her — that was the night that I won her heart.” 也可以知道,老人的一番话让这位年轻人受益匪浅,而小伙子的善举最终也赢得了姑 娘的芳心。 3. 利用语境的褒贬性进行信息推断 很多文章的语境都有一定的褒贬性,这种褒贬性反映了主人公的特定心理和情绪 状态及作者的写作意图。因此利用好文章的语境褒贬性就能在把握主旨文意的基础上 对文章进行准确的逻辑判断。认真阅读原文并找出反映语境褒贬性及变化的标志性词 汇或句子,对我们掌握文章主旨文意,了解主人公的心理特点及发展变化,从而正确 地进行逻辑推断很有好处。 考例: (2010 年广东卷,A 篇) 45. We can inter from the passage that Chinese English ______. A. is clear and natural to non-native speakers B. is vivid and direct to non-native speakers C. has a very bad reputation in America D. may bring inconvenience in America 解析:D 请看文章第一段:When I was growing up in America, I was ashamed of my mother’s Chinese English. Because of her English, she was often treated unfairly. People in department stores, at banks, and at restaurants did not take her seriously, did not give her good service, pretended not to understand her, or even acted as if they did not hear her. 从第一段中我们可以看出使用 Chinese English 在美国存在弊端, 引起一些不便。 A、B 两项对 Chinese English 都是褒扬的,可以排除。C 项说 Chinese English 在美 国名声很坏,有点夸大其辞。故正确选项为 D。 4. 根据上下文的逻辑得出结论 逻辑结论是指严格根据文章中所陈述的事实、论点、例证等一系列论据材料进行 推理,从而得出合乎逻辑的结论,而不是根据自己的经验、态度、观点或爱好去理解 文章的内涵。做这类题时,应把握作者的写作思路,预测下文可能发展的内容。 考例: (2010 年湖北卷,B 篇) 58. What will the author most probably discuss in the paragraph that follows? A. Causes for the parent-teen conflicts. B. Examples of the parent-teen war. C. Solutions for the parent-teen problems. D. Future of the parent-teen relationship.
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解析:C 根据第三段第一句 In this article, I’ll describe three no-win situations that commonly arise between teens and parents and then suggest some ways out of the trap.可知,本文要介绍家长与孩子间没有赢家的三种情况,并提 出走出困境的建议。然而文章第三段中仅介绍了三种情况,因此下一段应介绍解决双 方冲突的一些方法。故 C 项正确。 易错点、易混点归纳: 高考英语阅读理解要求考生能够透过表面文字挖掘和理解文章的深层含义,通过 分析对比、归纳总结、推理判断等思维活动,推断隐含的意思。一篇短文的结构或情 节线索必须符合逻辑,作者常把某些情况的发展留给读者自己判断。 考生在解答推理判断题时往往找不准文中的推理依据,不是以文章所提供的事实 为依据,而是脱离文章主题和作者的意图,用自己的观点和看法以及常识或经验进行 无根据的推理和主观臆断,导致“无据推理”。 此外,命题者在出推理类题时往往 编造一些文中已言明的事实、超出文章范围的推理、过度发挥的引申等来作为干扰项 考查考生的逻辑思维能力。 应对办法: 1. 要联系主题。作者的写作目的往往与文章的主题联系非常紧密。因此,在进 行推理判断时,要读懂全文。 2. 找到文章中的事实依据,找准推理的理由。 3. 理清事实之间、人物之间、事物之间的内在关系。 4. 文中已明确说明的内容不需要推理,推理以原文中心为依据,引申要适度。 5. 综合上述各点进行符合逻辑的推断。

三、阅读材料,选出最佳选项。 第 1 题 When I was a teenager, my mother’s broken English embarrassed me. But now, I see it differently. To me, my mother’s English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It is my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, and full of observation and wisdom. It was the language that helped shape the way 1 saw things, expressed ideas, and made sense of the world. [2010 年广东卷 A 篇 44] 【题目】What does the author think of her mother’s English now? 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A. It confuses her. B. It embarrasses her. C. It helps her understand the world. D. It helps her tolerate rude people. 【答案点拨】 第 1 题的题型是推断作者观点或态度。由文章最后一句 It was the language? and made sense of the world.可知我现在对母亲的汉语式英语有了新的认识。C 选 项正确。 技巧点拨: 1) 注意转折词 but 的意味; 2) 注意作者表达感情色彩的形容词、副词、动词及所举的例子,推断出作者的弦外 之音。
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第 2 题 Batteries can power anything from small sensors to large systems. While scientists are finding ways to make them smaller but even more powerful, problems can arise when these batteries are much larger and heavier than the devices themselves. University of Missouri researchers are developing a nuclear energy source that is smaller, lighter and more efficient. ? Together with J. David Robertson, chemistry professor and associate director of the MU Research Reactor, Kwon is working to build and test the battery. In the future, they hope to increase the battery’s power, shrink its size and try with various other materials. Kwon said that the battery could be thinner than the thickness of human hair.【2010 山东卷 D 篇 75】 【题目】The text is most probably a _________________. 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A. science news report B. book review C. newspaper ad D. science fiction story 【答案点拨】 第 2 题的题型是推断文章出处。综合全文可知,这是一篇科技新闻报道。报道了 一种超薄的新能源电池的研究近况。由此看出 A 项正确。 技巧点拨: 这类问题应从文章的内容,结构和体裁来判断其出处。 第 3 题 Forget Twitter and Facebook, Google and the Kindle. Television is still the most influential medium around. Indeed ,for many of the poorest regions(地 区)of the world, it remains the next big thing——finally becomes globally available. And that is a good thing, because the TV revolution is changing lives for the better. ... Too much TV has been associated with violence, overweight and loneliness. However, TV is having a positive influence on the lives of billions worldwide. 【题目】The author intends to______. [2010 年福建卷 B 篇 62] 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】 A. stress the advantages of TV to people’s lives B. persuade women to become more independent C. encourage people to improve their reading skills D. introduce the readers some websites such as Google 【答案点拨】 第 3 题的题型是推断写作目的。 文章开始到结束都在强调电视对生活的积极影响, 特别是 首段中的“And that is a good thing, because the TV revolution is changing lives for the better.”和尾段中的“However, TV is having a positive influence on the lives of billions worldwide.”可看出作者的写作意图,故 A 项为正确选项。 技巧点拨:

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1)找写作目的,特别注意首段和末段; 2)注意转折副词 however。 第 4 题 Dress to impress: Stylist and business consultant Daniela Smith says, “Girls should keep in mind that your college professors will often be the bridge that connects you to your future career and your classmates will become your professional network. You don’t need to dress like you’re going to the office, but you should display an ability to properly present yourself with appropriate maturity and confidence, and look put together.”[2011 年广州市 高三年级调研测试 A 篇 26] 【题目】The second paragraph indicates the importance of ________. 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A. impressing professors B. getting on well with classmates C. creating a professional image D. dressing appropriately 【答案点拨】 第 4 题的题型是推断隐含意义。 文段强调了穿戴要合适, 文中提到 “but you should display an ability to properly present yourself with appropriate maturity and confidence, and look put together.”故选项 D 是正确的。 技巧点拨: 1)全面分析,忠实原文,不要选择表层信息; 2)注意连词 but。 根据所训练的内容,选择近几年的高考题,以巩固训练。 说明:根据选题的难易程度,以星号“*”来表示难度的递增。 第 5 题* But in London, dinner parties are in people's homes. Not only that, the guests are an interesting mix. The last time I went to one, the guests were from France, India, Denmark and Nigeria; it was like a gathering at the United Nations. In New York the mix is less striking. It's like a gathering at Bloomingdale's, a well-known department store.[2010 年辽宁卷 B 篇 62] 【题目】What does the author think of the parties in London? 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A. A bit unusual. B. Full of tricks. C. Less costly. D. More interesting. 【答案点拨】 第 5 题是推断作者观点态度。上段讲到,在伦敦 dinner parties 不仅家中举行, 而且客人都是来自四面八方有趣的组合。文中讲到“ an interesting mix ”和“ a gathering at the United Nations”也暗示伦敦的派对更好玩,故 D 选项正确。 第 6 题** My mother has long realized the limitations of her English as well. When I was fifteen, she used to have me call people on the phone to pretend I was
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she. I was forced to ask for information or even to yell at people who had been rode to her. One time 1 had to call her stockbroker (股票经纪人). I said in an adolescent voice that was not very convincing, "This is Mrs. Tan. "[2010 年高考广东卷 A 篇 42] 【题目】From Paragraph 2, we know that the author was _________ . 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】 A. good at pretending B. rode to the stockbroker C. ready to help her mother D. unwilling to phone for her mother 【答案点拨】 第 6 题是推断作者的情感。由第二段 I was forced to ask for information? 以及 One time I had to call?等关键信息可知,作者“我是被迫打听信息,或对她 粗鲁的人大喊大叫”“有一次我不得不给她的股票经纪人打电话”中作出推断,作者 是不愿意帮母亲打电话,D 选项为正确答案。 第 7 题*** He talked to me because he wants his editors to demand so much more of him. He wants to be pushed, challenged, coached to new heights. The reporter believes that good stories spring from good questions, but his editors usually ask how long the story will be, when it will be in, where it can play, and what the budget is. He longs for conversations with an editor who will help him turn his good ideas into great ones. He wants someone to get excited about what he's doing and to help him turn his story idea upside down and inside out, exploring the best ways to report it. He wants to be more valuable for your paper. That's what you want for him, too, isn't it? ...[2010 年高考北京卷 B 篇 60] 【题目】What does the writer think of the reporter? 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A. Optimistic. B. Imaginative. C. Ambitious. D. Proud. 【答案点拨】 第 7 题是推断作者观点。根据文章内容可知,文中的那位记者想在自己的工作岗 位上不断挑战新的高度,由此可知他很有抱负。故 C 选项正确。 第 8 题** Columbus College , 241 Queen Elizabeth Drive ,Kowloon City To: All Staff From: Jakie Mok , Secretary;Sports Development Committee Date: May 20, 2010 A week ago , “Sports for Life” program was sent to the parents, requiring them to select a sport they wanted their child to play. Since then , our staff have received lots of calls from parents asking for more information about
