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2015高考英语一轮复习配套讲义文档:语法专项提升--时态和语态


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时态和语态

一般时(一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时) 1.(2013· 新课标卷Ⅰ)If we________now to protect the environment,we’ll live to regret it. A.hadn’t acted B.haven’t acted C.don’t act D.won’t act 2.(2013· 安徽卷)I’m calling about the apartment you________the other day.Could you tell me more about it? A.advertised B.had advertised C.are advertising D.will advertise 3.(2013· 北京卷)—Do you think Mom and Dad________late? —No,Swiss Air is usually on time. A.were B. will be C.would be D.have been 进行时(现在进行时、过去进行时、将来进行时) 4 . (2013·天 津 卷 )The water supply has been cut off temporarily because the workers________one of the main pipes. A.had repaired B.have repaired C.repaired D.are repairing 5.(2013· 湖南卷)—I don’t understand why you didn’t go to the lecture yesterday afternoon. —I’m so sorry.But I________my homework. A.had done B.was doing C.would do D.am doing 6.(2013· 江苏卷)—Could I use your car tomorrow morning? —Sure.I________a report at home. A.will be writing B.will have written C.have written D.have been writing 完成时(现在完成时、过去完成时) 7.(2013· 山东卷)—Oh no!We’re too late.The train________. —That’s OK.We’ll catch the next train to London. A.was leaving B.had left C.has left D.has been leaving 8. (2013· 浙江卷)During the last three decades, the number of people participating in physical fitness programs________sharply. A.was increasing B.has increased C.had increased D.will be increasing 完成进行时(现在完成进行时、过去完成进行时) 9. (2013· 福建卷)The girl has a great interest in sport and________badminton classes twice a week over the last three years. A.took B.is taking C.takes D.has been taking 10.(2011· 全国卷Ⅰ)When Alice came to,she did not know how long she________there. A.had been lying B.has been lying C. was lying D.has lain 被动语态 11.(2013· 北京卷)—So what is the procedure? —All the applicants________before a final decision is made by the authority. A.interview B.are interviewing 12.(2013· 北京卷) Shakespeare’s play Hamlet________into at least ten different films over the past years.

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A.had been made B.was made C.has been made D.would be made 13.(2013· 辽宁卷)We are confident that the environment________by our further efforts to reduce pollution. A.had been improved B.will be improved C.is improved D.was improved 1.一般过去时与现在完成时的区别要注意下面几点 (1)“点时间”还是“段时间” 一般过去时常与表示过去时间点的词连用(表示过去某时发生的动作);而现在完成时常 与表示一段时间的词连用(表示从过去开始持续到现在的动作或状态)。抓时间状语是关键, 判断是时间点还是时间段。 (2)是否对“现在”有影响 一般过去时表示过去某时的状态或发生的动作, 与现在没有什么联系; 而现在完成时表 示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。 (3)动作是否“持续” 过去时与一段时间连用表示动作没有持续到现在; 而现在完成时与一段时间连用表示动 作持续到了现在。结合句意判断动作是否持续到现在是解题的根本所在。 2.现在完成进行时和现在完成时的用法区别 (1)现在完成进行时强调动作的持续性和完成动作的决心,而现在完成时则强调结果。 (2)现在完成进行时有时带有感情色彩,而现在完成时一般是平铺直叙。 3.过去进行时与一般过去时的用法区别 (1)一般过去时常表示在过去某一时间动作已经结束,而过去进行时却表示在过去某一 时间内动作在持续或尚未完成。 (2)一般过去时表示动作只做一次,而过去进行时则表示反复发生的动作。 4.确定主语与谓语动词的关系是判定主动语态和被动语态的关键

