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IEC60950-1(2005-电气绝缘)


60950-1 ? IEC:2005 2.8.7.4 Electric strength test

– 177 –

Except for reed switches in ELV CIRCUITS , SELV CIRCUITS and TNV - 1 CIRCUITS , an electric strength test as sp

ecified in 5.2.2, is applied between the contacts after the tests of 2.8.7.2 and 2.8.7.3. If the contact is in a PRIMARY CIRCUIT , the test voltage is as specified for REINFORCED INSULATION . If the contact is in a circuit other than a PRIMARY CIRCUIT , the test voltage is as specified for BASIC INSULATION in a PRIMARY CIRCUIT . 2.8.8 Mechanical actuators

Where the actuating part in a mechanical SAFETY INTERLOCK system is relied upon for safety, precautions shall be taken to ensure that it is not overstressed. If this requirement is not covered by the design of the component, the over-travel beyond the operating position of the actuator shall be limited to 50 % of the maximum, for example, by its mounting or location, or by adjustment. Compliance is checked by inspection and measurement. 2.9 2.9.1 Electrical insulation Properties of insulating materials

The choice and application of insulating materials shall take into account the needs for electrical, thermal and mechanical strength, frequency of the WORKING VOLTAGE and the working environment (temperature, pressure, humidity and pollution). Natural rubber, hygroscopic materials and materials containing asbestos shall not be used as insulation. Driving belts and couplings shall not be relied upon to ensure electrical insulation, unless the belt or coupling is of a special design that removes the risk of inappropriate replacement. Compliance is checked by inspection and, where necessary, by evaluation of the data for the material. Where necessary, if the data does not confirm that the material is non-hygroscopic, the hygroscopic nature of the material is determined by subjecting the component or subassembly employing the insulation in question to the humidity treatment of 2.9.2. The insulation is then subjected to the relevant electric strength test of 5.2.2 while still in the humidity cabinet, or in the room in which the samples were brought to the prescribed temperature. 2.9.2 Humidity conditioning

Where required by 2.9.1, 2.10.8.3, 2.10.10 or 2.10.11, humidity conditioning is conducted for 48 h in a cabinet or room containing air with a relative humidity of 91 % to 95 %. The temperature of the air, at all places where samples can be located, is maintained within 1 °C of any convenient value t between 20 °C and 30 °C such that condensation does not occur. During this conditioning the component or subassembly is not energized. With the concurrence of the manufacturer, it is permitted to increase the 48 h time duration. Before the humidity conditioning the sample is brought to a temperature between t and t + 4 °C.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005 2.9.3 Grade of insulation

– 179 –

Insulation shall be considered to be FUNCTIONAL INSULATION , INSULATION , REINFORCED INSULATION or DOUBLE INSULATION .

BASIC INSULATION , SUPPLEMENTARY

The application of insulation in many common situations is described in Table 2H and illustrated in Figure 2H, but other situations and solutions are possible. These examples are informative; in some cases the necessary grade of insulation may be higher or lower. Where a different grade may be necessary, or if a particular configuration of energized parts is not represented in the examples, the necessary grade of insulation should be determined by considering the effect of a single fault (see 1.4.14). This should leave the requirements for protection against electric shock intact. In certain cases, insulation may be bridged by a conductive path (for example, where 1.5.6, 1.5.7, 2.2.4, 2.3.4 or 2.4.3 applies) provided that the level of safety is maintained. For DOUBLE INSULATION it is permitted to interchange the BASIC INSULATION and SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION elements. Where DOUBLE INSULATION is used, ELV CIRCUITS or unearthed conductive parts are permitted between the BASIC INSULATION and the SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION provided that the overall level of insulation is maintained. A ? ?
BOUNDING SURFACE

is treated as an unearthed
ENCLOSURE ;

SELV CIRCUIT

if it is part of either:

an unearthed conductive a non-conductive

or

ENCLOSURE .

Compliance is checked by inspection.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 181 – Table 2H – Examples of application of insulation

Grade of insulation
FUNCTIONAL a

Location of insulation between unearthed SELV CIRCUIT or double-insulated conductive part – – – – – and earthed conductive part double-insulated conductive part unearthed SELV CIRCUIT earthed SELV CIRCUIT earthed TNV - 1 CIRCUIT

Key to Figure 2H F1 F2 F2 F1 F10 F11 F11 F12 F13 F3 F3 F4 F4 F5 F7 F8 F9 F6

f

earthed SELV CIRCUIT

or basicinsulated conductive part
ELV CIRCUIT

earthed HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE SECONDARY CIRCUIT
TNV - 1 CIRCUIT TNV - 2 CIRCUIT TNV - 3 CIRCUIT

– earthed SELV CIRCUIT – earthed conductive part – unearthed TNV - 1 CIRCUIT – earthed TNV - 1 CIRCUIT – earthed conductive part – earthed SELV CIRCUIT – basic-insulated conductive part – ELV CIRCUIT earthed HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE
SECONDARY CIRCUIT TNV - 1 CIRCUIT TNV - 2 CIRCUIT TNV - 3 CIRCUIT

f f

series-parallel sections of a transformer winding
BASIC PRIMARY CIRCUIT

– – – – –

earthed or unearthed HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE
SECONDARY CIRCUIT

earthed conductive part earthed SELV CIRCUIT basic-insulated conductive part
ELV CIRCUIT

B1 B2 B2 B3 B3 B4 B5 B5 B6 B6 B7 f B8 d B9 d e B10 d B11 d e B12 d B13 d B14 f B12 B13 d S1 b S1 b S2 d S2
e e f

earthed or unearthed
HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE SECONDARY CIRCUIT

