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高中英语Unit2 Working the land Using language1


贵州省思南中学 许义怀编辑

Reading

Organic Farming

吃动物怕激素;吃植物怕毒素; 喝饮料怕色素;能吃什么,心里没数。
---全国人大代表金志国 带到两会上的顺口溜

What is the matter we put on the soil which

makes crops grow ? It is fertilizer.

chemical fertilizers

natural fertilizers

1. What is organic farming?
Farming without using chemicals.

2. What is the goal of using organic farming methods?
To grow good food and avoid damaging the environment or people’s health.

Skimming

Main idea

P1. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers can cause damage to the land and people’s health.
P2. Problems caused by chemical fertilizers P3. Farmers and customers turn to organic farming. P4. Other methods to keep the soil fertile.

Read the passage and answer the following questions.
1 Why are chemical fertilizers so popular in farming today? 2 What problems can be caused by using chemical fertilizers? 3 What is organic farming? 4 What is the main reason for using organic farming methods?

1 Why are chemical fertilizers so popular in farming today?

They are a great way to stop crop
disease and increase production.

2 What problems can be caused by using chemical fertilizers? They can damage the land by killing helpful bacteria and pets and by staying in the ground and underground water for a long time. They damage people's health by building up in their bodies and leading to cancer or other illnesses.

3 What is organic farming? Organic farming means growing crops without using any chemicals.
4 What is the main reason for using organic farming methods? The main reason for using organic farming methods is to grow good food and to avoid damaging the environment or people’s health.

Find and write down the methods and advantages in the passage.
Methods of organic farming Farmers use natural waste from animals. Advantages of methods This makes the soil richer in minerals and so more fertile.

Methods of organic farming 1 Farmers use natural waste from animals. 2 Farmers often change the kind of crop in each field every few years.

Advantages of methods 1 This makes the soil richer in minerals and so more fertile. 2 Changing the crops renews the minerals in the soil and helps it become rich and healthy.

Methods of organic farming 3 Farmers plant crops with different lengths of roots. 4 Farmers sometimes plant grass between crops and leave it in the ground.

Advantages of methods 3 This uses different levels of soil. 4 This prevents wind or water from carrying away soil and acts as a natural fertilizer.

Main idea of the passage

Chemical fertilizers can cause many problems, so organic farming is becoming more popular.

Underline and rewording topic sentences

Para1: In recent days, scientists have discovered that using chemical fertilizers for a long time can hurt the land and also people’s health. Para2: There are several problems caused by chemical fertilizers.

Para3: Organic farming is becoming more popular with some farmers and many customers after these discoveries came out.
Para4: There are many organic farming methods for making the land healthy and productive.

Writing a summary
In recent days, scientists have discovered that using chemical fertilizers for a long time can hurt the land and also people’s health. There are several problems caused by chemical fertilizers. They hurt the health of the land, stay in the water for a long time and get into people’s bodies through their food. Organic farming is becoming more popular with some farmers and many customers after these discoveries came out. Organic farming does not use any chemicals. There are many organic farming methods for making the land healthy and productive. All of these methods try to produce good food and to keep the environment and people healthy.

Expressions
1.化肥 2.对…造成损害 3.洗掉某物 4.导致;造成(后果);通往 5.逐渐增强,建立 6.另外(还有) 7.使…免受(影响); 使…不含(有害物) 8.集中(注意力、精力)于 9.每隔几年 10.避免做…

chemical fertilizers cause/do damage to wash off lead to bulid up in addition (to) keep…free from/of focus on every few years avoid doing

Language points
1 These chemicals in the food supply build up in people’s bodies over time. build up 增强; 建立;开发 Hard working conditions build up character. 艰苦的工作条件能磨练人的性格。

2 Many of these chemicals can lead to cancer or other illnesses. lead to: 导致;造成 Too much work and too little rest often lead to illness. 过量的工作和过少的休息会引起疾病。 All roads lead to Rome. 条条大道通罗马。

3 They focus on keeping their soil rich and free of disease.

focus on:集中(注意力,精力等)于
You should focus your attention on your work. 把注意力集中在你的工作上。

