M6 U1 Grammar and usage
Overview: infinitive, verb-ing and verb-ed
非谓语动词是指在句子中不作谓语的 动词不定式 动词，主要包括_______________, verb-ing ______________, _________________ verb-ed形式 。
Ⅰ作主语 To see 1._______________ is to believe. / ______________ is believing. 眼见为实。 Seeing crying 2. It’s no use _____________ over spilt milk. 覆水 难收。(打翻牛奶，哭也没用) to finish the task 完成任 3. It is impossible ___________________( 务)within such a short time. 4. It is very friendly of you to invite us to your birthday party 邀请 ______________________________________( 我们参加你的生日派对) Walking 散步) is a good form of exercise 5. ____________( for both young and old. 6. ___________________( How to go there 怎样去那里) hasn’t been decided.
1. 不定式作主语常表示具体的某一动作； 动名词作主语表示泛指或一般的抽象概念
Swimming is exciting. / To swim in Lu River is terrible. 2.单个不定式作主语时,谓语动词用单数;
3. 复合结构: It is /was + adj.+ (for /of sb.) to do sth.
eg: It is important for us to learn English well. It is very kind of you to help me. 4. It is no use / no good / useless + doing sth
5.不定式可以和when / where /how /what / whether等连用，在句中作主语、宾语和表语.
1.He has no wish__________________( to see her 见她).
2.The power station _________________________ to be built next year （明年 修建的）will be of great value to the people.
3.He is always the last to __________________________ leave the company (离 开公司). 4.The temple_________________________ standing on the top of the
(矗立山顶的） was built in the Ming Dynasty.
being discussed (正被讨论的） 5. The question_______________________ is important.
6.Last autumn, I took many photos of leaves __________________________( fallen to the ground 落到地上的).
7.I don’t like to see the letter ______________________ written with a pencil (用铅笔写的).
1. 在序数词、形容词最高级、 the first， the last, the only 等修饰的名词后用动词 不定式作定语。
2. 若作定语的不定式是不及物动词, 或者及 物动词与被修饰的词不能构成动宾关系 时,则不定式动词后须加上适当的介词。 eg: 他正在找房子住。 He is looking for a house to live in.
现在分词与过去分词, 不定式作定语的区别 ①过去分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系 或过去分词表示的动作已完成。 ②现在分词作定语表示动作正在进行，与修饰词 是主谓关系。 ③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。
being built now (正在被建的) the house to be built next year (将要被建的) built last year (建好了的 )
1. With all the problems___________( solved solve)， everyone felt rather relaxed. learn 2. You don’t have to make Paul __________(learn) do French. He is made to _____(do) too many things. 3. How could you keep such a little boy _____________(work ) so long ? working 4. I need this chapter_____________ rewritten (rewrite) before tomorrow. 5. On seeing the superstar, she felt her heart ___________ beating (beat) fast. 6. When playing football, Jack had his leg ___________(break). broken
V + sb. + do sth. 1. 感官动词： see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen, smell, taste, feel 使役动词：have，make，let “五看三使二听二味一感觉” 2. Tom often makes his brother ______. cry (cry) Tom’s brother is often made ______ to cry by him. 某些动词真奇怪，to来to去令人猜； 主动语态to离开，被动语态to回来。
1. Don’t pretend not to have seen me. _________________________( 没看见我) 2. They’re practising singing an English song 唱一首英文歌). _______________________( 3. I regret not saying sorry to/ making an apology to her _____________________________________ (没有向她道歉). 4. I think ________ necessary for us it to know how to use a computer __________________________________. (我觉得我们有必要懂得如何使用电脑。)
动词不定式作宾语 记忆口诀： 决心学会想希望， 拒绝设法愿假装， 主动应答选计划， 同意请求帮一帮。 decide / determine, learn, want, hope / expect / wish, refuse, manage, care, pretend, offer, promise, choose, plan, agree, ask / beg, help
动名词作宾语记忆口诀： 考虑建议盼原谅，承认推迟没得想， 避免错过继续练，否认完成就欣赏， 禁止想象才冒险，不禁建议准逃亡。 consider, suggest/advise, look forward to, excuse/pardon admit, delay/put off, fancy, avoid, miss keep/keep on, practise deny, finish, enjoy/appreciate, forbid, imaging, risk, can’t help, mind, allow/permit, escape
某些特殊动词： forget, remember, regret, stop, try, mean, go on, cease, Want, need, require
to produce 1. One aim of GM research is ________ ( produce) food which will make us healthier. study (study) 2. What we should do now is _________ hard. excited excite) to hear the 3. He was __________( exciting news. exciting 4. The news was really ______________ (excite) playing 5. What the little boy likes is __________(play) with his toy car.
? 1.不定式/动名词做表语用通常是解释主语的内 容的。主语和表语可以互相交换。 ? Eg. My job is to teach you English.=To teach you English is my job. ? My job is teaching you English.=Teaching you English is my job. ? 2.现在分词做表语说明主语的特征，通常表示： 令人….的，含有主动意义。 ? Eg. 这个年老的教授的课堂太无聊了。 ? The old professor’s lecture is too boring.
? 3.过去分词做表语说明主语的所处的状态，通 常表示：感到….的，含有被动意义。 ? Eg. 我们对这个年老的教授的课感到很无聊。 We are bored with the old professor’s lecture. ? 4.当不定式短语(to do sth)作表语用时，如果主 语部分有动词do本身的某种形式(todo/do/doing /does/done/did)时，表语的不定式短语可以省 略to,只用动词原形作表语。 ? Eg. 她所做的/正在做的/将要做的/已经做的一 切就是每天在厨房做饭。 ? What she does/is doing/will do/has done is cook meals in the kitchen every day.
Self-assessment (基础过关) A 1.Tell Mary that there's someone _______for her at the door. A. waiting B. waited C. waits D. to wait 2.There is a big dog _______to a fence outside the B house. A. tying B. tied C. to tie D .ties A 3.The_______waiter came up to us and said, "You are welcome." A. smiling B. smiled C. smile D. to smile A with him. 4. It is no use _______ A. arguing B. to argue C. argued D. to be argue
能力提升 5. ______ D the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president’s attending 6.-- Where should I send my form? B . -- The Personnel office is the place＿＿＿ A. for sending it B. to send it to C. to send D. to send it 7.It was＿＿＿＿ B computer games that cost the boy a lot of time that he ought to have spent on his lessons. A. to have played B. playing C. played D. having played D at the moment is for the dinner party. 8.The food＿＿＿ A. cooked B. to be cooked C. is being cooked D. being cooked B the water clean make 9.Does the way you thought of＿＿＿ any sense? A. making B. to make C. to be made D. having made
B ? 10.His ____________ voice suggested that something terrible was going on. ? A.frightening B.frightened ? C.to frighten D.fright ?
Go over the grammar learned today. Preview how to use non-finite verbs as adverbials