宾语从句 一、 关联词 关联词又称“连词”或“引导词”，是宾语从句的重要组成部分。 连词：1.连接代词（that，who，whom，what，which） 2.连接副词（when，where，why，how） 3.从属连词（if，whether）由一般疑问句转变而来的宾语从句，用 if 或 whether 引导. 在试卷中一般依据从句中“缺什么补什么”的原则
，结合上下文选用恰当的连词。如： 例 1 A computer can only do _____ you have instructed it to do. A. how B. after C. what D. when 例 2 Mary wrote an article on _____ the team had failed to win the game. A. why B. what C. who D. that 例 3 The shopkeeper did not want to sell for ________ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which 例 4 The way he did it was different ________ we were used to. A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which 例 5 He spoke proudly of his part in the game, without mentioning _____ his teammates had done. A. what B. which C. why D. while 二、 语序 以从属连词（if，whether） 、连接代词（what，which，who，whose）和连接副词（when， where，how，why）等引导的宾语从句用陈述句语序。 例 6 No one can be sure ______ in a million years. A. what man will look like B. what will man look like C. man will look like what D. what look will man like 例 7 The boss went up to ask _____. A. what the matter was B. what’s the matter C. what was the matter D. what the matter is 三、 时态 宾语从句的时态要和主句相呼应: 1. 如果主句谓语动词是现在时或将来时，从句谓语动词时态可不受约束； 2. 如果主句谓语动词是过去时，从句谓语动词的时态须与之呼应； 3. 当从句叙述的是客观真理时，其谓语动词仍用现在时态。如： 例8 The manager entered the office and was happy to learn four fifths of the tickets ________. A. was booked B. had been booked C. were booked D. have been booked 例 9 We were all surprised when he made it clear that he _____ office soon. A. leaves B. would leave C. had left D. had been away 例 10 —Do you work in the lab every afternoon? —No, but sometimes I wish I _________. A. have time B. had time to do C. have time to D. had time to 四、 宾语从句的减缩式 宾语从句有时可减缩为“疑问词+不定式”的形式。 例 11 I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ________ in my new job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects 例 12 It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ________.
A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 例 13 The mother didn’t know_____ to blame for the broken glasses as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. what 五、 宾语从句的特殊式 1. 复合连接代词在宾语从句中的使用。如： Sarah hopes to become a friend of __________________ shares her interest. These wild flowers are so special I would do __________________ I can to save them. It is generally considered unwise to give a child __________________ he or she wants. I can’t remember at the moment __________________ has said the words. You can’t tell what we are discussing here to _______ you think may be related to the case. A. whoever B. who C. whomever D. whom Teachers often award scholarship to _______ they believe has performed well in all aspects. A. whoever B. whomever C. who D. whom _________ leaves the classroom last is to lock the door. A. Who B. Whoever C. Whom D. Those who 2. it 作形式宾语，从句作真正宾语。 （1） 动词 + it + important / necessary / natural / etc. + that clause。That clause 中谓语动词前 可加 should，亦可省略。如：
（2） 动词+ it + 介词 + that clause。常见的有： owe it to sb. + that clause， leave it to sb. + that clause take it for granted + that clause keep it in mind + that clause （3） 动词 + it + clause。
英语中少数介词很活跃，能带从句作其宾语。如：I go to see a film except __________ it rains. 3. 含宾语从句的反意疑问句。 Brian told you that there wasn’t anyone in the room at that time, _________________? 当陈述部分主句的主语是第一人称， 谓语动词是 think / believe / suppose / guess / imagine / expect / suspect / feel 等时，疑问部分的主语和谓语往往与陈述部分从句中的主语和谓语保 持对应关系，此时实质上是将对主句的否定转移到对从句的否定上。如： I don’t suppose anyone will volunteer, ________________? 4. _________________________________________________________________________。如：
5. 主语 + be +形容词 + clause。如：
The poor young man is ready to accept ________ help he can get. A. whichever B. however C. whatever D. whenever 例 15 _____ has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising.
