一. 分词的定义 动词的-ed 分词即过去分词，是由动词的过去分词构成，一般只有一种形式。 二. 过去分词的语法作用： 过去分词一方面具有动词的性质，另一方面也相当于一个形容词或副词， 在句中可以作表语、定语、状语和补足语。 1) 过去分词作表语，主要表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态。如： Don ’ t touch the glass beca
use it is broken.
不要碰那个杯子，它是坏的。 He is quite pleased with the design of the dress. 礼服的式样。 2) 过去分词做定语： 单个的过去分词作定语一般放在名词的前面，相当于一个定语从句。如： The excited people rushed into the building. We need more qualified teachers. 激动的人们奔进了大楼。 她很喜欢那
过去分词短语作定语通常放在被修饰的词后面， 相当于一个定语从句。 如： Is there anything planned for tomorrow? 明天有什么活动吗？
The suggestion made by the foreign expert was adopted by the manager. 外国专家提出来的建议被经理采纳了。 过去分词作定语也可用作非限制性定语，前后用逗号隔开。如： The books, written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people.这 些书是鲁迅写的，受到了许多中国人民的喜爱。 The meeting, attended by one thousand students, was a success. 会议获得很大的成功，共有一千个学生出席了。 3) 过去分词做状语： 过去分词和-ing 分词作状语一样，也可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步、 方式或伴随情况等。 ①表时间，相当于一个时间状语从句，有时过去分词前可加连词 when 或 while 这次
来强调时间概念。如： Seen from the top of the hill, the city looked like a big garden. 看，这个城市就像一个大花园。 Accepted by the Party, he decided to devote his life to the cause of the Party. 入党以后，他决定献身于党的事业。 ②表原因，相当于一个原因状语从句。如： Deeply moved by the story, the excited people stopped quarrelling with each other. 激动的人们被那个故事深深地感动了，停止了争吵。 Encouraged by the speech, the young people made up their minds to take up the struggle. 受到了讲演的鼓舞，年轻人决定起来从事斗争。 ③表条件，相当于一个条件状语从句，有时过去分词前可用 if 等词。如： Given another chance, he will do better.再给他一次机会，他会做得更好。 Compared with your brother, you should make greater efforts to study English. 和你哥哥相比，你应该更加努力学习英语。 If heated, water can be turned into steam. 水蒸气。 ④表让步，相当于一个 though/although 引导的让步状语从句。如： Exhausted by the running, they went on running after the robber. 尽管已经跑得筋疲力尽，他们还是继续追赶着那个强盗。 Laughed at by many people, he continued his study. 笑，他还是继续他的研究。 ⑤表方式或伴随情况。如： The old man went into the room, supported by his wife.那个老人在他的妻 子的搀扶下走进了房间。 Seated at the table, my father and I were talking about my job. 我和父亲 尽管被许多人嘲 水如果被加热，会变成 从山顶上
坐在桌子旁边讨论着我的工作问题。 4) 过去分词作补足语： 过去分词可以在 see, hear, notice, watch, find, get, have, feel, make, leave, keep 等词后与一名词或代词构成复合宾语，用作宾语补语。如： When will you go to the hospital and have your tooth examined? 时候去医院检查你的牙齿？ When you are making a speech, you should speak louder to make yourself heard. 当你在作报告时，你应该讲响一点使自己被人听清。 当这类句子变成被动语态时，过去分词用作主语补语。如： One of the glasses was found broken. 有人发现其中一个杯子破了。 应该让他们知道那儿 你什么
They should be kept informed of the situation there. 的形势。
1. 过去分词作状语时，它的逻辑主语一般必须和句子的主语相一致。如： When asked why he came here, the boy kept silent.当那个男孩被问到为何 来这里时，他沉默不语。 Born and brought up in the countryside, he was interested in biology. 由于在农村出生并长大，他对生物很感兴趣。 如果过去分词的逻辑主语和句子主语不一致，必须使用过去分词的独立主格结 构。 2. 动词 have 后所接的三种宾语补语： have somebody/something do something 不定式作补语必须省去 to, 不定式动作由宾语发出，表示一次性的动作。如： I had the workers do the job for me. 们替我完成了工作。 Jim often has his father help him with his homework. 让他的父亲帮助做家庭作业。 have somebody /something doing something 动作也由宾语发出，强调动作的延续或正在进行。如： -ing 分词作补语，分词 吉姆经常 我让工人
They had the tractor working all the time.