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

unearthed HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE SECONDARY
CIRCUIT

earthed conductive part earthed SELV CIRCUIT basic-insulated conductive part
ELV CIRCUIT

unearthed SELV CIRCUIT or double-insulated conductive part earthed SELV CIRCUIT
TNV - 2 CIRCUIT

unearthed TNV - 1 CIRCUIT TNV - 2 CIRCUIT TNV - 3 CIRCUIT TNV - 2 CIRCUIT TNV - 3 CIRCUIT unearthed TNV - 1 CIRCUIT earthed TNV - 1 CIRCUIT TNV - 3 CIRCUIT unearthed TNV - 1 CIRCUIT earthed TNV - 1 CIRCUIT double-insulated conductive part unearthed SELV CIRCUIT basic-insulated conductive part
ELV CIRCUIT

TNV - 3 CIRCUIT SUPPLEMENTARY

basic-insulated conductive part or ELV CIRCUIT
TNV CIRCUIT

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 183 – Table 2H (concluded)

Grade of insulation
SUPPLEMENTARY or REINFORCED

Location of insulation between unearthed HAZARDOUS
VOLTAGE SECONDARY CIRCUIT

and – – – – – – – – – double-insulated conductive part unearthed SELV CIRCUIT
TNV CIRCUIT

Key to Figure 2H S/R1 S/R1 S/R2 R1 R1 R2 R3 R3 R4
c c c

REINFORCED

PRIMARY CIRCUIT

double-insulated conductive part unearthed SELV CIRCUIT
TNV CIRCUIT

earthed HAZARDOUS
VOLTAGE SECONDARY CIRCUIT

double-insulated conductive part unearthed SELV CIRCUIT
TNV CIRCUIT

The term "conductive part" refers to an electrically conductive part that is – – not normally energized, and not connected to any of the following: ? ? ? ? ? a circuit at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE , or an ELV CIRCUIT , or a TNV CIRCUIT , or an SELV CIRCUIT , or a LIMITED CURRENT CIRCUIT .

Examples of such a conductive part are the BODY of equipment, a transformer core, and in some cases a conductive screen in a transformer. If such a conductive part is protected from a part at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE by: – – –
DOUBLE INSULATION BASIC INSULATION BASIC INSULATION

or REINFORCED INSULATION , it is termed a "double-insulated conductive part";

plus protective earthing, it is termed an "earthed conductive part"; but is not earthed, that is it has no second level of protection, it is termed a "basic-insulated

conductive part". A circuit or conductive part is termed "earthed" if it is connected to a protective earthing terminal or contact in such a way as to meet the requirements in 2.6 (although it will not necessarily be at earth potential). Otherwise the circuit or conductive part is termed "unearthed".
a b

For requirements for FUNCTIONAL INSULATION , see 5.3.4. The WORKING VOLTAGE of the SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION between an ELV CIRCUIT or a basic-insulated conductive part and an unearthed accessible conductive part is equal to the most onerous WORKING VOLTAGE for the BASIC INSULATION . The most onerous WORKING VOLTAGE may be due to a PRIMARY CIRCUIT or SECONDARY CIRCUIT and the insulation is specified accordingly. Insulation between an unearthed SECONDARY CIRCUIT at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE and an unearthed accessible conductive part or circuit (S/R, S/R1 or S/R2 in Figure 2H) shall satisfy the more onerous of the following: – –
REINFORCED INSULATION

c

whose WORKING VOLTAGE is equal to the HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE ; or is equal to the voltage between the SECONDARY

SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION whose WORKING VOLTAGE CIRCUIT at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE and

? ? – –
d e f

another SECONDARY CIRCUIT at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE , or a PRIMARY CIRCUIT .

These examples apply if: there is only BASIC INSULATION between the SECONDARY CIRCUIT and the PRIMARY CIRCUIT ; and there is only BASIC INSULATION between the SECONDARY CIRCUIT and earth. is not always required (see 2.3.2.1 and 2.10.5.13).

BASIC INSULATION

The requirements of 2.10 apply, see also 6.2.1. The requirements of 2.10 do not apply, however see 6.2.1.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 185 –

Similar circuit or conductive part PRIMARY CIRCUIT R Unearthed HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE SECONDARY CIRCUIT B B1 S/R B1 Earthed HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE SECONDARY CIRCUIT ELV CIRCUIT or basic-insulated conductive part Unearthed SELV CIRCUIT or double-insulated conductive part R1 R3 F5 B B4 F6

R B3 B6

B B6

S c) S/R1 S1

F

F4

B6 B2 B5 B5

B F3 B

F F1 F f) F12 B

F2

Earthed SELV CIRCUIT F11 c) S/R2 f) B7

R2 Unearthed TNV-1 CIRCUIT R2 Earthed TNV-1 CIRCUIT

R4

S2

F7 f) F10 f) F13 F7

R4

c) S/R2

S2

R2 TNV-2 CIRCUIT

R4

c) S/R2

B S2 d)e) B13 B B8 d) B10 e) B12

F8 e) B9 d)e) B11 B12 F9

R2 TNV-3 CIRCUIT F: FUNCTIONAL INSULATION S: SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION R: REINFORCED INSULATION

R4

c) S/R2

S2

d) B13

f) B14

B: BASIC INSULATION S/R: see Footnote c in Table 2H
IEC 1550/05

NOTE The references c), d), e) and f) refer to the corresponding footnotes in Table 2H.