A. Who B. The one C. Anyone D. Whoever 例 16 I’d appreciate _______ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. A. that B. it C. this D. you 例 17 —I don’t think you could have been used to the quick pace of life while studying in the USA______ you? —______. I thought of returning to our country at one time. A. had; Yes B. do; Yes C. have; No D. were; No 例 18 With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased _______ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 宾语从句练习题 类型一：引导词的运用 （1） I don’t know ___________or not． A． whether he is at home B． if he is at home C． that he is at home D． whether is he at home （2） This depends on _________ the weather is fine． A． which B． whether C． if D． that （3） The teacher asked the new student ________ class he was in． A． which B． where C． if D． that （4） I don’t know ________ Mr． Green will come to see us． He’ll help us with our English． A． why B． when C． how D． where （5） －－Be careful！ Don’t break the bottles． Do you hear ______ I said? David? －－ Yes， Mum A． what B． that C． why D． if （6） －－－ Do you know _______ Mr Black’s address is? －－－ He may live at NO．18 or No． 19 of Bridge Street． I’m not sure of ______． A． where， which B． where， what C． what， which D． what， where （7） There is not much difference between the two． I really don’t know _____． A． what should I choose B． which I should choose C． which should I choose D． what I should choose 类型二：宾语从句的语序 （1） Did you find out ______? A． she was looking for whose child B． whose child was she looking for C． whose child she is looking for D． whose child she was looking for （2） Are you interested in _____? A． how did he do it B． he did it how C． how he did it D． he how did it （3） I don’t know _____． Can you tell me? A． how the two players are old B． how old are the two players C． the two players are how old D． how old the two players are （4） －－－ What did the scientist say? －－－ He said he wondered if _____ into space by spaceship one day． A． he had to fly B． he could fly C． can he fly D． could he fly （5） Excuse me， sir． Could you tell me ____? A． Where the bank nearest B． where is the nearest bank
C． where the nearest bank is （6）She asked Tom ________ with his car? A． what the matter was C． what was the matter
D． the nearest bank is where B． what the matter is D． what is the matter
类型三：时态 （1） It’s 7：30． I can’t believe you___ cooking dinner yet， Sally． A． haven’t started B． didn’t C． don’t start D． hadn’t started （2） The teacher told us yesterday that December 25 ____ Christmas Day． A． is B． was C． has been D． will be （3） The teacher said that the earth _______round the sun ． A． goes B． go C． went D． will go （4） We ’d like to tell you that you ______the exam． A． have passed B． had passed C． pass D． will pass （5） “Could you tell me______?” “ Yes． They ____ to the library． ” A． where are the twins， have been B． where were the twins， have been C． where the twins are， have gone D， where the twins were， have gone （6） Our father said that he ______ a new computer next week． A． will buy B． have bought C． would buy D． buys （7） I hear that he ______ to Beijing yesterday． A． goes B． will go C． went D． have gone 类型四：其他－－－反意疑问句，it 做形式宾语 （1） ．I don’t think he is right，__________? A．isn’t he B．is he C．do I D．don’t I （2） ． He believes she is right， __________? A．doesn’t he B．does he C．is she D．isn’t she （3） ．I thought that he disliked playing football，__________? A．didn’t he B．did he C．did I D．didn’t I （4） ． I find _____ important that we practice English every day． A． it B． this C． that D． what （5） ． You can’t imagine ____when they received the nice gift． A． how they were excited B． how excited they were C． how excited were they D． they were how excited 高考题 1．—What did you parents think about your decision? —They always let me do ________ I think I should． A． when B． that C． how D． what 2． Please remind me _________ he said he was going． I may be in time to see him off． A． where B． when C． how D． what 3． Mary wrote an article on the team had failed to win the game． A．why B．what C．who D．that 4．Someone is ringing the doorbell Go and see________． A ．who is he B． who he is C． who is it D． who it is 5． ——We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time．
——What do you consider _______to her?（NMET 1990） A． was happening B． to happen C ．has happened
More Reading A. amount F. guilty B. ruin C. meaning D. forgetful E. terms G. respond H. psychologist I. deadline J. schedule
Never too busy for social manners So you forgot to answer that party invitation you received. Now, the day has come and gone, and you’re feeling ___1____because you never told the host you couldn’t attend. “Don’t allow this oversight( 疏 忽 ) to____2___ your relationship,” says R. Thomas Boone, a US social___3____. “I would show up with a bottle of wine and say, ‘I owe(感激，亏欠) you one. I’m really sorry’,” Boone says. Send an e-mail, make a phone call or reach out to the host another way. Whatever the method, do it as soon as possible. If guests don’t answer the invitations on time, the host cannot possibly plan for the correct ____4___of food and drink. This may lead to hundreds or even thousands of dollars of waste. “Everybody has a busy ___5____now,” Boone says. If you know you are forgetful when it comes to making phone calls, try emailing your RSVPs as soon as the invitation arrives. RSVP is the short form of the French phrase “répondez s’il vous pla?t”, ____6____“Reply, if you please”. The following are some commonly used ___7____in invitation letters and their meanings. Be sure to know these and answer invitations properly. RSVP, REGRETS ONLY Only guests who can’t attend need reply. You need to give a proper reason why you can’t attend. RSVP BY… Guests should ___8____with yes or no by the date indicated on the invitation. Setting a date gives guests a deadline. It is also a ___9_____for the host to connect guests who haven’t reply. RSVP BY E-MAIL Guests can respond by e-mail. Unlike phone calls, e-mails can be sent without regard to time of day or location. Homework: