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Lecture 8-Graph Writing - Line graphs


Lecture 8
Graph Writing -- Line graphs

2013-7-14

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Description of Line Graphs
Peak

Sharp rise
Dramatic fall/ Sharp drop
(to) r

each a plateau
gradual increase

Steady drop

(to) bottom out (to) reach the bottom Trough (to) remain
steady
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1. To indicate upward movement
Verbs:

to increase; to rise; to move upwards; to go up; to clime; to soar; to shoot up; to peak

Nouns:

an increase; a rise; an upward movement; an upward trend; a peak
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2. To indicate downward movement
Verbs:

to decrease; to reduce; to drop; to decline; to go down; to fall; to reach a low point
Nouns: a decrease; a fall; a drop; a low point
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3. To indicate no movement
to remain steady; to stay constant; to remain stable; to level off; to stabilize

4. To indicate a change in direction
to level off;

to recover;
to fall off;
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to fluctuate

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5. To indicate a change in degree
dramatically; sharply; suddenly; rapidly; markedly; abruptly; steeply

substantially steadily

gradually
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slightly

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6. To indicate comparison & contrast
similar to; similarly; like; alike; likewise; correspond to; correspondingly; resemble; just as; as; in like manner; in the same way; to have .. in common; to be parallel in…; both. (comparison) differ from; however; otherwise; nevertheless; less than; more than; faster than, etc.; unlike; in contrast to; in opposition to; on the contrary; on the opposite side; on the other hand; but; different from; although; while. (contrast)
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7. To indicate time
1.表示在某一时间点用“at”. E.g. The number was small at the beginning of 1920. 2.表示在两段时间之间用“between… and...”. E.g. There was a rise of 9 between 1920 and 1930. 3.表示一段时间用“during the period…and...” 或“over the period…and...”. E.g. There was a rise of 1 during the period 1940 and 1950. There was a fall over the period 1950 and 1960.
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8. To indicate increase / decrease 1. 增加/减少的数值用“by”表示. E.g. Rice production rose by 10% in 1990. (增加了) Crude oil production decreased by 10% in 1990. (减少了) 2. 增加/减少到的数值用“to”表示. E.g. Rice production rose by 10% to 50 million tons in 1990. Crude oil production decreased by 10% to 3,600,000 barrels in 1990. 3. 从多少增加或减少到多少用“from … to”表示. E.g. Rice production rose from 5,000,000 tons in 1989 to 5,500,000 tons in 1990. Crude oil production decreased from 4,000,000 2013-7-14 barrels in 1989 to 600,000 barrels in 1990. 9

9. To indicate times (倍数)
1.倍数的增加用“(by) … times”或“(by) … percent” 表示, by也可以省略.
E.g. The production capacity has increased (by) five times since 1990. … 增加到原来的六倍. … 增加了五倍. E.g. The production capacity has increased (by) 500 percent since 1990. … 增加到原来的六倍. … 增加了五倍.
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2.倍数的比较: “是…的n倍” 用“ … times as much as ...”表示;“比…大n倍”用“ … times greater than ...”. E.g. The production capacity in 1995 was five times as much as that of 1990. …是1990年的五倍. …比1990年的生产能力高四倍. E.g. The production capacity in 1995 was five times greater than that in 1990. …是1990年的六倍 …比1990年的生产能力高五倍.

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Example 1
The graph shows the demand for energy and the energy available from fossil fuels in Fredonia from 1985 to 2005. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown in the graph.

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Energy Demand and Energy Avaiolable in Fredonia

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I. Observing the graph
– Read the description carefully and determine the subject – Find out the main trend of the graph e.g. demand 1985 - 1990 decrease 1990 - 1995 remain steady 1995 - 2005 increase supply 1985 - 1995 increase 1995 - 2000 decrease 2000 - 2005 remain steady
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II. Arranging the materials

– Don’t have to list all the data. The vital thing is to state the main trend clearly.
– Think about which data should be presented with details (critical data) and which can be omitted.