一、一般时 (一)一般现在时 1. 表示习惯性、 经常性的动作。 常与表示习惯的副词(词组)always, every time, now and then,occasionally,often,seldom,sometimes,usually,every day/night 等连用。 (2013· 湖南高考)Around two o’clock every night,Sue will start talking in her dream.It somewhat bothers us. 每晚两点左右,苏就说梦话。这使我们有点烦心。 2.在以 when,till/until,as soon as,by the time,after,before 等引导的时间状语从句 以及 if,unless,once 等引导的条件状语从句和以 no matter,however,even if 等词引导的让 步状语从句中, 如果主句中的动词用一般将来时, 从句中的动词通常用一般现在时代替一般 将来时。 If it doesn’t rain,we’ll go on a picnic as planned. 如果不下雨,我们将按计划去野餐。 (2012· 全国卷Ⅰ)“Life is like walking in the snow,” Granny used to say,“because every step shows.” 祖母过去经常说:“人生就像在雪地里行走,因为每一步都能显现出来。” (二)一般过去时 表示在过去某时某刻发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表过去的时间状语连用,如 yesterday,last year,last night,the other day,just now,then,two days ago,in 1999,at that time 等。 —Long time no see!Haven’t you graduated from college? —Yes.I studied English for four years in Nanjing. ——好久不见!你还没大学毕业吗? ——毕业了,我在南京学了四年英语。 (2013· 重庆高考)I felt very tired when I got home,and I went straight to bed. 我到家的时候感到非常累,就直接上床睡觉了。 (三)一般将来时 1.will/shall+动词原形

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(2013· 湖南高考)“What do you want to be?” asked Mrs Crawford.“Oh,I will be president,”said the boy,with a smile. “你想成为什么样的人?”克劳福德夫人问。“哦,我要当总统。”小男孩笑着说。 (2012· 湖南高考)Close the door of fear behind you,and you will see the door of faith open before you. 关上你身后的恐惧之门,你将会发现信心之门在你面前敞开。 2.be going to+动词原形 ①表示打算、计划、决定要做的事或肯定要发生的事。 ②表示说话人根据已有的事实或迹象,认为某事即将发生。 Look at the cloud.It’s going to rain. 瞧那乌云,天要下雨了。 3.“be about to+动词原形”表示打算或根据安排即将发生的动作。 它不与表示具体时 间的状语连用但可以与 when 引导的时间状语从句连用。 I was about to go out when it began to rain. 我正要外出这时开始下雨了。 4.“be to+动词原形”表示约定的、计划中的或按职责、义务将要发生的动作,这种 动作通常是人的意志所能控制的,或用于征求意见。 You are to hand in your papers by 10 o’clock. 到 10 点你得交上试卷。 二、进行时 (一)现在进行时 1.表示现在或现阶段正在进行的动作。 (2013· 四川高考)Hurry up,kids!The school bus is waiting for us!孩子们,快点!校车 在等我们! 2.现在进行时还可表示按计划或安排将要进行的动作,这类动词主要有:go,come, leave,stay,start,arrive,land,meet,move,return,stay,stop,do 等 (2012· 湖南高考)“The moment is coming soon, ”he thought to himself, waiting nervously. “这一刻就要来到了,”他自思自忖,紧张地等待着。 (二)过去进行时 1.表示过去正在进行的动作。 (2013· 陕西高考)Jim was watching a late night film at home when,right in the middle of a thrilling scene, the television went blank.吉姆深夜正在家里看电影, 就在看到一个惊险场面的 时候,电视变得一片空白。 2.表示运动和位置移动的动词可以用过去进行时表示过去将来时。这类动词主要有 leave,start,arrive,go,come 等。 (2013· 新课标卷Ⅱ)We were leaving very early so we packed the night before. 我们打算很早出发,因此前一个晚上就收拾好了行李。 (2013· 江西高考)I was coming to visit you later that day,but I had to phone and cancel. 我打算那天晚些时候去看你,但是不得已打电话取消。 三、完成时 (一)现在完成时 1.表示发生在过去的动作或存在的状态到说话时刚刚完成或结束。现在完成时常与 up to now,so far,already,yet,now,recently,in the past few years,just 等表示时间的词连用。 (2013· 湖南高考)—Have you heard about the recent election? —Sure,it has been the only thing on the news for the last three days. ——你听说过近期的选举吗? ——当然了,它是近来三天新闻中唯一的事情了。 2.用于时间、条件状语从句中,表示将来要完成的动作或一个动作先于另一个动作。 (2011· 陕西高考)His first novel has received good reviews since it came out last month. 他的第一本小说自从上个月出版之后就很受欢迎。 3.在“It (This) is the best (worst,most interesting 等)+名词+从句”中,从句中的谓语 用现在完成时。 (2011· 湖南高考)It is the most instructive lecture that I have attended since I came to this school. 这是我自从到这个学校以来所参加过的最有教育意义的讲座。 4.在“It (This) is (will be) the first/second/third...time +that 从句”中,that 从句中的谓 语动词用现在完成时。 This is the first time that we have faced such a problem.