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it . Here is a memo (备忘录) for your reference when you answer the phones.[2010 年高考福建卷 D 篇 71] 【题目】The purpose of the memo is to_____________. 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A.attract students’interest in the programme B.require the parents to select a sport for their child C.help the staff explain the programme to the parents D.remind teachers and lifeguards to be present on time 【答案点拨】 第 8 题是推断写作意图。 文中 “Here is a memo for your reference when you answer the phones.”清楚说明了这个备忘录的作用就是为了让工作人员更好地向咨询的家 长解释和介绍相关的信息,故 C 选项正确。 第 9 题* One day a man walked a pet shop and said to the shop assistant,“I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches(蟑螂) and two spiders(蜘蛛).” “What do you need these things for?” the shop assistant was very surprised. “Well,”replied the man,“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.” 【题目】The passage suggests that when the writer moved into the apartment, it was ______. 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A. very clean B. just cleaned by the landlord C. tidy and comfortable D. dirty and full of insects 【答案点拨】 第 9 题是推断文章隐含意义。文中“I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches and two spiders”和“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.”隐含了作者搬进的公寓,有很多虫子。故 D 选项正确。 四、小结 推理判断题的解题技巧: 1.推断隐含意义,必须吃透相关文段的意思。 2.推断作者的写作目的,应当关注主题句,首段和末段,同时把握文章的体裁也可以推 断作者的写作目的。 3.推断作者的观点或态度,注意作者表达感情色彩的形容词、副词、动词及所举的例 子,推断出作者的弦外之音。。 4.推断文章的出处,注意文章的体裁特点,内容或结构。 五、课后小练 第 1 题“Have you ever been out on a boat and felt it lifted up by a wave? Or
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have you jumped in the water and felt the rush of energy as waves came over you?” asked Jamie Taylor of the Wave Energy Group at the University of Edinburgh. “There is certainly a lot of energy in waves,” he said. Scientists are working to use that energy to make electricity. Most waves are created when winds blow across the ocean. "The wind starts out by making little ripples, but if they keep on blowing, those ripples get bigger and bigger and turn into waves," Taylor said. "Waves are one of nature's ways of picking up energy and then sending it off on a journey." [2005 年广东卷 C 篇 64] 【题目】The writer uses the two questions at the beginning of the passage to _____. 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A. test the readers’ knowledge about waves B. draw the readers’ attention to the topic C. show Jamie Taylor’ s importance D. invite the readers to answer them 【答案点拨】答案选 B. 第 2 题 Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK, they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes. Mr. Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them, it is always the fault of the buses or air planes. Mr. Neff knows almost everything. He doesn ’ t ask questions;he answers questions. He never says,“I don’t know. 【题目】Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude(态 度) towards Mr. Neff? 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】A. He finds Mr. Neff hard to understand B. He thinks Mr. Neff wonderful C. He feels pity for Mr. Neff D. He does not like Mr. Neff 【答案点拨】答案选 D. 第 3 题 This story — which happened before I was born — reminds me how extraordinary my mother was, and is, as a gifted mathematician. I feel embarrassed that I complain about not having enough child-free time to work. Later, when my mother is in the bathroom, I go into her kitchen and turn over the breadboards. Sure enough, on the back of the smallest one, are some penciled marks I recognize as mathematics. Those symbols have traveled unaffected through fifty years, rooted in the soil of a cheap wooden breadboard, invisible (看不到的)exhibits at every meal. [2010 年天津卷 C 篇 50] 【题目】In the author’s mind ,her mother is____________ . 【分析题型】________________________
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【判断选项】A. strange in behavior. B. keen on her research. C. fond of collecting old things. D. careless about her appearance. 【答案点拨】答案选 B. 第 4 题 The world of make-believe is not necessarily bad. But when the world of fantasy becomes the only outlet(出路) for our sense of wonder, then we are really missing something. We are missing a connection with the living world. Other wonderful worlds exist all around us. But even more interesting is that if we look closely enough, we can see that these worlds, in a broad sense, are really part of our own. [2010 年重庆卷 E 篇 75] 【题目】What is the main purpose of the passage? 【分析题型】________________________ 【判断选项】 A. To show us the hidden beauty in our world. B. To warn us not to get lost in the fantasy world. C. To argue against the misuse of the sense of wonder. D. To discuss the influence of the world of make-believe. 【答案点拨】答案选 B.

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