Focus on life. 瞄准生活。

4 This also keeps the air, soil, water and crops free from chemicals. keeps… free from /of: 使…免受(影 响,伤害);使不含(有害物)

keep free from emotional reactions 避免激动的反应 keep free from restrictions 避免受到限制
keep from: 阻止; 妨碍 I hope you will keep from doing anything rash. 我希望你不要做出任何鲁莽的事情来。

5.supply. 1) 用作名词时: a) 指“供给;供应”等,其反义词为demand (需求)。 supply and demand 供与求 be in short supply 供应缺乏,供应不足 food supply 食物供应 water supply 供水

b) 当“供应品;生活用品;补给品”等, 常用复数supplies。 military supplies household supplies medical supplies 军需品 家庭用品 医用品

2) 用作动词时,指“供给,提供,备办”等, supply sb. (with) sth , supply sth. to /for sb. -- They supplied food to/for them. 他们供给他食物。 -- The library is well supplied with books. 图书馆备有充足的书籍。

6. Crops such as peas or soybeans put
important minerals back into the

soil, making it ready for crops such
as wheat or corn that need rich and

fertile soil.

[分析] ①本句结构比较复杂。其主干结构为: 主句(Crops put important minerals back into the soil) + 状语(making it ready for crops)。

②状语中又包含“make + it + 形容词”
结构和由that引导的定语从句(that

need rich and fertile soil)。

7. Some organic farmers prefer planting grass between crops to prevent wind or water from carrying away the soil, and then leaving it in the ground to become a natural fertilizer for the next year’s crop. [分析] ①本句的主干结构是一个简单句, 其结 构是: 主语(farmers) + 谓语(prefer) + 并列宾语(planting ... + leaving ...)。

②其中between crops和in the ground作

地点状语。
③两个宾语后面又分别带有一个不定式

作目的状语(to prevent wind or
water from carrying away the soil和 to become a natural fertilizer for the next year’s crop)。

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Please don't confuse Australia with Austria. 别把澳大利亚和奥地利混淆了。 Much to my regret, I can't accept your invitation. 很抱歉,我不能接受你的邀请。 We must increase production levels. 我们必须提高生产水平。 Many diseases are caused by bacteria. 许多疾病是由细菌引起的。 That child is an absolute pest! 那孩子讨厌极了! Growth is a function of nutrition. 长身体是由营养决定的

● Coal is a mineral.

煤是一种矿物。 ● New scientific discoveries are being made every day. 每天都有新的科学发现。 ● This kind of soil contains much alkali. 这种土壤含碱丰富。 ● He is trying to reduce the family's expenses. 他正尽力减少家庭开支。 ● Unhappiness is the root cause of his illness. 不开心是他生病的根源。

● It took me an hour to skim the book.

我花了一小时把这本书浏览了一遍。 ● Please underline the important items. 请在重要事项的下面划线。 ● Please write me a summary of this report. 请替我写一份这份报告的摘要。 ● He made several favorable comments about their candidate. 他对他们的候选人发表了一些有利的评论。

Exercises
cause/do damage to, wash off, lead to, bulid up, in addition(to), keep…free from/of, focus on, avoid doing

1. His mistakes led to his failure. _____ build up 2. These chemicals in the food supply______ in people’s bodies over time. lead to 3. All roads _______ Rome. focus on 4. Please _____ your mind___ the following problem. 5. Children should ______________ violence. be kept free from

cause/do damage to, wash off, lead to, bulid up, in addition(to), keep…free from/of, focus on, avoid doing In addition 6. He likes basketball.___________,he likes football. He likes basketball in addition to _____________football. off 7. Little Tom stuck to washing the mud ____ his ________ shoes by himself before he came in. 8. I tried to avoid meeting ______________(meet) him because he always bores me. has caused 9. The storm on May 3 ___________ great damage to people in Burma so far. __________

Listening

用化学肥料和有机肥料的区别:

cow dung

chemical fertilizer

As you listen to this dialogue, keep in mind what you have just read about chemical fertilizers. What is the main topic of the conversation?
The possible bad effects of chemical

fertilizers on the fruit and vegetables
that we eat today.