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这是我们第一次面对这样的问题。 (二)过去完成时 1 .某些词 用于过去 完成时表 示过去未 曾实现的想法 ,意为“ 本来期望 / 认为 / 打 算??”。这类动词主要有:expect,hope,plan,suppose,think,intend,mean,want 等。 We had wanted to help you,but we were too busy to get away. 我们本来想帮助你的,但忙得脱不开身。 2.在“hardly (scarcely)...when...,no sooner...than...”句型结构中,主句用过去完成时, 从句用一般过去时,意思为“一??就??”。 Hardly had the speaker finished his speech when the audience kept asking him questions. 演讲者一结束他的讲话,观众就不停地向他提问。 3.by,by the end,by the time,until,before,since 后接表示过去某一时间的短语或从 句,主句用过去完成时。 (2011· 辽宁高考)By the time Jack returned home from England,his son had graduated from college. 杰克从英国回到家时,他的儿子已经大学毕业了。 (三)将来完成时 主要表示某一动作到将来某个时间完成,上下文情景中常含有 by 短语,如 by six o’clock,by the weekend,by the end of next month 等。 (2013· 西安二检)By the time Mr Smith arrives at the supermarket,we will have stayed there for one hour. 等到 Mr Smith 到达超市时,我们将已经在那里待一个小时了。 四、完成进行时 (一)现在完成进行时 现在完成进行时由 have/has+ been+v.ing 形式”构成,表示过去的动作持续到现在 并有可能延续下去,常和 for,since 引导的时间状语连用。 (2012· 全国卷Ⅱ)The manager has been telling the workers how to improve the program since 9 am. 自从上午 9 点经理就一直在告诉工人如何改善这一方案。 (二)过去完成进行时 过去完成进行时主要表示过去某一时间以前一直在进行的动作。过去完成进行时由 “had+been+ v.ing”构成。表示动作在过去某一时间之前开始并延续到过去某一时间。 这一动作可能已经停止也可能还在进行。 She told me that she had been studying French for 5 years. 她告诉我她已经学习法语 5 年了。(动作仍继续) She told me that she had been waiting for me for an hour. 她告诉我她已经等我一个钟头了。(动作不再继续) 五、语态 (一)主动形式表示被动意义 1.英语中有很多动词,如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,wear,open,sell,read, write,wash 等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式表达被动意 义,主语通常是物;在这种情况下,常常和 easily,well 等副词连用。 The pen he bought yesterday writes smoothly. 他昨天买的这支钢笔书写流畅。 —What about the books?——这些书怎么样? —Books of this kind sell well.——这种书很畅销。 2.表示感受、感官的系动词如 feel,sound,taste,look 等,后面跟形容词、名词构成 系表结构,常常以主动形式表示被动意义。 Your reason sounds reasonable. 你的理由听起来很合理。 3.在 need,want,require,deserve,bear 等动词及形容词 worth 的后面,动名词用主 动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。 The house his grandmother lives in needs repairing/to be repaired. 他祖母住的房子需要维修。 The picture book is well worth reading. 这本图画书非常值得一读。 (二)主动表示被动的句式 1.在“主语(人/物)+be+形容词+不定式”结构中,不定式的主动形式可表示被动意 义。这些形容词有 nice, easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting

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等。 This problem is difficult to work out. 这道题很难计算出。 As you know,Chinese is difficult to learn,especially for a foreigner. 正如你所知,汉语难学,尤其是对一个外国人来说。 2.be to rent/blame/let 也属于主动形式表被动意义。 Who is to blame for the mistake? 谁应为这个错误接受谴责? As far as I know,the high building standing at the corner of the street is to let.就我所知,街 道拐角的那栋高楼要出租。

