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英语新闻报道的结构


英语新闻报道的结构

I. Introduction

What is news?

1. News is a fresh report of events, facts, or opinions that people did not know before they read your story. 新闻就是针对

人们读你的报道以前还不知道的事 件、事实或观点的一种全新报道。 2. News is anything timely that interests a number of persons, and the best news is that which has the greatest interest of the greatest number. 凡是及时的、能引起一部分人兴趣的东西, 便是新 闻。而最好的新闻则是那种能够激起最大多数人最 大兴趣的东西。

3. News is any event, idea or opinion that is timely, that interests or affects a large number of people in a community and that is capable of being understood by them. 新闻是指人们能及时获悉的事件、观点或见解, 它能吸引或影响社会上的许多人,并能为他们所 理解。 4. News is the reporting of anything timely which has importance, use, or interest to a considerable number of persons in a publication audience. 新闻是对任何事物的及时报道,对于读者群体中 的许多人来说,这类报道具有重要性、实用性或 趣味性。

5. If a dog bites a man, it is not news; if a man bites a dog, it's (big) news. 狗咬人并非新闻,人咬狗才是(大)新闻。 ……

News is an account of what is happening around us. It may involve current events, new initiative or ongoing projects or issues. But news is not only about what’s taking place of the day, it also concerns background analysis, opinions, human interest stories, etc.

A. Identify news categories
? the nature of the reported events 1. hard news 2. soft news

? Hard news is how journalists refer to news of the day. It is a chronicle of current events / incidents and is the most common type of news printed on the front page of a typical newspaper.

? 硬新闻关系到国计民生以及人们切身利益 的新闻。包括党和国家的重大方针、政策的 制定和改变,时局变化,市场行情,股市涨 落,银根松紧,疾病流行,天气变化,重大 灾难事故等等。这类新闻为人们的政治、经 济、工作、日常生活的决策提供依据。

? Soft news is a term for all the news that isn’t time-sensitive, including profiles of people, programs or organizations, etc.

? 软新闻:人情味较浓的社会新闻(社会花 边新闻、娱乐新闻、体育新闻、服务性新闻 等),形式上通俗,注重趣味性。它没有明 确的时间界定,多属于延缓性新闻,无时间 的紧迫性。它和人们的切身利益无多大关 系,向受众提供娱乐、开阔眼界、增长知 识、陶冶情操。

? the content of the reported events
e.g. economic news, political news. Sports news, entertainment news, technology news, obituary, etc. ? the region of the reported events e.g. international news, domestic news, local news, etc.

? the issuing medium of the reported events e.g. print news, broadcast news, TV news, online news, etc.

B. Identify news styles
There are mainly four news styles which are
(1) news reporting (消息报道 ) (2) feature (特写) (3)editorial (社论) (4)advertisement (广告)

II. News Structure
A. The lead ? Every hard news article starts with a lead — the first 1-2 sentences that summarize the most interesting point of the article. The lead should be brief yet catchy , giving the reader an instant sense of what the article is about and making him or her want to read more.

新闻导语是新闻报道开头的第一段文字,也是最重 要的部分,通常是标题的展开形式,记者必须把新 闻时间的主要情节用一两句化概括在新闻导语的第 一段里。这是新闻报道的精华所在。按照新闻报道 的要求,导语尽可能回答5个W和一个H即What (何事)、Who(何人)、Where(何地)、Why (为何)和How(如何)。这个观点曾被西方新闻 界视为金科玉律,但是由于新闻导语趋于愈来愈 短,因此,新闻导语现在一般未必包含所有的新闻 要素,而是突出其中最重要的新闻要素,其他要素 可放在以下的段落。

? DENVER, Colorado (AP) A lightning strike at a golf course driving range Saturday killed a man and injured his 16-year-old son, a fire department spokeswoman said ? When Saturday ? Where At a golf course ? Who A man and his son ? What Lightning killed the man and injured his son

? NEW YORK (Reuters Health) Teenagers who spend 3 hours a day or more in front of the television are at risk of developing sleeping problem later in life, new research reports. ? Who Teenagers ? What Teenagers may develop sleep problems ? When Later in their life ? How ? Spending three hours or more in front of TV

? By EMMA ROSS, AP Medical Writer BANGKOK, Thailand-Asia’s bird flu death toll rose to 12 with the announcement Monday of two additional deaths, while China said it suspected the virus has reached poultry in one of its most remote corners ? When Monday, ? Where Thailand ? What Bird flu death toll rose to 12 ? Who Thailand and China

? In a soft news story , however , the lead should present the subject of the story by allusion (暗示; 引喻 ) . This type of opening is somewhat literary (文学的 ). Like a novelist (小说家) , the role of the writer is to grab the attention of the reader.

B. The 5 “W’s” and the H News articles, especially a hard news story, always include the essentials—who, what, where, when, why and how. Good news writing attempts to answer all the basic questions about any particular event in the first two or three paragraphs.

Who is involved? Who made a scientific discovery? Who’s speaking at a forum? Who made the donation? Who organized the new staff group? (Not just names, but titles and brief backgrounds if necessary.)

What is the nature of the news story or event? Is it about a scientific discovery, an economic conference, a delivered speech, a heavy flood or casualty in the Middle East? Where is the news or event taking place? When will (or did) the event take place? What time and date is the event, or when will someone be available for an interview if needed?

Why is the story newsworthy? Tell readers why they should care. Who will be affected by this news and how? In other words, what distinguishes the story or event from others? How usually describes the manner in which the action occurs.

C. “inverted pyramid” structure
? Journalism instructors usually describe the organization or structure of a news story as an inverted pyramid. ? This upside down triangle serves as a guide for how you include information in the story. ? Using the inverted pyramid means starting with the most important information, then giving the next most important information and so on.

The Inverted Pyramid Form

In other words, it is to present from the most important material to the least important and from general points to specific details. Many people read only the first few paragraphs of a story, so it’s important to start with the most vital information and add details future down.

Thank you for your attention!!


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