Listen to the dialogue a second time. Decide if the following statements are true or false, according to the conversation. Give your reasons.
1 Paul thinks that Carrie is not telling him the truth. True 2 Using chemical fertilizers always makes vegetables empty inside. False

3 Today’s fruit is not as healthy for people as fruit fifty years ago. True

4 Eating more vegetables might not
always be good for us. False

5 All of today’s vegetables look
healthy but in fact are not. True

Listening text
WHAT’S WRONG WITH THE VEGETABLES? Girl: Hey, Paul, listen to this … a magazine article about a farmer who used too much chemical fertilizer on his fields. When his vegetables were picked, they were all found to be empty!

BOY: Empty? You’re joking, Carrie … that can’t be true! Girl: I didn’t believe it either! This article says this can happen sometimes with vegetables like cucumbers, carrots and pumpkins. This chemical fertilizer makes the vegetables grow fast to look big and beautiful, but they’re empty inside!

BOY: You know, I’ve noticed that sometimes my mum buys carrots from the supermarket that have big holes down the center. I guess that must be from using chemical fertilizers! GIRL: Yeah, that’s what the magazine says! The main point of the article, though, isn’t about holes in our vegetables.

It’s talking about why the fruit and vegetables we eat today aren’t as nutritious as the ones our grandparents ate. BOY: What? My mum is always telling me to eat more vegetables, because they’re good for me! GIRL: Yeah, I know – my mother says that same thing! And it’s true -

they are good for us… but the
problem is that they aren’t healthy enough! All these chemical fertilizers – they kill off both the bad and the good things in the ground. The ground doesn’t have enough vitamins and minerals any more to help crops grow

healthy.

BOY: So … if our fruit and vegetables were grown with chemical fertilizers, they might look healthy, but probably aren’t really healthy? I guess we’ve got to stop using so many chemical fertilizers to grow our food!

Speaking

The farmer is persuading the customer to buy his/her “green food”. You need to … The advantages are… I’d prefer …because… What’s the advantage of … Should I/we...?

It’s better of… It’s more expensive but…

I don’t like… because…
I’d rather…

This is good value because…
You’ll taste the difference when… If I have a choice I’ll choose…

It’s a great pity that…

Sample dialogue:
F= Farmer C= Customer

F: Good morning! Would you like
some organic carrots this morning?

C: Hmm… They’re a little expensive!
What is the advantage of …?

F: The advantage of these vegetables is that they are green food so they’re safe to eat and good for your family. C: But what’s the advantage of having green food? I know all vegetables are good for you and those down the road look green too. And I can buy them at half the price there.

F: Well, let me explain. I’d rather feed my family on green food than other vegetables because they are grown without chemical fertilizers. C: But the price is too expensive! I’d prefer to buy good food if I can afford it.

F: This is good value for money because you’ll have healthier children. They won’t have to take time off work. In the long run you’ll be benefit. C: Certainly I’d like to buy what is safe and healthy. Perhaps I’ll try some of your vegetables and if they are as good as you say, I’ll be back next week!

Writing

Sample writing
BUY THE BEST VEGETABLES HERE We sell only green food in this farm shop! The best choice at the best prices!

Green food is safe and healthy for you and all the family. 1 no chemical fertilizers 2 grown in clean air 3 grown with clean water 4 no pesticides to poison your family
Eating green food is an important step on the road to staying fit and healthy!

Summing up

? Write

down what you have learned about working the land.

We have learned about agriculture and deeds of Dr Yuan Longping. We also know what organic farming is and grasp how to express our ideas and write a poster.

From this unit you have also learned: Useful verbs: expand export circulate rid…of reduce struggle equip ? Useful nouns: hunger bacteria fertilizer mineral supply level ? Useful adjectives and adverbs: super sunburnt satisfied fertile organic ? Other expressions: would rather lead to focus on thanks to be satisfied with ? New grammer item: the –ing form used as the subject and object
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Reading for fun

杰克:昆虫叮人会生病,预防疾病的最好方法是 什么呢? 吉尔:什么都不叮。 杰克:还有一个问题––大象和跳蚤有什么区别 呢? 吉尔:啊,大象可以长跳蚤,而跳蚤不可以长大 象嘛! 杰克:你太聪明了!好吧,再提一个问题––什 么东西放到蛋糕里去最好? 吉尔:嗯,是糖吗?啊,不对。我知道了,你的 牙齿! 杰克:哈哈,对了,这才对了!


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