1.(2014· 江西九校第二次联考)Over the past month,Chinese cinema________the great success of the lowbudget film Lost in Thailand. A.witnessed B.has witnessed C.would witness D.had witnessed 2.(2014· 陕西西安名校第五次模拟)Peter,you________all the time since last week.You had better have your chest Xrayed today to make sure everything is all right. A.are coughing B.coughed C.have been coughing D.had coughed 3.(2014· 安徽三所示范性高中高三教学质量检查)The police have put up posters around the city with photos of the man they________in connection with the killing of a customer outside a bank. A.seek B.are seeking C.have sought D.have been seeking 4.(2014· 安徽三所示范性高中高三教学质量检查)When you reach the other end of the bridge,I________right there to show you the way. A.wait B.have waited C.was waiting D.will be waiting 5.(2014· 江西南昌联考)—Did you go back to see your grandfather during New Year’s Day? —Yes,I did.I________him for a long time. A.didn’t see B.wouldn’t see C.haven’t seen D.hadn’t seen 6. (2014· 乌鲁木齐高三第二次诊断性测验)Mr Li________as a physics teacher for ten years in our school,and now is Secretary General of our city. A.works B.worked C.had worked D.has worked 7.(2014· 济南市名校第四次诊断性测试)I________a lesson in the classroom when you called me,so I didn’t answer it. A.gave B.was giving C.would give D.have been giving 8 . (2014· 成 都 第 一 次 诊 断 )Before her first Harry Potter came out in 1997 , JK.Rowling________English for a living in Portugal. A.is teaching B.had taught C.has taught D.would teach 9 . (2014· 河南郑州高中毕业年级第一次质量预测 )—Did you enjoy meeting your old schoolmates at the party last week? —Yes,I did.We ________each other since we graduated from college. A.haven’t seen B.didn’t see C.hadn’t seen D.wouldn’t see. 10.(2014· 河南郑州高中毕业年级第一次质量预测)—If I come back in an hour,do you think the manager will see me? —I’m very sorry,sir,but he________a meeting then. A.will be having B.is having C.has had D.will have 11 . (2014· 哈 尔 滨 四 校 高 三 统 一 检 测 )In fact he lived a comfortable life , but he________about his fate all the time.

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A.is complaining B.has complained 12.(2014· 江西赣州高三下学期 4 月模拟考试)I’m afraid that you’ll have to report it to our headmaster,for what he says________in our school. A.will count B.counts C.counted D.is counting 13.(2014· 安徽合肥高三第一次教学质量检测)—Are these seats available? —Sorry,sir.The seats________. A.have reserved B.are reserved C.reserved D.are reserving 14.(2014· 山东省十二校高三联考)The vegetables in his field________well,because they are pollutionfree. A.are selling B.have been sold C.are sold D.sell 15. (2014· 齐鲁名校联合测试)If this product does not give you complete satisfaction, please return it to the manufacturer,stating when it________. A.is purchased B.will be purchased C.purchases D.has purchased 16.—Sir,I'm here. —Please listen.I________asking your parents to come our school,but I'd like to hear your opinion first. A.have considered B.am going to consider C.considered D.have been considering 17.Hello,you________7856321.But I'm sorry,right now I'm unable to answer your questions. A.reached B.were reaching C.have reached D.had reached 18.—May I speak to Mr.Williams at five tomorrow afternoon? —I'm sorry.He________a conference then. A.attends B.has attended C.would attend D.will be attending 19.—Did you telephone Uncle Sam our plan for the Christmas holidays on his farm? —Yes,he was happy about our arrival,and he eagerly asked when________. A.has we arrived B.we had arrived C.were we arriving D.we were arriving 20.The teacher said we________ten lessons by the end of this term. A.should have studied B.were going to study C.have studied D.should study 21.I hope her health______greatly by the time we come back next year. A.improves B.improved C.will be improved D.will have improved 22.—Hey,John!I________to meet you here. —Oh,yes.This is my first time to be at the Internet café .Do you often come here? A.haven't expected B.wasn't expecting C.hadn't expected D.didn't expect 23.—Have you met Mr.Li? —Yes.When I arrived,he________for Shanghai to attend a national conference. A.just left B.had just left C.just leaves D.was just leaving 24.It's only six o'clock now;little Tom should be up,though,because he________for nine hours. A.has been sleeping B.had been sleeping C.has slept D.had slept 25.—Good morning,Doctor White's office. —Hello,this is John Woods.Could you please tell Doctor White I________?My car won't start. A.was delayed B.will be delayed C.am delaying D.would delay 26.—Linda,the phone in your office can't be connected all the time.Why? —Oh,sorry,Miss Miles.The service________since last Wednesday.

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A.has been stopped B.has stopped C.was stopped D.had stopped 27.—I called you last night,but nobody answered. —Oh,I usually________off my cellphone by 8:00 p.m.. A.switched B.have switched C.switch D.had switched 28.—Our new teacher speaks English fluently! —Yeah,she________English in Oxford University for four years! A.studied B.studies C.was studying D.had studied 29.Nowadays,we can obviously feel that the Internet________our life rapidly. A.had changed B.changed C.is changing D.was changing 30.—Have you received your new shoes? —Yes.And at the same time I got the jacket I________. A.had ordered B.ordered


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