专题十一 非谓语动词 永昌教学区：李晓蓉 导入： 请同学们找出动词并画下划线： ① To finish the job in two days is impossible. ② We sat in the room, listening to the old story. ③ The vegetables sold in this shop are grown withou
t chemicals. 请同学们在谓语下面的括号打钩： ①To finish the job in two days is impossible. （ ） （ ） ②We sat in the room, listening to the old story. （ ） （ ） ③The vegetables sold in this shop are grown without chemicals. （ ） （ ） 那么没有做谓语的动词是什么呢？ 我们把它们叫做非谓语动词！ 一．什么是非谓语动词呢？ 非谓语动词是指在句子中不是谓语的动词，主要包括不定式、动名词和分词（现在分词和过去分词）。非谓语动词除 了不能独立作谓语外，可以承担句子的任何成分。 二．非谓语动词是什么模样 不定式： I like to read English.（ ） 【 】 He seemed to be reading something at that time.（ ） He seemed to have cleaned the room.（ ） The work is to be done soon.（ ） 【 】 The boy is said to have been sent to hospital yesterday.（ ） -ing 形式： 【 】 I have finished reading the novel.（ ） The girl having passed the exam is my good friend. （ ） This is one of the new supermarkets being built in our city. （ ） 【 】 Having been told many times, he was able to operate the machine.（ ） Tasks: 请同学们观察各句把非谓语动词划出来。 请同学们分别判断每组非谓语属于主动还是被动，并在左边的括号内标记。 请同学们分别判断各句中的非谓语动词属于一般形式，进行形式还是完成形式，并在右边的括号内标记。 根据上述观察，请同学们总结出非谓语的形式并尝试填写表格： 非谓语动词的句子成分 主谓宾定状补（表） 非谓 非谓 非主谓宾 不定式 -ing 形式 -ed 形式 主动 一般 进行 完成 一般 被动 完成
三、非谓语动词的具体用法（标记★的为常考的重点） 不定式 1、★作主语（通常用 it 做形式主语，也就是我们常见的句型： To eat a balanced diet is important=It’s important to eat a balanced diet. (不定式作主语，常用 it 来做形式主语) (选择 for 或者 of 填空) It's very hard It's very nice him to study two languages. you to help me. )
注意：当 adj 是修饰 sb 时用 当 adj 是修饰 sth 时用 2、★作宾语 I want to learn about art. 后接不定式做宾语的动词: want, wish, hope, expect, ask, pretend, care, decide, happen, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, order, cause, afford, manage, agree, promise 等 These children may find it hard to think for themselves(形式宾语) 常接 it 形式宾语的动词：think，feel，consider, make, find, suppose 等 3、作表语 His teaching aim of this class is to train the students’ speaking ability. 4、☆作定语 Bridge Street is a good place to have fun. Let me tell you the way to my house. Would you like something to drink? 5、★作宾语补足语 The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. We wish him to get a better future. We noticed him enter the house. The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 有的动词后接带 to 的动词不定式作补语；有的动词后接不带 to 的动词不定式。(help 后可以接 do 也可以接 to do) ①能以带 to 的不定式作宾补的动词有：ask，allow，tell，invite， wish，want， encourage， advise， persuade， order 等。 ②用不带 to 的不定式作宾补的动词有：see，hear，watch，notice，observe，listen to，look at，feel，let，have， make 等。 The boss made them work twelve hours a day. They were made to work twelve hours a day. ★被动语态时，不定式符号 to 仍保留。 6、☆作目的状语 常用结构为 to do, in order to do, 例如： He ran so fast to catch the first bus. I come here to say good-bye to you. 7、★与特殊疑问词构成复合宾语 decide，find out，forget，know，learn，remember，wonder 等动词常接“疑问词+ 动词不定式”这个结构，用作宾语。 疑问词一般是 what，who（m） ，where，how，whether，why，which I don’t know where to go.
He can’t decide what to buy. We wonder how to deal with it. 动词不定式的否定形式 动词不定式的否定形式 not + to + 动词原形 My mother always tells me not to stay out late. 常用不定式的句型总结. 允许某人去做某事 叫某人做事某事（叫某人不要去做某事） 叫某人去（不要）做某事 跟随某人去做某事 让某人做某事 警告某人做某事（或不要做某事） 对做某事感到惊讶 害怕做某事 对做……感到兴奋 害怕去做某事 高兴去做某事 准备做某事 对做某事感到抱歉 对做某事感到惊奇 迫不急待地去做某事 得到一个做某事的机会 做某事（对某人来说）怎么样 花费某人多长时间做某事（常考） 对某人来说做某事是最好的 是某人做某事的时候了 …太……以致不能…… ==not… enough to do 宁愿……而不愿……（常考） 一些吃/喝的东西（词不定式放在 something 等后修饰这些 做好某事很难/容易 轮流做…… 对（某人来说）没时间做某事了 对某人来说没必要做某事 尽力去做某事 动名词 1. ★动名词作主语(谓语动词用单数形式) Eating dangshen and huangqi herbs is also good for this . Knocking into players and falling down would be dangerous 2. ★动名词作宾语 Do you mind opening the window?
