一、连系动词类 连系动词按其所表示的意义可分为以下四种： 1、变化类 表事物发展变化的过程，如 become, go, turn, grow, get, fall 等。 2．感觉类 表人体部位的感受，如 feel, smell, taste, look, sound
等。 3．状态类 表事物所处的状态，如 be, keep, come, remain, stand, lie, stay,等 prove。 4．外表特征类 表外表给人的印象，如 appear, seem, look 等。 注意：连系动词后接形容词或名词作表语。 除了少数几个 （如 feel, get, become, grow 等） 外， 不用于进行时态和被动结构。例如： The mixture is tasted terrible（误） / The mixture tastes terrible（正） It was getting darker and darker, besides, a cold rain began to fall. （正） 【高考例题】 （1） The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain____as the plane was making a landing. A．seat B．seating C．seated D．to be seating （2） On hearing the news of the accident in the coal mine, she_____ pale. A．got B．changed C．went D．appeared （3）I love to go to the seaside in summer. It_____ good to lie in the sun or swim in the cool sea. A．does B．feels C．gets D．makes 二、感官动词类 常考的感官动词有 see, watch, notice, observe, hear, find, catch 等。感官动词后接非谓语动 词（to do, doing, done）的不同形式作宾语补足语，表达不同的含义。 1、后接不带 to 的不定式表示一个发生过或者还没发生的具体的动作。 I often heard the song sung. But I have never heard you sing it. 2、后接 v-ing 形式表示正在进行的动作。 Seeing the sun rising above the surface of the sea, we let out a shout of joy. Hearing this, I felt my heart beating fast. 3、后接 v-ed 形式表示被动意义。 After his return twenty years later, he found his hometown greatly changed. Although I had learnt some English, I had never heard a word of it spoken. 【高考例题】 （1）The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ____ the next year. A．carry out B．carrying out C．carried out D．to carry out （2）A cook will be immediately fired if he is found____ in the kitchen. A．smoke B．smoking C．to smoke D．smoked （3）The missing boys were last seen _____ near the river. A．playing B．to be playing C．play D．to play （4）He looked around and caught a man _____ his hand into the pocket of a passenger.
A．put B．to be putting C．to put D．putting 三、使役动词类 表“致使”意义的动词称之为使役动词，如 make, let, have, keep, leave, set, send 等。使 役动词后接非谓语动词的不同形式作宾语补足语，表达不同的含义。分为以下三种情况。 1、make, let, have 等后接不带 to 的不定式，表“使/让某人/某物做某事” 。 Don’t make him do it if he doesn’t want to . If you have any problems, just let me know. 注意；make, let 在被动结构中不定式须带 to ,但是 have 不用于被动结构中。 Farmers were made to work all day and all night in those days, but they still had little money. 2、have, keep, leave, send, set, get 等后接 v-ing 形式，表持续性动作。 I’m sorry to keep you waiting for so long./ Father had his son standing outside for 2 hours 3、have, keep, leave 等后接 v-ed 形式，表被动含义。 He didn’t keep on asking me the time until he had had his watch repaired. I’ll keep you informed as soon as I have the news. 【高考例题】 （1）Don’t leave the water _____ while you brush your teeth. A． run B．running C．being run D．to run （2） If anyone happens to drop in while I’m out , _____ him or her leave a message. A．have B．get C．ask D．tell （3）As you have never been there before , I’ll have someone ____ you the way. A．show B．to show C．showing D．showed 四、含情感色彩的动词 这类动词有 excite, inspire, encourage, interest, satisfy, delight, please, move, frighten, surprise, amaze, astonish, shock, worry, astonish, disappoint, discourage, puzzle, tire 等。情感动 词后接指人的名词或代词作宾语，有 v-ing 和 v-ed 两种形式，在句中作宾语和表语，v-ing 形式指事物，v-ed 形式则指人。 The story was so moving that everyone present was moved to tears. What disappointing result! We were all disappointed with it. Climbing a hill was tiring and we were tired when we reached the summit. 【高考例题】 （1）Nick is looking for another job because he feels that nothing he does ____his boss. A．serves B．satisfies C．promises D．supports （2）──I’m very _______with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. ──Mum, it does have a _______smell A．pleasant; pleased B．pleased; pleased C．pleasant; pleasant D．pleased; pleasant （3）It is believed that if a book is ______, it will surely ______the reader. A．interested; interest B．interesting; be interested C．interested; be interesting D．interesting; interest （4）After his journey from abroad , Richard Jones returned home , _____. A．being exhausted B．exhausted C．exhausting D．having exhausted 五、后接不定式动词类
afford, agree, choose, determine, expect, decide, learn, offer, manage, hope, want, wish, promise, refuse, fail, pretend, happen 等动词，后跟不定式作宾语。 例如：Thank you for offering to help, but I can manage myself. He learned to ride a bicycle when he was a small boy. （1） don’t know whether you happen _____. But I’m going to study in the U.S.A. this September. I A．to be heard B．to be hearing C．to hear D．to have heard （2）She pretended_____ me when I passed by. A．not to see B．not seeing C．to not see D．having not seen （3）Do let your mother know all the truth. She appears ______ everything. A．to tell B．to be told C．to be telling D．to have been told （4） I don’t want _____ like I’m speaking ill of anybody. But the manager’s plan is unfair. A．to sound B．to be sounded C．sounding D．to have sounded 六、后接 v-ing（doing）形式动词类 该类动词常考的 appreciate, avoid, bear, delay, enjoy, escape, finish, imagine, keep, mind, miss, practice, resist, risk, stand, suggest 等。这些动词须接 v-ing（doing）形式作宾语。例如： I don't mind waiting, but I’ve to stand in the cold wind. Only by practicing speaking English every day can you expect to improve your spoken English . 【高考例题】 （1）I would appreciate______ back this afternoon. A．you to call B．you call C．your calling D．you’re calling （2）While shopping, people sometimes can’t help _____ into buying something they don’t really need. A． persuade to B． persuading C． being persuaded D． persuaded be （3）He has always insisted on his ______ Dr. Turner instead of Mr. Turner. A ．been called B．called C．being called D．having called 七、后接不定式(to do)与 v-ing(doing)形式意义不同动词类 Remember, try, regret, mean forget, stop, go on, can’t help 等后接不定式与 v-ing 形式作宾语， 表达含义不同。见下表： 动词 remember forget regret mean can’t help go on try stop 接动名词(doing)作宾语 动作已经发生 忘记以前曾做过某事 对做过的事表示后悔 意味着做某事 禁不住做某事 继续做未完成的事情 试试做某事 停止正在做的事情 接不定式(to do)作宾语 动作尚未发生 动作尚未发生 对要做的事表示遗憾 企图（打算）做某事 不能帮助做某事 做完一件事后，接着做另一件事 努力做某事 停止正在做的事，去做别的事
例如： I remember being paid, but I’ve forgotten the exact amount. Please remember to send me a photo of your son the next time you write to me. I don’t really mean to work here, which means leaving the job soon afterwards.
【高考例题】 （1）She can’t help _____ the house because she’s busy making a cake. A . clean B. cleaned C. cleaning D. being cleaned （2）In some parts of London, if you miss the bus, that means _____ for another hour. A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. to be waiting （3）She reached the top of the hill and stopped______ on a big rock by the side of the path. A. resting B. to have rested C. rested D. to rest 八、进行时态表将来意义动词类 这类动词为表位置移动或方向性动词，如 go, come, start, arrive, take, leave, move 等。例如： When are you going off for Shanghai? Mary as well as her parents is leaving for California next month. 【高考例题】 （1）I’ve won a holiday for two to Florida. I _____ my mum. A. am taking B. have taken C．take D．will have taken （2）──What were you doing when he came to see you? ──I had just put on my overcoat and _____ to visit a friend. A. leaving B. was left C. left D. was leaving （3）──What were you doing when Tony phoned you ? ──I had just finished my work and ____ to take a shower. A . had started B．started C．have started D．was starting. 九、主动表被动动词类 1.英语有些动词可用其主动形式表达被动含义，可分为以下三情况： 某些实义动词的主动形式后跟副词表示被动意义，这类动词有 sell, wash, write, last, read, wear 等。这种“动词+副词”结构，常表示事物内部特有的属性。 This kind of cloth washes well and lasts long. The pen my father gave me as a birthday gift writes smoothly. Written in simple English, this article reads easily. 2、某些及物动词转为不及物动词后，其主动形式表示被动意义，如 open（打开，营业） ， close（关门）, shut（关闭）, cut（切割）, weigh（重）, act（上演）等。例如： This door won’t shut. This shop opens much earlier than it used to. Each stone weighs 2 tons. 3、某些不及物动词，如 happen, occur, cost 以及短语，如 come out（出版） ，come up（出现） ， come into being（产生）, come to one’s mind（想起）, turn out（证明是）, come about（发生）, break out（爆发）, belong to（属于）等，它们常用主动形式表被动含义。例如： The first textbooks written for teaching English came out in the 18th century. Suddenly an idea came to his mind. It never occurred to me to phone you. 【高考试题】 （1）The evening news comes on at seven o’clock and_____ only thirty minutes. A、keeps B、continues C、finishes D、lasts
（2）——Mummy, can I put the peaches in the cupboard? ——No, dear. They don’t______ well. Put them in the fridge instead. A、keep B、fit C、get D、last （3）Books of this kind ______well. A、sell B、sells C、are sold D、is sold 十、省略替代类 believe, think, suppose, guess, hope, expect, imagine, would like(love), be afraid 等动词用于 简略回答中，后接 so 来替代肯定分句，用 not 来替代否定分句。或接 to 来替代前面内容相 同的不定式，表示看法、意见、设想、打算等。例如： —Do you think Norman would have lent me his car if I had asked him to ? —Yes , I think so. —Will you be able to come to my birthday party? —I’d love to, but I’m too busy. 注意：believe, think, suppose, guess 等用于否定回答时，既可以说 I believe(think, suppose guess)not,也可以说 I don’t believe(think, suppose guess)so , 但用 hope, expect, be afraid 作否定 回答时，只能说 I hope(expect) not 以及 I’m afraid not. 【高考试题】 （1）---I believe we’ve met somewhere before. -----No, _______. A. it isn’t the same B. it can’t be true C. I don’t think so D. I’d rather not (2) -----The boys are not doing a good job at all, are they? ------_______. A. I guess not so B. I don’t guess C. I don’t guess it D. I guess not (3)-----Do you think it’s going to rain over the weekend? ------______. A. I don’t believe B. I don’t believe it C. I believe not so D. I believe not 十一、否定转移类 think, believe, guess, suppose, imagine, expect 等动词后接 that 引导的宾语从句时，从句若 为否定结构，常将否定词 not 前移主句中。 I don’t think it is possible to learn a foreign language well without much memory work. He doesn’t think Tom will make an excellent player. 当该结构的主句主语为第一人称时，变为反意疑问句，后半句的主语和谓语简略形式与 从句保持一致，否则与主句保持一致。例如： I don’t think there is anything else I need, is there? He doesn’t believe she will be able to solve the problems by herself, does he? 【高考试题】 （1）I don’t suppose anyone will volunteer, _______? A. do I B. don’t I C. will they D. won’t they (2) Mrs. Black doesn’t believe her son is able to design a digital camera, ______? A. is he B. isn’t he C. doesn’t she D. does she 十二、带介词 to 的动词短语类 这类短语有：be(get) used to, lead to, devote...to, look forward to, stick to, object to, get down to, there is no end to 等。当它们后面出现动词时，要用 v-ing 形式。例如： I’ve got used to driving in all kinds of weather. As soon as she returned home from abroad, she got down to preparing supper for children. There is no end to learning
注意区分介词 to 与不定式符号 to. He used to drive on the right and now he is used to driving on the left. (used to 表“过去常常” ，to 为不定式符号，be used to 表“习惯于” ，to 为介词。) I’m looking forward to seeing you soon. (look forward to 意思是“盼望，期待” ，to 为介词。) He looked forward to see what was happening. (look forward to 意为“向前看” ，to see 是不定式作目的状语。) 【高考试题】 （1）Mr. Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to _______ some schools for poor children. A. set up B. setting up C. have set up D. having set up (2) The discovery of new evidence led to ______. A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught (3) She looks forward every spring to ______ the flower lined garden. A. visit B. paying a visit C. walking D. walking in 十三、 瞬间（非延续性）动词类 这类动词常考的有：go, come, leave, start, return, begin, arrive, stop, finish, borrow, lend, open, close, die, become, break, join, marry, employ, graduate 等。瞬间（非延续性动词）表短暂 性的动作，因此不可与表“一段时间”的 for/since 短语或 since 从句连用。 例如：He has come here for three years. (误) He has been here for three years.（正） She has married for ten years（误） She has been married for ten years（正） 【高考试题】 (1) It’s ten years since the scientist____ on his life’s work of discovering the valuable chemical. A、made for B、set out C、took off D、turned up (2) My uncle_______ until he was forty five. A、married B、didn’t marry C、was not marrying D、would marry. (3） ---_____David and Vicky _____married? --- For about three years. A、How long were; being B、How long have; got C、How long have; been D、How long did; get (4)、--- How long______ at this job? --- Since 1990 A、were you employed B、have you been employed C、had you been employed D、will you be employed 十四、计划未能实现动词类 intend, mean, hope, wish, plan, expect, think, want, suppose 等动词用于过去时态， 可表示过 去未能实现的愿望、想法、打算等。 1、该类动词可用过去完成时后接不定式或宾语从句。 I had never thought you would bring me such a nice gift. I had planned to call on you, but I was too busy to get away. 2、该类动词还可用一般过去时后接不定式的完成式（to have done）或一般式(to do)。 I’d like to have arrived on time, but I was caught on the traffic jam. 【高考试题】 （1）---You should have thanked her before you left.
---I meant_____, but when I was leaving I couldn’t find her anywhere. A、to do B、to C、doing D、doing so （2）---Why haven’t you bought any butter? ---I______ to but I forgot about it . A、liked B、wished C、meant D、expected （3） I would love_____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A、to go B、to have gone C、going D、having gone
(1)动词＋介词 常见的有 look for, look after, ask for, laugh at, hear of 等。这类短语动词的宾语只 能放在介词后。如： Don’t laugh at others. / Tom asked his parents for a bike. (2)动词＋副词 常见的有 give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in,等。 这类短语动词的宾语如 果是名词，既可放在副词前边，又可放在副词后边；宾语如果是人称代词或反身代 词，则要放在副词前边。如： You’ll hand in your homework tomorrow. Please don’t forget to hand it in. (3)动词＋副词＋介词 常见的有 go on with, catch up with, put up with 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介 词后边。如：Go on and I’ll catch up with you in five minutes. After a short rest, he went on with his research work. (4)动词＋名词＋介词 常见的有 take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。 这类短语动词 的宾语只能放在介词后边。如： You should pay attention to your handwriting. We should make full use of our time. (5)动词＋形容词 常见的有 leave open, set free, cut open 等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词，则 宾语可放在形容词的前边，也可放在后边；宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词，则必 须放在形容词前边。如： The prisoners were set free. He cut it open./ please the window open (6)动词＋名词 常见的有 take place, make friends 等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。如： This story took place three years ago. I make friends with a lot of people. 2. 常见短语动词的辨析 (1)be made in（在……生产或制造） ，be made of(由……组成或构成) (2)come down(下来;落)， come along(来； 随同)， come to oneself(苏醒)， come true(实现)， come out(花开；发芽；出现；出来)，come over（过来；顺便来访） ，come in(进来)，
