一、时态概念 时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式，表示动作发生的时间和 所处的状态。英语中的时态是通过动词本身的变化来实现的。 英语有 16 种时态，但中学阶段较常用的有十种：一般现在时， 一般过去时，一般将来时，过去将来时，现在进行时，过去进 行时，将来进行时，过去完成时，现在完成时和现在完成进行 时。
英语常用时态构成形式 一般 进行 主 am/is/ar
e do/does doing 现 动 在 被 动 主 过 动 去 被 动 are/is/am done did were/was done
完成 完成进行 have/ha have/has s done been doing have/ha am/are/is s been —— being done done was/were had had been doing done doing had were/was —— been being done done
将 来 过 去 将 来
主 动 被 动 主 动 被 动
shall/will be shall/will shall/will do doing have done will be being will have been will be done done done would be would have would do doing done would be would have would be done being done been done
—— —— —— ——
二、相关知识点精讲 1．一般现在时的用法 1) 经常性或习惯性的动作，常与表示频度的时间状语连 用。时间状语： every?， sometimes, at?， on Sunday 等。 I leave home for school at 7：00 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。 2) 客观真理，客观存在，科学事实。 The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。
3) 表示格言或警句。注意：此用法如果出现在宾语从句 中，即使主句是过去时，从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。 4) 现在的状态、能力、性格、个性。 I don't want so much. 我不要那么多。
2．一般过去时的用法 1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。时间 状语有：yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 等。例如： Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了？ 2)表示在过去一段时间内，经常性或习惯性的动作。 如： When I was a child, I often played football at the street. 当我是个孩子的时候，常在马路上踢足球。
3)句型： It is time that sb.did sth.“??时间已迟了”，“早该?? 了” 。如： It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。 would (had) rather sb.did sth.表示“宁愿某人做某事”。 如： I'd rather you came tomorrow. 你还是明天来吧。
4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时，作试探性的询 问、请求、建议等，而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为 过去，现已不复存在。如： I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。 注意： 用过去时表示现在，表示委婉语气。 1)动词 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。 I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。 2)情态动词 could, would。例如： Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车我能借用一下吗？
3．一般将来时 1) shall 用于第一人称，常被 will 所代替。will 在陈述句 中用于各种人称，在征求意见时常用于第二人称。 Which paragraph shall I read first? 我先读哪一段呢？ 2) be going＋不定式，表示将来。 a．主语的意图，即将做某事。例如： What are you going to do tomorrow? 你明天打算做什么呢？
b．计划，安排要发生的事。例如： The play is going to be produced next month. 这出戏下月开播。 c．有迹象要发生的事。例如： Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm. 看那乌云，暴风雨快要来了。
3) be＋不定式表将来，按计划或正式安排将发生的事。 We are to discuss the report next Saturday. 我们下星期六讨论这份报告。 4) be about ＋不定式，意为马上做某事。 He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。 注意：be about to do 不能与 tomorrow, next week 等表示 明确将来时的时间状语连用。
4．一般现在时表将来 1)下列动词 come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 的一 般现在时可以表示将来，主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排 好的事情。 When does the bus start? It starts in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开？十分钟后。 2)以 here, there 等开始的倒装句，表示动作正在进行。 There goes the bell.＝The bell is ringing.铃响了。
3)在时间或条件句中。 I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我一到那里就写信给你。 4)在动词 hope, take care that, make sure that 等的宾语从句 中。 I hope they have a nice time next week. 我希望他们下星期玩得开心。
5．用现在进行时表示将来 下列动词 come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 等现在 进行时可以表示将来。 Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿待到下周吗？
6．现在完成时 现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态，其 结果的影响现在还存在；也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态。 其构成：have (has)＋过去分词。
7．比较一般过去时与现在完成时 1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去 的事情， 强调动作； 现在完成时强调过去的事情对现在的影响， 强调的是影响。 2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用，而现在完成时通 常与模糊的时间状语连用，或无时间状语。 一般过去时的时间状语：yesterday, last week，?ago, in 1980, in October, just now 等，皆为具体的时间状语。 现在完成时的时间状语：for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always 等，皆为不确定的 时间状语。 共同的时间状语：this morning, tonight, this April, now, already, recently, lately 等。
3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态，动词一般 是延续性的，如 live, teach, learn, work, study, know。 一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有 come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married 等。例如： I saw this film yesterday. 我昨天看到了这部电影。(强调看的动作发生过了) I have seen this film. 我已经看过这部电影了。(强调对现在的影响，电影的内 容已经知道了) 句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960 等)时，不能使用现在完成时，要用一般过去时。 (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.
