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宾语从句


The Object Clause (Revision)
宾语从句(复习)

宾语从句
概念:句子的宾语一般由名词、代词、
动名词或动词不定式充当,当一 个句子充当宾语时,我们把这个句 子叫做宾语从句。

宾语从句的三要点:
1、引导词 2、从句语序 3、从句的时态

由从属连词that引导的宾语从句
由连接代词 Who,whom,whose,which, what 和连接副词 where,how,why,when 引导的宾语从句 由从属连词 whether, if 引导的宾语从句

一、引导词:取决于从句的语气

1.从句是陈述语气时,引导词用that. 2.从句是一般疑问语气时,引导词用if或 whether. 3.从句是特殊疑问语气时,引导词用特殊 疑问词。 e.g: I'm afraid that you are right. I want to know if it will rain tomorrow. I didn't hear what he wanted me to do . Do you know whose bag I am carrying? He asked me if I taught English.

注:that 在句中无词汇意义,在从句中不能充当成分,
在口语当中往往省略

e.g. he will be back in an hour 1. I hear (that) ____________________________. (一小时后他会回来) he missed us very much 2. He said (that) __________________________. (他非常想念我们) 3. The teacher told us (that) ______________________________________. the earth moves around the sun (地球围着太阳转)

由连接代词who, whom, whose, which, what及连接副词 when, where, how, why引导的宾语从句 1. He asked who could answer the question . (谁能
回答这个问题)

whom they are waiting for (他们在等 2. Do you know_________________________. 谁) whose handwriting was the best in the class 3. He asked ________________________________. (谁的书法是班上最好的) when we’ll have a meeting 4. Please tell me _______________________________. (我 们什么时候开会) where he is 5. Can you tell me _______________. (他在哪儿) I can get to the station 6. Could you tell me how ____________________________. (我 该怎么去车站)

由从属连词whether, if 引导的宾语从句 e.g.
if (whether) he will go to the park with us 1. I want to know _________________________________.

(他是否跟我们一起去公园)
whether (if) he can come 2. Ask him _____________________. (他是否能来) whether it is going to rain or not 3. I don’t know ___________________________. (是否 要下雨)

1、当句末为or not时,引导词只能用whether而不能用if.

二、从句语序:一律用陈述语序
主句+引导词+主语+谓语动词+其他
?

? ? ?

He asked me when I arrived in Shanghai . I want to know where they will go. Could you tell me what you are reading? I don't know where he lives .

请注意观察红色字体的语序 e.g : Could you tell me how I can get to the Science Museum ? He asked me where I came from . Did you know what’s the name of the handsome boy in the classroom yesterday? Please tell me where I can buy the beautiful flower .

三、主.从句的时态呼应
1.主句是一般现在时,从句可以用任何时态。 2.主句是一般过去时,从句用过去范畴的时态。 3.主句是一般过去时,但从句表达的是客观真 理或自然现象时,仍然用一般现在时。 e.g: He says that he is reading a book now. He said that he would work hard next term. They said they had been to France. The students asked me if the earth goes round the sun.

具体的时态的变化
1.当主句是一般现在时,宾语从句的时态不作限制,我们可 以根据句子的意思来使用需要的任何一种时态。 e.g I hear ( that ) Tom has been to Guilin twice . I hear ( that ) she will come tomorrow .

I hear ( that ) Jim went to work an hour ago .
I hear ( that ) he is interested in English .

2.当主句是一般过去时的时候,宾语从句必须运用相应的过去 的某一种时态,从而达到主句和从句的相互一致。 e.g He said ( that ) he would go to Xi’an tomorrow . He said ( that ) he was ill yesterday . He said ( that ) he was reading a book at that time . He said ( that ) he had had supper already . 3.当宾语从句说明的是客观存在的事实或者是客观存在的真理 时,就不用受到主句时态的限制,仍是用一般现在时态。 e.g He said that the sun is much bigger than the moon . The teacher told the students that light travels faster than sound.
Our teacher told us that the sun rises in the east.

五、宾语从句的否定形式 :
一般而言,宾语从句的否定式与一般句子的否定式是一样的。 但若主句谓语动词是 think 、 expect 、 believe 、 guess 、 imagine 、 suppose 等表示“认为,猜想”的词时,一般要把宾语从句中的 否定式转移到主句中。
e.g I don’t think it’s going to rain . I don’t believe she will lend you the money . 但是,如果主句中的谓语动词是 hope ,则不适用于此规则。 e.g I hope he won’t come .

1. The radio says it _________ will be cloudy tomorrow. (be) 2. The headmaster hopes everything ______ goes well. (go) 3. Tom says that they ________________ were playing (play) basketball at six o’clock yesterday evening. has returned (return) it already. 4. I hear they _____________ had been members of 5. He said that they _____________ the Party since 1948. (be)

were doing 1. He asked what they _______________ at
eight last night. (do) 2. The teacher told his class that light _______ travels faster than sound. (travel) are talking about the movie 3. I think you _____________ now. (talk) were 4. I didn’t know whom the letters _________ from. (be)

10. I didn’t know what time he wrote _______ the letter.

(write)

moves 11. Miss Wang told me that the earth __________(move) has taken 12. Could you tell me who ____________ away the book had been 13. Ling Feng told me he _________ to several times. (be) rises in the 14. Our teacher told us in class the sun _______
east. (rise) 15. Can you tell me what they ______ did yesterday? (do)

round the earth.

already? (take)

将下列句子合并为一句:

1. Where do they stop on the way? I asked. I asked where they stopped on the way.
2. What will you speak at the meeting? Could you tell me? Could you tell me what you will speak at the meeting? 3. Do they like to make friends with us? He asked. He asked if they liked to make friends with them. 4. “ I am doing my homework.” He said.

He said that he was doing his homework.

将下列句子合并为一句:
5. “I will come back.” Tom said.
Tom said that he would come back.

6. “Is he doing his homework?” Jim asked.

Jim asked if he was doing his homework.

7. “When will he come back?” Tom asked.
Tom asked when he would come back.

8. “How can I get to the station?”
Could you tell me? Could you tell me how I can get to the station?

9. “Why is the train late?” Would you tell me?
Would you tell me why the train is late? 10. “Where is Tom?” They asked. They asked where Tom was.


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