come on(来吧；跟着来；赶快), come up with(提出) (3)do one’s best(尽最大努力), do well in(在……干得好), do some reading(阅读) (4)fall asleep(入睡)，fall behind(落在…..后面)，fall off(从……掉下)，fall down(跌倒) (5)get down(下来；落下)，get on(上车)，get to(到达)，get back(回来；取回)，get off(下 来)，get on well with(与……相处融洽)，get married(结婚)，get together(相聚) (6)give up(放弃)，give…a hand(给与……帮助)，give a concert(开音乐会) (7)go back(回去)，go on(继续)，go home(回家)，go to bed(睡觉)，go over(过一遍；仔细 检查)，go out(外出；到外面)，go wrong(走错路)，go on doing(继续做某事)，go shopping(买东西)，go boating(去划船), go fishing(去钓鱼)，go hiking(去徒步旅行)， go skating(去滑冰) (8)have a look(看一看), have a seat（坐下）, have supper（吃晚餐）, have a rest（休息）, have sports（进行体育活动）, have a cold（感冒）, have a cough（咳嗽）, have a good time（过得愉快）, have a headache（头痛） ，have a try(尝试) (9)look for(寻找)，look out(留神; 注意)，look over(仔细检查)，look up(向上看)， look after(照顾; 照看)，look like(看起来像)，look the same(看起来像)， (10)make friends(交朋友)，make phone calls(打电话)，make money(赚钱)， make the bed(整理床铺)，make a noise(吵闹)，make a face(做鬼脸)，make one’s way to(往……走去)， make room for(给……腾出地方)， make a decision(做出决定)， make a mistake(犯错误)，make up one’s mind(下决心) (11) put on(上演；穿上；戴上)，put up(挂起；举起)，put down(把某物放来)， put away(把某物收起来), put off(推迟) (12) take off(脱掉衣服)，take photos(照相)，take time(花费时间)，take out(拿出)， take a seat(坐下)，take an active part in(积极参加)， take exercise(做运动)， take one’s place(坐某人的位置；代替某人的职务)， take turn(轮流) (13)talk about(谈话；交谈)，talk with(和……交谈) (14)turn on(打开电灯，收音机，煤气，自来水等)，turn off(关上电灯，煤气，自来水等)， turn down(关小；调低)，turn…over(把…..翻过来) (15)think of(认为；想起)，think about(考虑) ◆精编题训练◆ 1. To our surprise the stranger _____ to be an old friend of my mother’s. A. turned out B. turned up C. set out D. set up 2. All the girls swam in the lake except two，who _____ halfway. A. gave off B. gave up C. gave away D. gave out 3. If the new arrangement doesn’t _____， we’ll go back to the old one. A. work over B. work out C. work up D. work in 4. ---“Have great changes taken place in your village？” ---“Yes， A new school was ______ in the village last year.” A. held up B. set up C. sent up D. brought up 5. I had to ______ because someone else wanted to use the phone. A. give up B. put up C. hang up D. ring up
6. Elephants would ______ if men were allowed to shoot as many as they wished. A. die down B. die out C. die away D. die off 7. My study of biology has ____ much of my spare time，but it has given me a great deal of enjoyment. A. taken off B. taken down C. taken up D. taken away 8. The plan ___ just because people were unwilling to co-operate（合作） 。 A. broke down B. pulled down C. turned down D. put down 9. The government has ___ the parents to work with teachers in the education of their children. A. asked for B. called for C. looked for D. paid for 10. John has put on so much weight recently that his mother has to _______ all his trousers to his measure. A. let out B. give away C. bring in D. make up 11. I can ______ some noise while I’m studying， but I can’t stand very loud noise. A. put up with B. get rid of C. have effect on D. keep away from 12. The mother often tells her son to be a good boy， warning him to ______ trouble. A. hold back from B. keep out of C. break away from D. get rid of 13. To my surprise， the manager ______ 30 dollars from my salary without any good reason. A. cut off B. held up C. brought down D. kept back 14. Steven has a lot of work to _____ in the office since he has been away for quite a few days. A. take up B. make up C. work out D. carry out 15. Although Jane agrees with me on most points， there was one on which she was unwilling to __________. A. give out B. give in C. give away D. give off Answers：1-5ABBBC 6-10 BCABA 11-15 ABDBB