8．用于现在完成时的句型 1)It is the first/second time?that?结构中的从句部分用现 在完成时。例如： This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。 注意：It was the third time that the boy had been late. 2)This is＋形容词最高级＋that?结构， that 从句要用现在 完成时。例如： This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。
9．过去完成时 1) 概念：表示过去的过去(had done)。 2) 用法： a．在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句。 如： She said (that)she had never been to Paris. 她说她从来没有去过巴黎。
b．在状语从句中，在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中， 发生在先，用过去完成时；发生在后，用一般过去时。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时，小偷们早就跑了。 c．表示意向的动词，如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等 ， 用 过 去 完 成 时 表 示 “ 原 本 ?? ， 但 未 能??”。 We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来，但是你没有来。
3)过去完成时的时间状语：before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as 等。 He said that he had learned some English before. 他说他以前学过一些英语。 By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. 到了十二岁那年，爱迪生开始自己谋生。
10．用一般过去时代替过去完成时 1)两个动作如按顺序发生， 又不强调先后， 或用 then， and， but 等连词时，多用一般过去时。 My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 姑妈给了我一顶帽子，我把它丢了。 2) 两个动作相继发生，可用一般过去时；如第一个动作 需要若干时间完成，则用过去完成时。 When I heard the news, I was very excited. 3)叙述历史事实， 可不用过去完成时， 而只用一般过去时。 Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.
11．将来完成时 1)表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。 They will have been married for 20 years by then. 到那时他们结婚将有二十年了。 2)表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前，已经完成的 动作或获得的经验。 You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow. 明天此时，你已经到达上海了。
12．现在进行时 1)表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。 We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你。 2)习惯进行：表示长期的或重复性的动作，说话时动作未 必正在进行。 Mr.Green is writing another novel. 格林先生在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写，只处于写 作的状态)
3)表示渐变， 这样的动词有： grow, become, turn, run, go, get, begin 等。 The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。 4)与 always, constantly, forever 等词连用， 表示反复发生的 动作或持续存在的状态，往往带有说话人的主观色彩。 You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。
13．过去进行时 1)概念：表示过去某时正在进行的动作。 2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景；一个 长动作延续的时候，另一个短动作发生。 3) 常用的时间状语有 this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while 等。例 如： My brother fell down while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 我兄弟骑车时摔了下来，受了伤。 When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时，阳光灿烂。
14．将来进行时 1) 概念：表示将来某时进行的动作，或按预测将来会发 生的事情。例如： She'll be coming soon. 她会很快来的。 I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 将来我一定去见他。 注意：将来进行时不用于表示“意志”，不能说“I'll be having a talk with her”。
2)常用的时间状语有 soon, tomorrow, this evening，on Sunday, by this time，tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening 等。 By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach. 明天此时，我正躺在海滩上呢。
15．一般现在时代替一般将来时 when, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately 等引导的时间状语从 句的条件句中，用一般现在时代替将来时。例如： He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京，就去看他姨妈。
16．一般现在时代替一般过去时 1)“书上说”，“报纸上说”等。 The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow. 报纸上说明天会很冷的。 2)叙述往事，使其生动。 Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins. 拿破仑的军队正在向前挺进，大战开始了。
17．一般现在时代替现在完成时 1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时，如 hear, tell, learn, write, understand, forget, know, find, say, remember 等。例如： I hear (＝have heard) he will go to London. 我听说了他将去伦敦。 I forget (＝have forgotten) how old he is. 我忘了他多大了。 2) 用句型 “ It is ? since?”代替“It has been ? since ?”。例如： It is (＝has been) five years since we last met. 从我们上次见面以来，五年过去了。
18．一般现在时代替现在进行时 在 Here comes?/There goes?等句型里，用一般现在时代 替现在进行时。例如： There goes the bell. 铃响了。
19．现在进行时代替将来时 1) 表示即将发生的或预定计划好的活动。例如： Are you staying with us this weekend? 和我们一起度周末好吗？ 2) 渐变动词，如 get, run, grow, become, begin 以及瞬间动 词 die 等。例如： He is dying. 他要死了。
20．时态一致 1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或相对不变的事实，则用现 在时。例如： At that time, people did not know that the earth moves. 那时，人们不知道地球是动的。 He told me last week that he is eighteen. 上星期他告诉我他十八岁了。 2) 宾语从句中的助动词 ought, need, must, dare 的时态是 不变的。例如： He thought that I need not tell you the truth. 他认为我不必告诉你真相。
三、主动表示被动的三种情况 1．不及物动词与状语连用，用以表示主语的品质和状态。 常见动词是：cut, sell, read, write, fill, cook, lock, wash, drive, keep 等。 2．一些连系动词的主动式＋形容词。 常见动词是：look, smell, taste, sound, feel, prove, turn out 等。 3．五个“发生”： happen, take place, occur to, break out， come about 等。
一、按语法要求填空。 have 1．Every few years, the coal workers ________(have) their lungs Xrayed to ensure their health. is being restored 2．The church tower which _______________(restore) will be open to tourists soon.The work is almost finished. are advised 3．The employees ___________ (advise) that they should renew their contracts within a week.