My father enjoys watching TV. 总结: ①跟在动词后作宾语：enjoy /practice /finish/consider/suggest/keep /be busy/ stand/imagine/mind/avoid ②跟在短语后作宾语：feel like/be busy /be worth/spend time (in) / have difficulty (in)/have trouble (in)/have confidence (in)/have fun ③跟在介词后作宾语：(on, in, of, about, at, with, without, for, from, up, by 等) give up /end up/stop sb. from doing sth/do well in/be afraid of/be terrified of/be interested in/thanks for/be good at/be proud of/instead of/be fond of to 是介词的情况 admit to;be/ get /become used to ;be equal to;devote …to ,get down to , stick to , look forward to , object to , lead to , be accustomed to ;hold on to; prefer…to…;pay attention to;look forward to/make a contribution to 注意: 1）有些动词既可用动名词作直接宾语，也可以用不定式作直接宾语，两者有着截然不同的意义。 ①like，love，prefer，hate......等表示喜爱、厌恶、偏好的情感动词，后跟不定式表示“仅一时的爱憎情感或指特定或 具体某次行为”；后跟动名词表示“抽象性的一种倾向、爱好或习惯性的动作” ② try to do -------try doing regret to do------regret doing stop to do---------- stop doing can’t help to do-------can’t help doing mean to do--------- mean doing forget to do--------- forget doing remember to do---- remember doing go on to do(接着做另一事) ----go on doing(继续做同一事) 2）有些动词既可用动名词作直接宾语， 也可以用不定式作直接宾语， 两者意义相近 begin(开始)， start(开始)， continue(继 续)。 3）动词 need, want, require,以及 be worth 之后动名词的主动语态含有被动的意思，相当于不定式的被动语态。 My hair needs cutting. My hair needs to be cut. want doing ------- want to be done need doing ------ need to be done require doing ------ require to be done deserve doing ------- deserve to be done 现在分词 1．现在分词作后置定语(表示动作正在发生，与被修饰词是主谓关系) Look at this group of people playing beach volleyball! There must be something visiting the homes in our neighborhood. 2．现在分词作表语 My hobby is collecting old coins.（与现在进行时的区别是：现在分词作表语可以与主语对调，而现在进行时不可以） 3.★ 现在分词作宾补 see，hear，watch，notice，observe，listen to，look at I saw they playing football on the playground yesterday. 4. 现在分词作状语(弱化讲解,程度不好的班级可以不讲) 过去分词 1．☆过去分词作定语(与其修饰词之间是动宾关系且过去分词表示的动作已经完成含有被动意义) David Smith of North London has a pot-bellied pig named Connie. 2．★被动语态由 be +动词过去分词构成 When was it invented?
3．★ 过去完成时由 had+动词过去分词构成 By the time I got outside, the bus had already left 四．中考非谓语动词常考考点 1. it 作形式主语、宾语的用法 2．感官动词后不定式作宾语补足语和动词 ing 形式作宾语补足语的用法； 3．动词不定式与疑问代词和疑问副词的连用 4．一些特殊动词的动词不定式作宾语补足语时不带 to，但变为被动语态时就要带 to； 5．有些动词既可接不定式也可接动词 ing 形式作宾语，但表达的意思不同。 6. 固定搭配 五．练习 1、Lily likes _____ the clothes of light colour.(甘肃) A to put on B. putting C. to dressD. wearing 2、 It’s too late. Why _____ now?(新疆) A. not to goB. not goingC. not goD. don’t go 3、 Please don’t forget _____ to me, will you?(重庆) A. to writeB. writingC. write 4、 When I’m tired, I enjoy _____ music.(云南) A. listeningB. listening toC. to hearD. hearing the 5、I heard Mother _____ with Father in the next room at ten last night. (重庆) A. talkB. talkingC. to talkD. is talking 6、The Great Green Wall will stop the wind from _____ the earth away. (辽宁) A. blowB. to blowC. blowingD. Blew 7.Many people think it's very important _________ us _______ learn English well. [贵阳] A. for, to B. to, to C. with, for 8.Betty is often seen _______the old man with his housework.[咸宁] A. help B. to help C. helped D. helps 9. --Linda, I am very thirsty. --Let's go to the nearest supermarket_______ some drinks, OK? [重庆] A. buy B. bought C. to buy D. buying 10. –Did the teacher tell you _____ this afternoon?(河北) -Yes. We’ll go to visit the Science Museum. A. to go whereB. how to do C. what to doD. to do what 11. We are not sure _____.(广东) A. when to leaveB. when leaveC. when leaves 12. Meimei went _____ Kate with her Chinese.(天津) A. helpB. to helpC. helped D. helping 13. _____ is bad for our health.(河南) A. Doing eye exercisesB. Go to bed early C. Eating too muchD. Taking a walk 14. Wu Dong is good at _____ English.(吉林) A. speakB. speaksC. speakingD. spoke 15. The old woman was _____ tired _____ go any farther.(四川) A. too; toB. go; asC. very; to
16.It’s important the piano well.(徐州） A. Of him to play B. for him to play C. of him playing D.for him playing 17.Would you please tell me ___ next? -Think it over. You’ll find a good way .(沈阳） A、When to do B. how to do C.what to do D.where to do 用动词的适当形式填空： 1. The best time __________ (plant) trees is in spring. 2. Satellites are used for ________ (learn) more about the earth. 3. He finishes __________ (wash) at eight o’clock in the evening. 4. You’ve worked for 4 hours. Please stop _______ (have) a rest. 5. She often makes us _______(do) a lot of homework after school. 6. Mother always tell me __________ (not read) in bed. 7. They asked the headmaster _________(speak) at the meeting. 8. __________ (smoke) too much is bad for your health. 9. the baby was made __________ (laugh) by Tom. 10. Thank you for __________ (come) to see me. 11. What do you want___________(be) when you grow up? 12. He told the boys_________(not play) soccer on the road. 13. Tony asked his grandpa______(give) him a toy car for his birthday. 14. He decided____(make) decisions by himself from now on. 15. The workers plan_________(build) the bridge in two years. 16. I am really sorry______________________(hear) that. 17. Would you like something__________________(drink)? 18. We’re looking for somewhere____________(have fun). 19. I have no idea which way ______________(choose)? 20. I don’t know what_____(say) and how_______(do).