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CFD Applications of PHOENICS on Building Environment and Fire Safety Design


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CFD Applications of PHOENICS on Building Environment and Fire Safety Design
Qian Wang, PhD, CFD Specialist Kenneth Ma, Senior Associate Micael Lundqvist, Senior Fire Enginee

r
Ove Arup Pty Ltd Level 10, 201 Kent Street, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia

2 Abstract ARUP has been using PHOENICS for many years to deal with various CFD modellings in building thermal comfort design, indoor environment, fire safety control, design, environment, control, etc. and has gained good results recognised by the clients. This paper summarises some selected CFD studies of normal & emergency ventilation controls. Software PHEONICS PC version 3.3 & 3.4 Computers COMPAQ WorkStation Pentium 3/800MHz & Pentium 4/1.6GHz

INTRRODUCTION

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Project Type Urban underground railway station with connecting tunnel to the ground level, heavily occupied with diesel trains

CFD Objectives 1. Platform: thermal comfort & air quality . 2. Tunnel: smoke ventilation control during emergency fire in the connecting tunnel.

Description of Project

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Diagram

Description of Project

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CFD Tasks & Outcomes ? To provide all detailed information to support the final design of mechanical ventilation system. ? Temperature, air velocity, concentration of pollutant gases (CO, CO2, NO, etc) in winter & summer seasons.

Station Normal Ventilation

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CFD Domain

Station Normal Ventilation

CFD Input Conditions

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Main Settings
Total cells Turbulance model Differencing scheme Global convergence criterion Reference temperature Boundary effect on turbulence Coefficient for auto wall functions Total number of iteration Domain material density viscosity specific heat conductivity

Descriptions
X=73, Y=138, Z=36 Standard K-e (KEMODL) HYBRID 0.01% 15 C in winter, 27 C in summer Off LOG-LAW 2000 40 dummy fluid (self-edited) 1.18 1.83E-05 1005 0.026
o o

Station Normal Ventilation

Velocity Vector

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Station Normal Ventilation - winter

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Station Normal Ventilation - winter

Velocity Vectors

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Station Normal Ventilation - summer

Velocity Vectors

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Station Normal Ventilation - summer

Summary
Winter ? ?

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Allowable concentration of CO (25ppm) is acceptable. Gas fume is accumulating near ceiling.

Summer ? ? ? ? Well mixed fluid domain. Containment materials may be driven towards the platforms . Hot layer within T > 30C is broader and thicker, may 30°C is broader and thicker, ° result in discomfort to the passengers. The 0.082% CO level (25ppm) is quite close to the platforms – greater ventilation capacity is required.

Station Normal Ventilation

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CFD Tasks & Outcomes ? To evaluate the smoke control policy during emergency fires in the sloped tunnel (450m x 8.9m x 6m). 6m). ? Transient air velocities, temperatures and smoke concentrations. ? Behaviours of backlayering of smoke towards station platform.

Tunnel Fire Smoke Control

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Jet fans (JF1~JF3) Jet fans (JF4~JF5) Exhaust shafts Train size Fire size Fire source region ?710, L=3290 ?1120, L=3500 6m 6m Capacity: 180m 3/s (5m/s) each 20m(L) 2.5m(W) 3.8m(H) 6(Cars) , L=120m Time-dependent fire heat release rate within maximum value up to 40MW in which 40MW 65%=26MW contributes to the thermal fume Increases along with the heat release rate of fire based on 1.5MW/m 2

6m
10.19 8.7

6m Exhaust Shaft

12.0

12.88

11.4

6m 6m Exhaust Shaft

8.9m

Pritomart Place

8.9
110 180

X
40

Tinley Street

Y

320

390

Station side

Exhaust Fan F 1

Jet Fan
JF 1 JF 2 JF 3

Exhaust Fan F 2

JF 4

JF 5

6m
11.32

Portal
5.32

6.0

0.0

0.0

2.0 1.43%

2%

Train on fire
71 Fire centre

-11

0

20

40

80

120

260

426m

Tunnel Fire Smoke Control

15 Train Fire in Entry Tunnel
Ventilation Shaft Entrance of Ground Level

8.9m

6m

Jet Fan

Fire Source

Ventilation Shaft

Train

Fire

Connection to Station

Tunnel Fire Smoke Control

Fire Safety Design Criteria
?T < 200°C if hot layer is above 1.5m from floor level. 200° ?T <60°C if hot layer is below 1.5m and/or the visibility not be <60° less than 6m (ie the optical density should not exceed 0.14m-1).
Fire Scenario

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Description
'worst credible' fire breaking out inside a train that is stopping in the tunnel between the two vent shafts. Assumed to be an exponentially ‘fast’ growing fire with the maximum fire size 15MW, as a fully developed carriage fire. 'worst credible‘ scenario for a fire outside a stopped train between the two vent shafts and is leaking diesel. The fire is assumed to be a ‘fast’ (0.047kW/s?) growing fire, which is suppressed upon activation of the foam suppression system at track level. This fire scenario is a sensitivity analysis of the diesel fire outside the carriage (Scenario 2) in the event of failure of the foam suppression system. The fire therefore continuos to grow to its maximum size 40MW, involving both the diesel and a carriage.

1Carriage Fire 2Suppressed Diesel Fire
3Unsuppres sed Diesel Fire

Tunnel Fire Smoke Control

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40

Q [MW]

Q = 7.81× 10 t

?7 2

d

Fire starts All jet fans stop
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Scenario 1-- abc Scenario 2-- abe Scenario 3-- abcd

F1 operates: 180m3/s c

4.22 0

b a
0 3 4 5

e
6 10

t [min]

15.5

Tunnel Fire Smoke Control

Temperature

Concentration

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Tunnel Fire Smoke Control - Scenario 1

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Temperature Backlayering Distance
Backlayering distance from Fire source [m]
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Concentration

Time after fire ignation [min]

Tunnel Fire Smoke Control - Scenario 3

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Double click the image to play !

Tunnel Fire Smoke Control

Summary

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It is proved that the design smoke control/ventilation system during different fires will be able to provide a reasonable fire safety condition according to the calculated internal temperature, CO concentration levels.

Conclusions of PHOENICS
PHOENICS applications on building internal air quality control and emergency fire smoke control strategy have been carried out. Very detailed thermal and fluid behaviours of internal air have been analysed, which either identified the efficiency of the ventilation systems or provided the optimisation to the design features. All these results prove that PHOENICS can deal with very broad fluid dynamic modelling, and is the most cost effective tool in professional engineering consultant services.

Tunnel Fire Smoke Control


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