Figure 2H – Examples of application of insulation

2.9.4

Separation from hazardous voltages

Where accessible conductive parts, including SELV CIRCUITS , TNV CIRCUITS and their related windings, are separated from parts at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE , the following constructions are permitted. The insulation, including each element of DOUBLE INSULATION , shall be rated for the WORKING VOLTAGE , or if applicable the REQUIRED WITHSTAND VOLTAGE , between the parts. The different methods of separation fall into three groups, methods 1, 2 and 3. a) (Method 1) DOUBLE INSULATION or REINFORCED assured by barriers, routing or fixing; or b) (Method 1) DOUBLE separated; or
INSULATION INSULATION

providing permanent separation, on or between the parts to be

or

REINFORCED INSULATION

60950-1 ? IEC:2005 2.10.2.3 Minimum Peak working voltage
CLEARANCES

– 193 –

and electric strength test voltages depend on

PEAK WORKING VOLTAGES .

When determining a ? ? ?

PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE ,

the following rules shall be used:

the measured peak value shall be used for all waveforms; the peak value of any ripple (up to 10 %) on a DC VOLTAGE , shall be included; non-repetitive transients (due, for example, to atmospheric disturbances) shall not be taken into account; when determining the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE between PRIMARY CIRCUITS and SECONDARY the voltage of any ELV CIRCUIT , SELV CIRCUIT or TNV CIRCUIT (including telephone ringing signals) shall be regarded as zero.
CIRCUITS ,

2.10.3 Clearances 2.10.3.1 General

CLEARANCES shall be so dimensioned that overvoltages, including transients that may enter the equipment, and peak voltages that may be generated within the equipment, do not break down the CLEARANCE .

It is permitted to use either the requirements of 2.10.3 for Overvoltage Category I or Overvoltage Category II, using the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE ; or the requirements in Annex G for Overvoltage Category I, Overvoltage Category II, Overvoltage Category III or Overvoltage Category IV, using the REQUIRED WITHSTAND VOLTAGE , for a particular component or subassembly or for the whole equipment. These requirements apply for equipment to be operated up to 2 000 m above sea level. For equipment to be operated at more than 2 000 m above sea level, the minimum CLEARANCES shall be multiplied by the factor given in Table A.2 of IEC 60664-1. Linear interpolation is permitted between the nearest two points in Table A.2. The calculated minimum CLEARANCE using this multiplication factor shall be rounded up to the next higher 0,1 mm increment.
NOTE 1 It is considered to be good practice to design SOLID INSULATION for higher transient overvoltages than the associated CLEARANCE .

The specified minimum ?

CLEARANCES

are subject to the following minimum values:

10 mm for an air gap serving as REINFORCED INSULATION between a part at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE and an accessible conductive part of the ENCLOSURE of floor-standing equipment or of the non-vertical top surface of desk top equipment; 2 mm for an air gap serving as BASIC INSULATION between a part at HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE and an earthed accessible conductive part of the ENCLOSURE of PLUGGABLE EQUIPMENT TYPE A .
The above two minimum CLEARANCES do not apply between a part at a HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE and the of a non-conductive ENCLOSURE .

?

NOTE 2

BOUNDING SURFACE

Except as required by 2.8.7.1 the specified minimum CLEARANCES do not apply to the air gap between the contacts of THERMOSTATS , THERMAL CUT - OUTS , overload protection devices, switches of microgap construction, and similar components where the air gap varies with the contacts.
NOTE 3 For air gaps between contacts of interlock switches, see 2.8.7.1. For air gaps between contacts of disconnect switches, see 3.4.2.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 195 –

The CLEARANCES between the BOUNDING SURFACE of a connector and conductive parts within the connector that are connected to a HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE shall comply with the requirements for REINFORCED INSULATION . As an exception, for connectors that are ? ? ? fixed to the equipment; and located internal to the outer
ENCLOSURE

of the equipment; and are subassembly that is required to be in
BASIC INSULATION .

only accessible after removal of a place during normal operation,
CLEARANCES

USER -replaceable

these

shall comply with the requirements for

NOTE 4 The tests of 2.1.1.1 for access to hazardous parts apply to such connectors after removal of the subassembly.

For all other CLEARANCES in connectors, including connectors that are not fixed to the equipment, the minimum values specified in 2.10.3.3 or 2.10.3.4 apply. The above minimum CLEARANCES for connectors do not apply to connectors that comply with a standard harmonized with IEC 60083, IEC 60309, IEC 60320, IEC 60906-1 or IEC 60906-2, see also 1.5.2. Compliance with 2.10.3.3 and 2.10.3.4 is checked by measurement, taking into account Annex F. The following conditions apply: ? ? movable parts shall be placed in the most unfavourable position; for equipment incorporating ordinary NON - DETACHABLE POWER SUPPLY CORDS , CLEARANCE measurements are made with supply conductors of the largest cross-sectional area specified in 3.3.4, and also without conductors.
The force tests of 4.2.2, 4.2.3 and 4.2.4 apply.

NOTE 5

?

when measuring CLEARANCES from the BOUNDING SURFACE of an ENCLOSURE of insulating material through a slot or opening in the ENCLOSURE or through an opening in an accessible connector, the accessible surface shall be considered to be conductive as if it were covered by metal foil wherever it can be touched by the test finger shown in Figure 2A (see 2.1.1.1), applied without appreciable force (see Figure F.12, point X).
CLEARANCES

There is no electric strength test to verify Table 2M and in 5.3.4 b). 2.10.3.2 a) Mains transient voltages

except as required in Footnote c in

AC MAINS SUPPLY

For equipment to be supplied from an AC MAINS SUPPLY , the value of the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE depends on the Overvoltage Category and the AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage. In general, CLEARANCES in equipment intended to be connected to the AC MAINS SUPPLY shall be designed for Overvoltage Category II.
NOTE 1 See Annex Z for further guidance on the determination of Overvoltage Category.