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III. Describing the graph Clear thesis; proper use of data; good logic; concise language. Structure: Introduction: Introduce the subject briefly and indicate the main trend. Body: Describe the main trend in details. Conclusion: Implication or suggestions.
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The graph shows the relationship between demand for energy and the energy available from fossil fuels in Fredonia since 1985 and gives projections to the year 2005. The energy in the graph is measured in units, each of which is equivalent to 100 billion megajoules. The demand for energy dropped steadily between 1985 and 1990 from 5 units of energy to approximately 2 units. From 1990 until about 1995, energy demand appeared to level off and remained constant at about 2 units of energy. From this time onwards, energy demand climbed dramatically from 2 units of energy in 1996 and is projected to reach 7 units in the year 2005. Furthermore, the forecast is for energy demand to continue to rise in the future. In contrast, the amount of energy available from fossil fuels increased quite rapidly from about 3.5 units in 1985 until it reached a peak of 6.5 in 1995. From this point onwards it is projected to decline dramatically until it remains constant at an availability level of around 2.5 units from the year 2000. The energy demand and energy available from fossil fuel resulted in an excess amount of energy available in the 1990s in Fredonia which, perhaps, was due to the availability of alternative sources of energy. On the other hand, an energy gap that continues to widen is forecasted, beginning in the late 1990s. In the future, Fredonians will have to enforce energy2013-7-14 measures or look towards the use of alternative sources of saving 16 energy.

Example 2
Eating sweet foods produces acid in the mouth which can cause tooth decay (High acid levels are measured by low PH values). Describe the information below and discuss the implications for dental health.

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Anyone who has visited a dentist has been told that eating excessive amounts of sweets risks harming the teeth. This is because sweets lower PH levels in the mouth to dangerous levels. When the PH level in the mouth is kept above 5.5, acidity is such that eeth are unlikely to be in danger of decay. Sweet foods, however, cause PH in the mouth to drop for a time, and the longer PH levels remain below 5.5, the greater the opportunity for decay is to occur. By comparing fruit sugar, cane sugar and honey, which are all common ingredients of sweet oods, we find that cane sugar lowers PH levels for the longest period, thus producing the greatest risk of the three. Approximately five minutes after consuming cane sugar, PH levels drop to as little as PH 3.5. They then begin to rise slowly, but do not rise above PH 5.5 until at least 30 minutes have elapsed. By contrast, fruit sugar, which causes the mouth’s acidity to fall to just above PH 4, poses a danger for a shorter period: tooth decay is unlikely 20 minutes after consumption. Honey appears an even ess risky substance. Though acidity falls to about PH 4.75 within five minutes of consumption, it returns to above PH 5.5 in under fifteen minutes. The implications, then, are that people who insist on eating18sweet 2013-7-14 oods should be aware of the ingredients, and that fruit sugar or honey

Practice:
Please write a composition based on the graph titled “Smoking Is on the Decline in Lake City”.

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Smoking Is on the Decline in Cancer City The above graph shows the decline of smokers in Cancer City between 1990 and 1997. The horizontal axis represents years and the vertical axis stands for the number of people. The points on the solid line show the number of people aged 35-45 who quitted smoking each year. The triangles on the dotted line symbolize the number of people aged 20-34 who gave up smoking each year.
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It is visually quite clear that there was a constant decline of smokers in the city. In 1990, the number of smokers aged 35-45 was 20,000, but in 1997, 70% of them quitted smoking, with an average decrease of 2,000 people each year. Moreover, the number of younger smokers aged 20-34 was also on the decline. In 1990, the number of smokers of this age group was about 15,000, but, the number decreased to 13,000 in 1997. About 23% of the total had stopped smoking. However, compared with the number of older smokers, the rate of the younger smokers’ decline is much slower, with an average of 500 people quitting smoking each year. 2013-7-14 21

Based on the above findings, it can be concluded that more and more middle-aged people in Cancer City have realized that smoking is harmful to one’s health. Besides, there is also an increasing number of young people who have become aware of the bad effect of smoking. Obviously, this situation will result in an improvement of people’s health in this city. However, it still seems very difficult to help all the smokers, especially the younger ones, to get rid of their smoking habit.
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