4．The book has been translated into thirty languages since it ________(come) on the market in 1973. came 5 ． Traditional folk arts of Tianjin like paper cutting are being exhibited ____________________(exhibit) at the culture show of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo. 6 ． It is reported that many a new house is being built ________________(build) at present in the disaster area. 7．Up to now, the program ________(save) thousands of has saved children who would otherwise have died.
has been going 8．Joseph ________________(go) to evening classes since last month, but he still can't say “What's your name？” in Russian. 9 ． I walked slowly through the market, where people were selling ____________(sell) all kinds of fruits and vegetables.I studied the prices carefully and bought what I needed. 10．This coastal area was named __________(name) a national wildlife reserve last year.
11．Excuse me.I ____________(not realize) I was blocking didn't realize your way. 12．It took me a long time before I was able to fully had done appreciate what they ________(do) for me. 13 ． Look at the timetable.Hurry up! Flight 1026 had done ________(take) off at 18：20. 14 ． The roast duck which Mr.and Mrs.White prepared sold ______(sell) well yesterday. were treated 15．The way the guests ___________(treat) in the hotel influenced their evaluation of the service. 16．Though we don't know what was discussed, yet we can has been changed feel the topic____________________(change)．
二、根据中文提示翻译下列句子。 or the wedding will have finished by the time 1．Be quick，______________________________________
we get to the church
(否则等我们到达教堂时婚礼就已经结束了)． 2．When she got home, ___________________________(孩 the children had fallen asleep 子们已经睡着了)． 3．When I prepare for the college entrance examination， my sister will be taking her vacation at the seaside ____________________________________________________( 我姐姐将在海边度假)．
4． have been revising my resume all the morning I____________________________________________(一 上午都在修改我的简历)． 5．—Do you often go on holiday? No.It has been five years since I went on holiday —_______________________________________________ (不，我已经有五年没有度假了)． 6 ． He joined the army in October, He has been in the army for 5 years 2001.____________________________________(他参军已五年 了)． 7 ． The blackboard and chalk is being replaced by the computer and the projector _____________________________________________________ ___(正在被电脑和投影机所取代)．
8．The bookwill have been published by the end of this year _______________________________________ (到今年年底将要出版)． 9．Computer models can be used to demonstrate the way that cells work _____________________________________________ (可以用来演示细胞工作的方式)．
Effective measures must be taken immediately 10．_____________________________________________ (必须立即采取有效措施)to eliminate sandy storms.
三、按语法要求填空。 A disappeared In Alaska，the wolf almost 1.______________(disappear) a few years ago，because hunters 2.__________(kill) hundreds of were killing them for sport.However, laws 3.________________(establish) to were established protect the wolves from sportsmen and people who catch the animals for their fur.So the wolf population has greatly increased.Now there are so many wolves that they 4.____ are destroying _____________(destroy) their own food supply.
A wolf naturally eats animals in the deer family.People in the wilderness also hunt deer for food.Many of the animals 5.__ __________________(destroy) by the very cold winters recently have been destroyed and by changes in the wilderness plant life.When the deer can't die find enough food, they 6.________(die)． If the wolves continue to kill large numbers of deer, their will disappear prey(猎物) 7.________________(disappear) some day.And the wolves will, too.So we must change the cycle of life in the killed wilderness to balance the ecology.If we 8.________(kill) more wolves, we would save them and their prey from dying out.We'd also save some farm animals.
In another northern state, wolves attack cows and chickens for food.Farmers want the government to send biologists to study believe the problem.They 9.________(believe) it necessary to kill wolves in some areas and to protect them in places where there 10.________(be) a small wolf population. is
B The elephant was lying heavily on its side, fast asleep.A few dogs 1.________(start) barking at it.The elephant woke up in a started terrible anger.It chased the dogs into the village where they ran for safety.That didn't stop the elephant.It destroyed a dozen houses and injured several people.The villagers 2.____________(scare) were scared and angry.Then someone suggested calling Parbati, the elephant princess. Parbati Barua's father was a hunter of tigers and an elephant taught tamer.He 3.________(teach) Parbati to ride an elephant before she could even walk.He also taught her the dangerous art of the elephant round- how to catch wild elephants. up-
Parbati hasn't always lived in the jungle.After a happy childhood hunting with her father, she 4.________(send) to boarding school in the was sent city.But Parbati never got used to being there and many years later she went back to her old life.“Life in the city 5.________(be) too is dull.Catching elephants is an adventure and the excitement lasts for days after the chase，” she says. But Parbati doesn't catch elephants just for fun.“My work，” she says, “is to rescue man from the elephants, and to keep the elephants has been doing safe from man.” And this is exactly what Parbati 6._____________(do) for many years.Increasingly, the Indian elephant is angry for many years, illegal hunters have attacked it and its home in the jungle 7.____ _________________(reduce) to small pieces of land.It is now fighting has been reduced back.Whenever wild elephants enter a tea garden or a village, Parbati is called 8.________(call) to guide the animals back to the jungle before they can kill.