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高一精品教案--定语从句


目录: 1. 关系代词引导的定语从句 2. 关系副词引导的定语从句 3. 介词+关系代词引导的定语从句 4. as, which 引导定语从句辨析 5. way 和 time 后接定语从句的特殊情况 6. 定语从句考点透析 7. 定语从句解题技巧 8. 巩固练习

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学习目标: 掌握定语从句关系词的用法 掌握介词+关系词的定语从句用法

掌握非限制性定语从句 教学重难点: 介词+关系词的定语从句及 as 和 which 引导的非限制性定语从句 要点梳理:
一、关系代词引导的定语从句 1.who, whom, whose 引导的定语从句 ①The person whom I can turn to for help when in trouble is Mr. Wang. 我困难时可以求助的人是王先生。 ②Children who are not active or whose diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly.(2010·北京高考) 很少进行体育锻炼或饮食富含脂肪的孩子体重会增加很快。 ③I'd like a room whose window (=the window of which) looks out over the sea. 我想要一间窗子朝海的房间。 [规律总结] (1)who 和 whom 指人,who 在定语从句中作主语;whom 在定语从句中作宾语,在限制性 定语从句中可省略。在口语中可用 who 代替 whom。 (2)whose 指人或物,在定语从句中作定语,指物时常可用 of which 取代。 高考链接
The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those affected.(2013 福建,27) A.whose C.who 剖析:A B.that D.which lives were

考查定语从句。 句意:这本书通过那些生活受到影响的人的视角讲述了地震的故事。 those 表示“那

些人”,而在定语从句中缺乏的成分意思应是“那些人的”,所以只有关系代词 whose 符合题意,故选 A 项。

2.that, which 引导定语从句 ①He talked about the people and the place that he had visited in that country. 他谈到了他在那个国家所见到的人和所参观的地方。 ②All the people that come from the country work much harder. 所有来自农村的人工作都更努力得多。 ③This is the best play that was written by Jack. 这是杰克写得最好的一个剧本。 ④That evening, which I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very
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late.(2012·全国卷Ⅱ) 那天晚上我工作到很晚,随后我会告诉你更多相关的情况。 [规律总结] (1)that 多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语、表语或宾语,作宾语或表语时可 省略。指物时其用法和 which 大致相同,但也有区别。 (2)which 指物,在定语从句中作主语和宾语,作宾语时,在限制性定语从句中可省略。 (3)下列情况只用 that 不用 which: ①先行词是 all, something, everything, anything, nothing, little, much, few 等不定代词; ②先行词被 all, any, every, no, little, much, some 等词修饰; ③先行词被序数词、形容词最高级修饰或先行词本身是序数词; ④先行词被 the only, the very(正是,恰是),the last 修饰; ⑤先行词中既有人也有物; ⑥在 which 或 who 的特殊疑问句中含有定语从句。
She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students freely with each other.(2011 福建,24) A.which B.where 剖 析 :A C.what D.who 句意:她有为学生营造一种良好氛围的天赋,这种氛围能够令学生交流自如。先行词是 allows them to communicate

atmosphere(气氛),是物,而定语从句又缺少主语,所以用 which;先行词是人时,才能用 who;where 引导定语 从句时,在从句中作状语;what 不能引导定语从句。

二、关系副词引导的定语从句 ①When I arrived, Bryan took me to see the house where I would staying.(2013·新课标全国卷Ⅱ) 当我到达时,Bryan 带我去看了我将要住的房子。 ②I shall never forget the days when/in which we worked on the farm. 我永远也不会忘记我们在农场工作的那些日子。 ③The reason why I don't trust him is that he often tells lies. 我不信任他的原因是他常常撒谎。 ④Is this the reason (that) he explained for his rudeness at the meeting? 这就是他在会议上解释的无礼的原因吗? [规律总结] 1.关系副词 when, where, why 的先行词是表示时间、地点或原因(一般为 reason)的 名词,在从句中作状语。有时可用“介词+which”结构替换。 2. 当定语从句中缺少主语或宾语时, 即使先行词表时间、 地点和原因仍用 which/that。 3.当先行词为一些表示抽象地点的名词,如:point, situation, case, stage 等, 如果引导词在从句中作状语,常用关系副词 where 引导定语从句;如果不作状语,则用关系
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be

代词 that/which。.
高考链接: When I arrived,Bryan took me to see the house A.what 剖析:C B.when C.where D.which I would be staying.(2013 新课标全国Ⅱ,4)

考查定语从句。分析句子结构可知,此处为定语从句,先行词是 the house,从句中缺少地点状语因

此用关系副词 where。 【技巧点拨】 定语从句关系词的选择,关键是分析从句中所缺少的成分,并结合先行词作出判断。一定要记 住的是 what 不能引导定语从句。

三、“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 ①Trading leather shoes is the business to which the Greens are devoted. 皮鞋生意是格林一家所致力于的事业。 。 ②Recently I bought an ancient vase, the price of which(=whose price) was very reasonable. 最近我买了个古代的花瓶,它的价钱很合理。 [规律总结] 1.若介词放在关系代词之前,关系代词指人时常用 whom,指物时常用 which。另外, whose 也可以放在介词后,即“介词+whose+名词”结构。 2.该结构中介词的选用 (1)一般来说,确定关系代词前的介词,可以从以下三方面入手: ①先行词的意义; ②从句中的动词或形容词与先行词的固定搭配; ③句子的意思。 (2)表示“整体和部分关系”,介词常用 of。常见结构: ①在 some, any, few, little, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each 等代 词或数词的前、后可以用 of which/whom。 ②the+比较级或最高级前、后用 of which/whom 等。 四、as, which 引导定语从句辨析 ①The air quality in the city, as is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months.(2012·福建高考) 正如报告所显示的,在过去的两个月里,这个城市的空气质量已有所改善。 ②Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012, which made one of the Chinese people's long?held dreams come true.(2013·安徽高考) 莫言被授予 2012 年诺贝尔文学奖,这使中国人长久以来拥有的梦想之一变成现实。 ③Last term our maths teacher set so difficult an examination problem as none of us worked out.(定语从句) =Last term our maths teacher set so difficult an examination problem that none
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of us worked it out.(结果状语从句) 上学期数学老师考试出题太难,没有一个人能解出来。 ④I would like to use the same tool as you used yesterday. =I would like to use the same tool that you used yesterday. 我想用你昨天使用的那件工具。 [规律总结] 1.as 作关系代词用来引导非限制性定语从句,意为“正如,正像”,as 引导的句子可 放在句首、句末或句中。 2.as 常用在下列习惯用语中: as (it) often happens, as I remember, as is often the case, as is expected, as is known to us, as is shown 等。 3.which 引导定语从句代指前面整句话内容则只能位于句末。 4.“such/so ... that ...”表示“如此??以致??”的意思,用来引导一个结果 状语从句;而“such/so ... as ...”表“像??这样??”的意思,用来引导定语从句, as 在从句中充当主语、宾语或表语等。 5.“the same ... that ...”表同一人或物,而“the same ... as ...”表同种类 的东西。
.高考链接: is often the case with children,Amy was better by the time the doctor arrived.(2013 陕 西,16) A.It C.What 剖析:D B.That D.As 考查非限制性定语从句。句意:正如(其他)孩子经常出现的情况一样,医生到达时,Amy(比之前)好

多了。根据句意并分析句子成分可知,空处引导一个非限制性定语从句,指代后面整个句子,又因为在句首, 所以要用 as 引导该定语从句,as 在从句中作主语。 【技巧点拨】做定语从句的选择题时,要先区分限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句;再看从句中缺少什么 成分;最后看先行词是人还是物。

五、way 和 time 后接定语从句的特殊情况 in which ? ? ①What surprised me was not what he said but the way?that ? ?不填 让我吃惊的不是他说的话,而是他说话的方式。 that ? ? ②The way ?which ? ?不填

he said it.

he explained to us was quite simple.

他向我们解释的那种方法很简单。
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③This was at a time when/during which there were no radios, no telephones or no TV sets. 这是一个没有收音机、没有电话,也没有电视的时期。 [规律总结] 1.在定语从句中,the way 在从句中充当方式状语时,其后的关系词可以是 in which, that 或省略; 但是当它在从句中充当主语、 宾语等成分时, 其后的关系词就用 that 或 which。 2.先行词是 time,若 time 作“次数”讲时,应用关系代词 that 引导定语从句,that 可省略; 若 time 作“一段时间, 时代”讲且作状语时, 应用关系副词 when 或介词 at/during +which 引导定语从句。 六:定语从句考点透析: 考点一 关系代词引导的定语从句 1.(2013·湖南高考)Happiness and success often come to those ________ are good at recognizing their own strengths. A.whom C.what B.who D.which

解析:选 B 句意:幸福和成功往往降临到那些善于意识到自己优点的人的身上。先行 词是 those,关系词在从句中作主语,因此用关系代词 who 引导定语从句。 2.(2013·福建高考)The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ________ lives were affected. A.whose C.who B.that D.which

解析:选 A 句意:这本书是以那些生活受到影响的人们的视角讲述地震中发生的故事 的。定语从句中的先行词是 those,且空处在句中作定语,故用关系代词 whose 引导。 考点二 关系副词引导的定语从句 4.(2013·浙江高考)The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform ________ visitors can watch the big glasshouses being built. A.what C.when B.where D.why

解析:选 B 该句中的先行词是 a viewing platform,此处关系词在定语从句中作地点 状语,故用关系副词 where。 考点三 “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 6 .(2013·重庆高考 )John invited about 40 people to ________ are family members. A.them B.that
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his wedding, most of

C.which

D.whom

解析:选 D 句意:约翰邀请了大约四十个人参加他的婚礼,其中大部分是家庭成员。 该定语从句的先行词指人,且“most of ________”在从句中充当主语,空处位于介词后, 故用关系代词 whom 引导。 7.(2013·辽宁高考)He may win the competition, ________ he is likely to get into the national team. A.in which case C.in what case 解析:选 A B.in that case D.in whose case

which 引导非限制性定语从句,并且作定语修饰 case。如果选择 B 项,则

句子缺少适当的连接词,应该改为 and in that case。 考点四 as, which 引导的定语从句 8.(2013·天津高考)We have launched another man?made satellite, ________ is announced in today's newspaper. A.that C.who B.which D.what

解析:选 B 句意:今天的报纸报道了我们发射了另外一颗人造卫星。此处 which 引导 非限制性定语从句,指代前面整句话的内容,在定语从句中作主语。 七:定语从句解题技巧: 技法一:定语从句的解题步骤 第一步:找出主句; 第二步:找出被修饰词即先行词; 第三步:找出定语从句; 第四步:将先行词代入定语从句; 第五步:判断关系词在定语从句中充当什么成分,如作主语、宾语、表语,需选择关系 代词 who, whom, that, which;如作定语,需选择 whose, of which 或 of whom;如作状语, 需选择关系副词 when, why, where。 [典例] By 16:30, ________ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A.which C.what B.when D.that

[分析] 分析句子结构可知“________ was almost closing time”为定语从句,16: 30 为先行词。从后面的 closing time(停止营业时间)可以得知此句是在谈时间,但是此句 中缺少主语,前面又有一个逗号,所以可以确定这里是一个非限制性定语从句,用 which 而不用 that 引导;when 不能作主语,故可排除 B 项;what 不能引导定语从句。故选 A 项。
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技法二:“介词+关系词”引导的定语从句解题方法 “介词+关系代词”考查的重点在于“用不用介词”和“用什么介词”。 因此在答题时 考生必须注意解题思路。 考生可采用“先行词还原法”将先行词还原到从句中来确定正确的 介词,具体做法是: (1)把先行词放在从句中,根据句子的意思来判断用不用介词和用什么介词。 (2)注意从句中动词、形容词、名词与介词的固定搭配。 [典例] (2012·湖南高考)Care of the soul is a gradual process ________ even the small details of life should be considered. A.what C.which B.in what D.in which

[分析] 句意:心灵的呵护是一个渐进的过程,在这一过程中,即使是生活中微小的细 节也应该考虑在内。“________ even the small details of life should be considered” 是定语从句部分,该部分主干完整;先行词是 process,表抽象地点,由句意和与先行词的 搭配知,“在??的过程中”应用介词 in,所以选 D,相当于 where。 八:巩固练习: Ⅰ.单项填空 1.(2014·江南十校联考)The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point ________ he can walk naturally and safely. A.when B.where C.which D.that

2.(2014·宝鸡检测)The British are not so familiar with other cultures and ways of doing things, ________ is often the case in other countries. A.that B.who C.as D.where

3.(2014·南京师大附中月考)Following the girl, we went into a hall, on ________ walls hung a few pictures of some famous scientists. A.its B.which C.whose D.those

4 .(2014·安徽望江二中模拟 )He talked about the books and people ________ interested them greatly in the school. A.who B.which C.how D.that

5.(2014·连云港质检)They stood on the top of the high building, ________ they could see the whole city. A.from which B.on where C.from where D.on it

6.(2014·杭州检测)Do you think the reason ________ you gave for your absence is valid? A.as B.wha tC.that
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D.why

7 .(2014·宿迁高三模拟 )Oct. 1st, ________ is our National Day, is always celebrated with singing and dancing. A.as B.that C.when D.which

8.(2014·淮安模拟)—Do you have anything to say for yourselves? —Yes, there is one point ________ we must insist on. A.why B.where C.how D.that

9.(2014·长沙市一中模考)Occasions are quite rare ________ the father has the time to spend a day with his kids. A.when B.which C.why D.that

10.(2014·辽宁六校高三上学期联考)The small mountain village ________ we spent our holiday last month lies in ________ is now part of Hubei. A.which; where B.where; what C.that; which D.when; which

11.On February 14th, 2013, the famous South African runner Oscar Pistorius killed his girlfriend with his gun, ________ shocked the world. A.when B.who C.that D.which

12.(2014·温州检测)Nowadays some people tend to take pride in doing things ________ they should feel ashamed. A.by which 答案:1-5BCCDC B.of which 6-12CDDABDB C.in which D.from which

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