We won’t have the child talking to his mother like that. 孩子那样对他的妈妈说话。
have somebody/something done 过去分词作补语，宾语和补足语之间 有逻辑上的被动关系，通常有两种情况： ①主语让别人做某事，强调主语的意志。如： He had his hair cut yesterday. 他昨天理发了。
Later on the center had a great many new trees planted.后来，这个中心让 人种了很多树。 ②主语遭到某种不幸或陷入恶劣的环境，说明宾语的一种无意识的被动行为。 如： He had his leg broken in the match last month.他在上星期的比赛中摔断了 腿。 He had one eye lost in the war. 在战争中，他失去了一只眼睛。
3. 非谓语动词的被动式作定语的三种形式： the bridge to be built the bridge being built the bridge built 将要建造的桥 正在建造的桥 （表示将来的动作） （表示正在进行的动作）
4. 过去分词和–ing 分词作表语的区别： 过去分词作表语通常表示主语所处的状态或感受，而-ing 分词作表语多表 示主语所具有的特征，如： Hearing the news, we felt very surprised. The news is very surprising. 听到那个消息，我们感到很惊讶
They were frightened to hear the frightening sound. 他们听到那可怕的声 音很害怕。 At the sight of the moving scene, all the people present were moved to tears. 看到这么动人的情景，所有在场的人都感动得流下了眼泪。 英 语 中 这 样 的 分词 还 有 很 多， 如 ： amusing, amused; encouraging, encouraged; disappointing, disappointed; exciting, excited; puzzling,
puzzled; satisfying, satisfied; worrying, worried; tiring, tired; pleasing, pleased; interesting, interested; astonishing, astonished 等。 5. 过去分词和–ing 分词作定语的区别： 过去分词作定语和-ing 分词作定语有一定的区别。试比较下面几组短语： boiled water 开水 boiling water 正沸腾的水 developing countries 发展中国家
developed countries 发展的国家 fallen leaves 落叶
falling leaves 正在飘落的叶子 changing condition 变化着的情况
changed condition 改变了的情况
由此可见，过去分词作定语通常表示完成的或被动的动作；而-ing 分词作 定语可以表示正在进行的主动的动作。 1. I'm going to have my car ____. A. to be fixed B. to fix C. fixed D. to fix
2. What's the language ____ in Germany? A. speaking D. to speak 3. ____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army. A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed B. spoken C. be spoken
D. having been followed by 4. He had his leg ____ in the match yesterday. A. to break breaking 5. Most of the people ____ to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting B. broken C. break D.
6. ____ more attention, the trees could have grown better. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given
7. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ____ behind his back. A. being tied tied 8. The computer center, ____ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. B. having tied C. to be tied D.
A. open opened
C. having opened
9. ____ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose
10. The Olympic Games, ____ in 776BC, didn't include women players until 1912. A. first played be first played 11. Don't get ____ in the rain. B. catching C. to catch B. to be first played C. first playing D. to
A. to be caught D. caught 12.
I found a car ____ in a pool by the side of the road. B. stuck C. sticking
A. to be stuck D. stick
13. ---By the way, when did you get your bedroom ____? ---Last week. A. to paint painted 14. The children were found ____ in the cave. A. trapping be trapped 15. hey found a ____ old woman ____ on the ground when the door was B. trapped C. to be trapped D. B. painted C. painting D. to be
broken down. A. dying, lying D. died, lain 16. On a ____ morning the little girl was found ____ at the corner of the street. A. freezing, freezing D. frozen, freezing 17. No one enjoys ____ fun of in public. B. freezing, frozen C. frozen, frozen B. dead, lied C. death, laying
A. making to make
B. being made
C. to be made
18. Before he came to London, he had never heard a single English word ____. A. speaking speak 19. ____ from space, the earth, with water ____ seventy percent of its surface, looks like a blue ball. A. Seen, covered D. Seeing, covered 20. An ____ crowd is awaiting the arrival of the film star. A. excited excitedly B. exciting C. excite D. B. Seen, covering C. Seeing, covering B. spoken C. to be spoken D.
参考答案: 1---5 11-15 C B D B B B A A 6---10 16---20 A D B B D C B B A A