Equipment that is likely, when installed, to be subjected to transient overvoltages that exceed those for its design Overvoltage Category will require additional protection to be provided external to the equipment. In this case, the installation instructions shall state the need for such external protection.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 197 –

The applicable value of the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE shall be determined from the Overvoltage Category and the AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage, using Table 2J. Table 2J – AC mains transient voltages
MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE AC MAINS SUPPLY
b

voltage up to and including V r.m.s. 50 100 150 300 600
c

a

V peak Overvoltage Category I 330 500 800 1 500 2 500 II 500 800 1 500 2 500 4 000

d e

a

For equipment designed to be connected to a three-phase, three-wire supply, where there is no neutral conductor, the AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage is the line-to-line voltage. In all other cases, where there is a neutral conductor, it is the line-to-neutral voltage. The MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE is always one of the values in the table. Interpolation is not permitted. Including 120/208 V and 120/240 V. Including 230/400 V and 277/480 V. Including 400/690 V.

b c d e

NOTE 2 For Japan, the value of the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGES for the nominal AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage of 100 V is determined from the row applicable to an AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage of 150 V.

b) Earthed

DC MAINS SUPPLIES

If a DC MAINS SUPPLY is connected to protective earth and is entirely within a single building, the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE shall be assumed to be 71 V peak. If this connection is within the EUT, it shall be in accordance with 2.6.1 d).
NOTE 3 The connection to protective earth can be at the source of the DC MAINS SUPPLY or at the equipment location, or both (see ITU-T Recommendation K.27).

c) Unearthed

DC MAINS SUPPLIES

If a DC MAINS SUPPLY is not earthed and located as in b) above, the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE shall be assumed to be equal to the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE in the AC MAINS SUPPLY from which the DC MAINS SUPPLY is derived. d) Battery operation If equipment is supplied from a dedicated battery that has no provision for charging from an external MAINS SUPPLY , the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE shall be assumed to be 71 V peak. 2.10.3.3 Clearances in primary circuits
PRIMARY

For insulation in PRIMARY CIRCUITS , between PRIMARY CIRCUITS and earth and between CIRCUITS and SECONDARY CIRCUITS , the following rules apply.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005 For an
AC MAINS SUPPLY

– 199 – not exceeding 300 V r.m.s. (420 V peak):
AC MAINS SUPPLY

a) if the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE does not exceed the peak value of the voltage, minimum CLEARANCES are determined from Table 2K; b) if the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE exceeds the peak value of the minimum CLEARANCE is the sum of the following two values: ? ? the minimum
CLEARANCE

AC MAINS SUPPLY

voltage, the

from Table 2K; and
CLEARANCE

the appropriate additional

from Table 2L.

NOTE A minimum CLEARANCE obtained by the use of Table 2L lies between the values required for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields. As a result, it may not pass the appropriate electric strength test if the field is substantially inhomogeneous.

For an AC MAINS SUPPLY exceeding 300 V r.m.s. (420 V peak), minimum determined from Table 2K.

CLEARANCES

are

Table 2K – Minimum clearances for insulation in primary circuits and between primary and secondary circuits
CLEARANCES MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE a

in mm

1 500 V

c

2 500 V Pollution degree

c

4 000 V c

up to and including V 71 F 0,4

1 and 2 B/S 1,0 (0,5)

b

3 R F 0,8 B/S 1,3 (0,8) 0,8 1,3 (0,8) R 2,6 (1,6) 2,6 (1,6) 1,4 F 1,0

1 and 2 B/S 2,0 (1,5) 2,0 (1,5)

b

3 R 4,0 F 1,3 B/S 2,0 (1,5) 1,5 2,0 (1,5) R 4,0 (3,0) 4,0 (3,0) F

1, 2

b

and 3 R 6,4 (6,0) 6,4 (6,0) 6,4 (6,0)

B/S 3,2 (3,0)

2,0 (1,0) 2,0 (1,0)

2,0

(3,0) 4,0 (3,0)

210

0,5

1,0 (0,5)

2,0

3,2 (3,0)

420

F 1,5 B/S 2,0 (1,5) R 4,0 (3,0)

2,5

3,2 (3,0)

840 1 400 2 800 7 000 9 800 14 000 28 000 42 000

F 3,0 B/S 3,2 (3,0) R 6,4 (6,0) F/B/S 4,2 R 6,4 F/B/S/R F/B/S/R F/B/S/R F/B/S/R F/B/S/R 8,4 17,5 25 37 80

F/B/S/R 130

The values in the table are applicable to FUNCTIONAL INSULATION (F) if required by 5.3.4 a) (see 2.10.1.3), BASIC INSULATION (B), SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION (S) and REINFORCED INSULATION (R). The values in parentheses apply to BASIC INSULATION , SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION or REINFORCED INSULATION only if manufacturing is subjected to a quality control programme that provides at least the same level of assurance as the example given in Clause R.2. DOUBLE INSULATION and REINFORCED INSULATION shall be subjected to ROUTINE TESTS for electric strength. If the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE exceeds the peak value of the AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage, linear interpolation is permitted between the nearest two points, the calculated minimum CLEARANCE being rounded up to the next higher 0,1 mm increment.
a

If the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE exceeds the peak value of the AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage, see 2.10.3.3 b) regarding additional CLEARANCES . It is not required to pass the tests of 2.10.10 for Pollution Degree 1. The relationship between MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE and AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage is given in Table 2J.

b c

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 201 –

Table 2L – Additional clearances in primary circuits
CLEARANCES MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE

in mm

1 500 V Pollution Degrees 1 and 2 b Pollution Degree 3

c

2 500 V
REINFORCED INSULATION

c

PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE

FUNCTIONAL a BASIC or SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION

Pollution Degrees 1, 2 and 3 b
PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE

FUNCTIONAL a BASIC or SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION

REINFORCED INSULATION

up to and including V 210 298 386 474 562 650 738 826 914 1 002 1 090 (210) (288) (366) (444) (522) (600) (678) (756) (839) (912) (990) 210 294 379 463 547 632 715 800 (210) (293) (376) (459) (541) (624) (707) (790) 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 The values in parentheses shall be used: - if the values in parentheses in Table 2K are used; and - for FUNCTIONAL INSULATION if required by 5.3.4 a). 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,6

up to and including V 420 493 567 640 713 787 860 933 (420) (497) (575) (652) (729) (807) (884) (961) 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,6

1 006 (1 039) 1 080 (1 116) 1 153 (1 193) 1 226 (1 271) 1 300 (1 348) (1 425)

The additional CLEARANCES in the table apply if required by 2.10.3.3 b).

For voltage values above the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE values given in the table, linear extrapolation is permitted.
a b c

There is no minimum CLEARANCE for FUNCTIONAL INSULATION unless it is required by 5.3.4 a). See 2.10.1.3. It is not required to pass the tests of 2.10.10 for Pollution Degree 1. The relationship between MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE and AC MAINS SUPPLY voltage is given in Table 2J.

2.10.3.4 Minimum The ? ? ? ?

Clearances in secondary circuits
CLEARANCES

in

SECONDARY CIRCUITS

are determined from Table 2M.

PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE

for use in Table 2M is:

the peak value of a sinusoidal voltage; the measured peak value of a non-sinusoidal voltage. the highest transient from the 2.10.3.7; or the highest transient from a 2.10.3.8,
MAINS SUPPLY ,

The highest transient overvoltage for use in Table 2M is either determined in accordance with 2.10.3.6 or determined in accordance with

TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK ,

whichever is the higher value.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 203 –

Table 2M – Minimum clearances in secondary circuits
CLEARANCES

in mm

Highest transient overvoltage in the SECONDARY CIRCUIT (V peak) Up to and Over 71 V up including 71 V to and including 800 V Up to and including 800 V Over 800 V up to and including 1 500 V Over 1 500 V up to and including 2 500 V a

PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE

up to and including V 71 140 210 280 420 700 840 1 400 2 800 7 000 9 800 14 000 28 000 42 000 F 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 B/S 0,4 0,7 0,7 1,1 1,4

Pollution Degree 1 and 2 R 0,8 1,4 1,4 2,2 2,8 F 0,2 0,2 0,2
b

3 B/S 0,7 0,7 0,9 R 1,4 1,4 1,8 F 0,8 0,8 0,8 B/S 1,3 1,3 1,3 R 2,6 2,6 2,6 F 0,5 0,5 0,5

1 and 2 B/S 1,0 (0,5) 1,0 (0,5) 1,0 (0,5)

b

3 R F B/S R 2,6 2,6 2,6

1, 2 F

b

and 3 R 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 4,0

B/S

2,0 0,8 1,3 (1,0) (1,0) (1,0) 2,0 0,8 1,3 2,0 0,8 1,3

1,5 2,0 1,5 2,0 1,5 2,0 2,0 2,0

(0,2) (0,4) (0,2) (0,4) (0,2) (0,4) (0,2) (0,4)

(0,2) (0,4) (0,2) (0,4) (0,2) (0,4)

(0,8) (1,6) (0,8) (1,6) (0,8) (1,6)

(0,8) (1,6) (0,8) (1,6) (0,8) (1,6)

(1,5) (3,0) (1,5) (3,0) (1,5) (3,0) 1,5 (1,5) (3,0)

F 0,8 B/S 1,4 (0,8) R 2,8 (1,6) F 1,0 B/S 1,9 (1,0) R 3,8 (2,0) F/B/S 2,5 F/B/S 3,2 F/B/S 4,2 F/B/S/R F/B/S/R F/B/S/R F/B/S/R F/B/S/R 8,4 7,5 25 37 80 R 5,0 R 5,0 R 5,0 See See See See See See
c c c c c c

(0,2) (0,4)

1,5 (1,5) (3,0)

F/B/S/R 130

The values in the table apply to FUNCTIONAL INSULATION (F) if required by 5.3.4 a) (see 2.10.1.3), BASIC INSULATION (B), SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION (S) and REINFORCED INSULATION (R). Linear interpolation is permitted between the nearest two points, the calculated minimum CLEARANCE being rounded up to the next higher 0,1 mm increment. If the CLEARANCE path is partly along the surface of insulation that is not Material Group I, the test voltage is applied across the air gap and Material Group I only. The part of the path along the surface of any other insulating material is bypassed. The values in parentheses apply to BASIC INSULATION , SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION or REINFORCED INSULATION if manufacturing is subjected to a quality control programme that provides at least the same level of assurance as the example given in Clause R.2 of Annex R. DOUBLE INSULATION and REINFORCED INSULATION shall be subjected to ROUTINE TESTS for electric strength.
a

For transient overvoltages higher than 2 500 V peak, either Table 2K shall be used or the minimum CLEARANCE shall be determined using Annex G. It is not required to pass the tests of 2.10.10 for Pollution Degree 1. In a SECONDARY CIRCUIT , for PEAK WORKING VOLTAGES above 1 400 V, the minimum CLEARANCE is 5 mm provided that the CLEARANCE path passes an electric strength test according to 5.2.2 using: - an a.c. test voltage whose r.m.s. value is 106 % of the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE (peak value is 150 % of the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE ), or - a d.c. test voltage equal to 150 % of the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE .

b c

60950-1 ? IEC:2005 2.10.3.5

– 205 –

Clearances in circuits having starting pulses

For a circuit generating starting pulses to ignite a discharge lamp, and if the circuit is not a LIMITED CURRENT CIRCUIT complying with 2.4 (see 2.10.1.7), the adequacy of CLEARANCES is determined by one of the following methods: a) Determine the minimum
CLEARANCE

in accordance with Annex G; or

b) Conduct electric strength tests, using one of the following procedures. During the tests, the lamp terminals are shorted together. – – Test in accordance with 5.2.2, using an a.c. peak or d.c. test voltage equal to 150 % of the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE ; or Apply 30 pulses having amplitude equal to 150 % the PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE from an external pulse generator. The pulse width shall be equal to or greater than that of the internally generated starting pulse.
For WORKING VOLTAGES see 2.10.2.1 i).

NOTE

2.10.3.6

Transients from an a.c. mains supply

Except as permitted below, the highest transient in a SECONDARY CIRCUIT due to transients on the AC MAINS SUPPLY is the value measured in accordance with 2.10.3.9 a). Alternatively, for certain SECONDARY transient is either of the following: ? ?
CIRCUITS

it is permitted to assume that the highest

the value measured in accordance with 2.10.3.9 a); or one step lower in the following list than the
PRIMARY CIRCUIT : MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE

from Table 2J in the

330, 500, 800, 1 500, 2 500 and 4 000 V peak. This is permitted in the following cases: ? ? a SECONDARY CIRCUIT , derived from an AC MAINS SUPPLY , that is connected to the main protective earthing terminal in accordance with 2.6.1; a SECONDARY CIRCUIT , derived from an AC MAINS SUPPLY and separated from the PRIMARY CIRCUIT by a metal screen that is connected to the main protective earthing terminal in accordance with 2.6.1. 2.10.3.7
NOTE 1

Transients from a d.c. mains supply
A circuit connected to a DC MAINS SUPPLY is considered to be a SECONDARY CIRCUIT ( see 1.2.8.2). SECONDARY CIRCUIT

The highest transient in a ? ?

due to transients on a

DC MAINS SUPPLY

is
DC

the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE , MAINS SUPPLY ; or

if the

SECONDARY CIRCUIT

is directly connected to the

the value measured in accordance with 2.10.3.9 a) in other cases except as given in 2.10.3.2 b) and 2.10.3.2 c).

NOTE 2 Both of the above options depend on the value of the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE . In some cases, this value is assumed to be 71 V peak [see 2.10.3.2 b) or d)]. The appropriate column of Table 2K is used and no measurement is necessary.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005 2.10.3.8

– 207 –

Transients from telecommunication networks and cable distribution systems

If the TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK TRANSIENT VOLTAGE is known for the TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK in question, it is permitted to use the known value in 2.10.3.4. If the TELECOMMUNICATION be used: ? ?
CIRCUIT NETWORK TRANSIENT VOLTAGE

is not known, the following value shall is a
TNV - 1

1 500 V peak if the circuit connected to the or a TNV - 3 CIRCUIT ; and

TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK

800 V peak if the circuit connected to the or a TNV - 2 CIRCUIT .

TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK

is an

SELV CIRCUIT

If incoming transients are attenuated within the equipment, it is permitted to use the value measured in accordance with 2.10.3.9 b). The effect of a telephone ringing signal is not taken into account. The effect of transients from a see 7.4.1). 2.10.3.9
CABLE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

is not taken into account (however,

Measurement of transient voltages

The following tests are conducted only if it is required to determine whether or not the transient voltage across the CLEARANCE in any circuit is lower than normal (for example, due to the effect of a filter in the equipment). The transient voltage across the CLEARANCE is measured using the following test procedure. During the tests, the equipment is connected to its separate power supply unit, if any, but is not connected to the MAINS SUPPLY or to any TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS , and any surge suppressors in PRIMARY CIRCUITS are disconnected. A voltage-measuring device is connected across the a) Transients from a
MAINS SUPPLY

CLEARANCE

in question.

To measure a transient voltage across a CLEARANCE due to transients on a MAINS SUPPLY , the impulse test generator reference 2 of Table N.1 is used to generate 1,2/50 ?s impulses. U c is equal to the MAINS TRANSIENT VOLTAGE given in Table 2J . Three to six impulses of alternating polarity, with intervals of at least 1 s between impulses, are applied between each of the following points where relevant: For an ? ? ? ?
AC MAINS SUPPLY

line-to-line; all line conductors joined together and neutral; all line conductors joined together and protective earth; neutral and protective earth.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005 For a ? ?
DC MAINS SUPPLY

– 209 –

the positive and negative supply connection points; all supply connection points joined together and protective earth.
TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK

b) Transients from a To measure the

TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK ,

voltage across a CLEARANCE due to transients on a the impulse test generator reference 1 of Table N.1 is used to generate 10/700 ?s impulses. U c is equal to the TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK TRANSIENT VOLTAGE determined in 2.10.3.8.

transient

Three to six impulses of alternating polarity, with intervals of at least 1 s between impulses, are applied between each of the following TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK connection points of a single interface type: ? ? each pair of terminals (for example, A and B or tip and ring) in an interface; all terminals of a single interface type joined together and earth.

Where there are several identical circuits, only one is tested. 2.10.4 2.10.4.1 Creepage distances General

CREEPAGE DISTANCES shall be so dimensioned that, for a given RMS WORKING VOLTAGE and pollution degree, no flashover or breakdown of insulation (for example, due to tracking) will occur.

2.10.4.2

Material group and comparative tracking index

Material groups depend on the comparative tracking index (CTI) and are classified as follows: Material Material Material Material Group Group Group Group I CTI II 400 ≤ CTI IIIa 175 ≤ CTI IIIb 100 ≤ CTI ≥ < < < 600 600 400 175

The material group is verified by evaluation of the test data for the material according to IEC 60112 using 50 drops of solution A. If the material group is not known, Material Group IIIb shall be assumed. If a CTI of 175 or greater is needed, and the data is not available, the material group can be established with a test for proof tracking index (PTI) as detailed in IEC 60112. A material may be included in a group if its PTI established by these tests is equal to, or greater than, the lower value of the CTI specified for the group.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005 2.10.4.3 Table 2N. Minimum creepage distances

– 211 –

CREEPAGE DISTANCES

shall be not less than the appropriate minimum values specified in

If the minimum CREEPAGE DISTANCE derived from Table 2N is less than the applicable minimum CLEARANCE , that value of minimum CLEARANCE shall be applied as the minimum CREEPAGE DISTANCE . For glass, mica, glazed ceramic, or similar inorganic materials, if the minimum CREEPAGE is greater than the applicable minimum CLEARANCE , it is permitted to apply that value of minimum CLEARANCE as the minimum CREEPAGE DISTANCE .
DISTANCE

The CREEPAGE DISTANCE between the BOUNDING SURFACE of a connector and conductive parts within the connector that are connected to a HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE shall comply with the requirements for REINFORCED INSULATION . As an exception, for connectors that are ? ? ? this fixed to the equipment; and located internal to the outer
ENCLOSURE

of the equipment; and subassembly that is required to be in
BASIC INSULATION .

only accessible after removal of a place during normal operation,
CREEPAGE DISTANCE

USER -replaceable

shall comply with the requirements for

NOTE The tests of 2.1.1.1 for access to hazardous parts apply to such connectors after removal of the subassembly.

For all other CREEPAGE DISTANCES in connectors, including connectors that are not fixed to the equipment, the minimum values specified in Table 2N apply. The above minimum CREEPAGE DISTANCES for connectors do not apply to connectors that comply with a standard harmonized with IEC 60083, IEC 60309, IEC 60320, IEC 60906-1 or IEC 60906-2, see also 1.5.2. Compliance is checked by measurement, taking into account Annex F. The following conditions apply: ? ? movable parts are placed in their most unfavourable positions; for equipment incorporating ordinary NON - DETACHABLE POWER SUPPLY CORDS , CREEPAGE measurements are made with supply conductors of the largest cross-sectional area specified in 3.3.4 for the terminal in question, and also without conductors; and
DISTANCE

?

when measuring CREEPAGE DISTANCES from the BOUNDING SURFACE of an ENCLOSURE of insulating material through a slot or opening in the ENCLOSURE or through an opening in an accessible connector, the accessible surface is considered to be conductive as if it were covered by metal foil wherever it can be touched by the test finger, Figure 2A (see 2.1.1.1), applied without appreciable force (see Figure F.12, point X).

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 213 – Table 2N – Minimum creepage distances
CREEPAGE DISTANCES

in mm

RMS WORKING VOLTAGE

1

a

2

1

a

up to and including V
10 12,5 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1 000 1 250 1 600 2 000 2 500 3 200 4 000 5 000 6 300 8 000 10 000 12 500 16 000 20 000 25 000 32 000 40 000 50 000 63 000

Printed boards I, II, I, II, IIIa, IIIa IIIb
0,025 0,025 0,025 0,025 0,025 0,025 0,025 0,025 0,04 0,063 0,1 0,16 0,25 0,4 0,56 0,75 1,0 1,3 1,8 2,4 3,2 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,063 0,10 0,16 0,25 0,40 0,63 1,0 1,6 2,0 2,5 3,2 4,0 5,0

I, II, IIIa, IIIb
0,08

Pollution degree 2 Material group Other materials I II IIIa, I IIIb
0,4 0,4 0,42 0,45 0,48 0,5 0,53 0,8 0,85 0,9 0,9 1,0 1,05 1,1 1,4 1,8 2,2 2,8 3,6 4,5 5,6 7,1 9,0 11 14 18 22 28 36 45 56 71 90 110 140 180 220 280 360 450 0,4 0,42 0,45 0,48 0,5 0,53 1,1 1,2 1,25 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 2,0 2,5 3,2 4,0 5,0 6,3 8,0 10 12,5 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 600 1,0 1,05 1,1 1,2 1,25 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9 2,0 2,5 3,2 4,0 5,0 6,3 8,0 10 12,5 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125

3

II

IIIa, IIIb (see Note)
1,0 1,05 1,1 1,2 1,25 1,3 1,8 1,9 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,4 2,5 3,2 4,0 5,0 6,3 8,0 10 12,5 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160

1,0 1,05 1,1 1,2 1,25 1,3 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,8 3,6 4,5 5,6 7,1 9.0 11 14 18 22 28 36 45 56 71 90 110 140

0,09 0,42 0,1 0,45 0,11 0,48 0,125 0,5 0,14 0,53 0,16 0,56 0,18 0,6 0,2 0,63 0,22 0,67 0,25 0,71 0,28 0,75 0,32 0,42 0,75 1,0 1,3 1,8 2,4 3,2 4,2 5,6 7,5 10 12,5 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 0,8 1,0 1,6 2,0 2,5 3,2 4,0 5,0 6,3 8,0 10 12,5 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 320

0,56 1,25

The values in the table apply to FUNCTIONAL INSULATION if required by 5.3.4 a) (see 2.10.1.3), BASIC INSULATION and SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION . For REINFORCED INSULATION the values are twice those in the table. Linear interpolation is permitted between the nearest two points, the calculated minimum CREEPAGE DISTANCE being rounded to the next higher 0,1 mm increment. For REINFORCED INSULATION , the calculated value for BASIC INSULATION shall be doubled first before applying the rounding off. NOTE Material Group IIIb is not recommended for applications in Pollution Degree 3 with an RMS WORKING VOLTAGE above 630 V.
a

It is permitted to use the values for Pollution Degree 1 if one sample passes the tests of 2.10.10.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005 2.10.5 2.10.5.1 Solid insulation General

– 215 –

In 2.10.5, the requirements for SOLID INSULATION (except those for thin sheet material) and for insulating compound also apply to gel materials, used for this purpose.
SOLID INSULATION

shall be:

?

so dimensioned that overvoltages, including transients, that enter the equipment, and peak voltages that may be generated within the equipment, do not break down the SOLID INSULATION ; and so arranged that the likelihood of breakdown occurring due to the presence of pinholes in thin layers of insulation is limited.

?

Solvent-based enamel is accepted only on winding wire as described in 2.10.5.13. Except for printed boards, ? ?
SOLID INSULATION

shall either

comply with minimum distances through insulation in accordance with 2.10.5.2; or meet the requirements and pass the tests in 2.10.5.3 to 2.10.5.13, as applicable.
For printed boards, see 2.10.6. For SOLID INSULATION on internal wiring, see 3.1.4.

NOTE 1 NOTE 2

Compliance with the requirements of 2.10.5.2 to 2.10.5.14 for the adequacy of SOLID INSULATION is verified by inspection and measurement, taking into account Annex F, by the electric strength tests of 5.2 and by any additional tests required in 2.10.5.4 to 2.10.5.14. 2.10.5.2 Distances through insulation

If a design is based on distances through insulation, these distances shall be dimensioned according to the application of the insulation (see 2.9) and as follows (see Figure F.14): ? ? if the PEAK WORKING through insulation; if the ? ?
VOLTAGE

does not exceed 71 V, there is no requirement for distance exceeds 71 V, the following rules apply: and
BASIC INSULATION

PEAK WORKING VOLTAGE

for FUNCTIONAL insulation;

INSULATION

there is no minimum distance through

SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION

or REINFORCED INSULATION shall have a distance through insulation that is 0,4 mm or greater, provided by a single layer.

For compliance criteria, see 2.10.5.1. 2.10.5.3 Insulating compound as solid insulation

NOTE 1 For printed boards, see 2.10.6 and for wound components, see 2.10.5.11, 2.10.5.12, 2.10.5.13 and 2.10.5.14.

60950-1 ? IEC:2005

– 217 –

There is no minimum internal CLEARANCE or CREEPAGE DISTANCE if insulating compound completely fills the casing of a component or subassembly, provided that each distance through insulation in the component or subassembly meets the requirements of 2.10.5.2 and a single sample passes the tests of 2.10.10.
NOTE 2 Some examples of such treatment are variously known as potting, encapsulation and vacuum impregnation. NOTE 3 Such constructions may contain cemented joints, in which case 2.10.5.5 also applies.

For compliance criteria, see 2.10.5.1. 2.10.5.4 Semiconductor devices

There is no minimum distance through insulation for SUPPLEMENTARY INSULATION or REINFORCED INSULATION consisting of an insulating compound completely filling the casing of a semiconductor component (for example, an optocoupler, see Figure F.17), provided that the component satisfies one of the following, a) or b): a) – passes the
TYPE TESTS

and inspection criteria of 2.10.11; and

– passes ROUTINE TESTS for electric strength during manufacturing, using the appropriate value of the test voltage in 5.2.2; or b) for an optocoupler only, complies with the requirements of IEC 60747-5-5 1) , where the test voltages as specified in 5.2.6 (of IEC 60747-5-5): – the voltage V ini,a for – the voltage V ini,b for
NOTE TYPE TESTING

and

ROUTINE TESTING ,

shall be the appropriate value of the test voltage in 5.2.2 of this standard.
The above constructions may contain cemented joints, in which case 2.10.5.5 also applies.

As an alternative to a) and b) above, it is permitted to treat a semiconductor according to 2.10.5.3, if applicable. For compliance criteria, see 2.10.5.1. 2.10.5.5 Cemented joints

Where the path between conductive parts is filled with insulating compound, and the insulating compound forms a cemented joint between two non-conductive parts (see Figure F.18) or between a non-conductive part and itself (see Figures F.16 and F.17), one of the following, a), b) or c) applies. a) The distance along the path between the two conductive parts shall not be less than the minimum CLEARANCES and CREEPAGE DISTANCES for Pollution Degree 2. The requirements for distance through insulation of 2.10.5.2 do not apply along the joint. b) The distance along the path between the two conductive parts shall not be less than the minimum CLEARANCES and CREEPAGE DISTANCES for Pollution Degree 1. Additionally, one sample shall pass the test of 2.10.10. The requirements for distance through insulation of 2.10.5.2 do not apply along the joint. c) The requirements for distance through insulation of 2.10.5.2 apply between the conductive parts along the joint. Additionally, three samples shall pass the test of 2.10.11.

________
1) To be published.


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