? 1.Yesterday, another student and I, 状语
representing our university’s student association, went to the Capital International Airport to meet this year’s interna
2. I stood for a minute watching them and went to greet them.
3. She stepped back appearing surprised. 4. Then Akira Nagata from Japan came in smiling, together with … 伴随状语
5. Just at that moment, however, Akira Negata bowed so his nose touched George?s moving hand. 定语
6. …, they also express their feelings using unspoken “language”… 方式状语
=They also express their feelings by the way of using unspoken language.
7. Most people around the world now greet each other by shaking hands.
宾语 8. In general, though, studying 主语 international customs certainly can help avoid difficulties…
语态 主动语态 时态 一般式 (not) doing 被动语态 (not) being done
(not) 完成式 (not) having done having been done
现在分词的一般式表示分词动作与谓语 动作同时发生。 e.g. The students walked on the street, talking and laughing.
现在分词的完成式表示分词动作先于谓 语动作发生。 e.g. Having finished his homework, the boy went out to play with his friends.
现在分词通常和逻辑主语 之间存在主动关系。 The students walked on the street, talking and laughing.
talking and laughing
Having finished his homework, the boy went out to play with his friends.
1、单个动词的V-ing 形式可以单独充当 名词的前置修饰语, 这时有两种情况。
burning house= house that is burning
a sleeping child = a child who is sleeping
the rising sun = sun that is rising
2）动名词做定语，表示被修饰者的作用或功能。 a swimming pool= a pool used for swimming drinking water = water used for drinking a sleeping car = a car used for sleeping
2、动词-ing形式短语作定语时一般放在 它所修饰的名词之后, 相当于一个定语从 句。如: The boy standing there is a classmate of mine.
Standing there the boy is a classmate of mine.
The building being built over there is our library. barking dog
____ dogs seldom bite. A. Bark B. To bark C. Barked D.Barking
The ____ buildings showed us that an earthquake was coming. A. shaking B. shook C. shaken D. shake shaking building
? Hearing the news, he couldn’t help laughing. ? (=When he heard the news, he couldn’t help laughing.) 同时发生
? Having found her car stolen, she hurried to a policeman for help. ? (= After she found her car stolen, she hurried to a policeman for help .) 先发生
在逻辑上，当动词-ing形式表示的动作和句子谓语动词表示的 动作同时发生时用一般式（V-ing);在句子谓语动词表示的动作 之前发生时用完成式( having done).
The old man, ________ aboard for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland.
? to work
C. to have worked D. having worked D
because, as, since
? Being poor, he couldn’t afford a TV set. ? (=Because/As he was poor, he couldn’t afford a TV set .) ? Being a student, you should study hard. ? (=Since you are a student, you should study hard.) ? Not thinking he might be at home, I called him. ? (=As I didn’t think he might be at home, I called him.) 表示原因的动词-ing 形式一般放于句首，相当于 一个原因状语从句。其否定式直接在句首加 not.
______ his telephone number, she had some
difficulty getting in touch with Bill. (1991上海) A A. Not knowing C. Not having known
B. knowing not
D. Having not known
现在分词作原因状语, 分词结构中否定词 通常放在现在分词前面。
? Working hard, you will succeed. ? (=If you work hard, you will succeed.)
? 一直往前走，你就会看到一座白色的房子。 ? __________ahead, you will see a white house. Walking ? 一直努力，你就可以实现梦想。 ? Keeping on trying, you will realize your dream. ________
? The child slipped and fell, hitting his head against the door. ? (= The child slipped and fell, and hit his head against the door.)
? 全国到处在传唱这首歌曲，使它成了一首 最受欢迎的歌曲。 ? The song is sung all over the country, _____________________________ . making it the most popular song
? Having been told many times, he still didn’t learn these rules by heart. (= Although he had been told many times,…) ? Being young，the little boy knows a lot about computer. ? (=Though the little boy is young, he knows a lot about computer.)
作伴随状语的分词 1.) 表示的动作必须是主语的一个动作， 2.)与谓语表示的动作或状态同时发生，或补充说明谓语的具体情况。
The boy sat in front of the farm-house, cutting the branch. (= The boy sat in front of the farm-house, and cut the branch. ) She sat on the sofa, watching TV. ? (She sat on the sofa, and watched TV.)
分词作状语时， 分词的逻辑助于必须与句子的主 语保持一致。当非谓语动作的主语不是句子的主语 时，必须加上其自己的逻辑主语，这种结构成为独 立主格结构。如：
The rain having stopped, we went on marching.
Time permitting, I will pay a visit to the whole city.
generally / frankly/ strictly speaking 一般而言/坦率地说/ 严格地说 judging from /by 根据…来判断 considering / taking …into consideration考虑到…；鉴于…
supposing / providing /provided that 如果
compared with 与…相比
例如 ① Judging from his accent ,he is from the south . ② Considering your health , you ?d better have a rest .
单句改错 1. Having not seen the film, I can’t tell you what I think of it. Not having 2. The men (worked for extra hours) got an extra pay. working 3. Seen from the top of the hill, we find the city more beautiful. Seeing 4. Generally speak, facial expressions are helpful communications, too. speaking
5. “Can’t you read?” the man said, angrily pointed to the notice on the wall. pointing 6. Knocking at the door before entering, please. Knock 7. European football is played in 80 countries, made it the most popular sport in the world. making