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表面工程学翻译


黄健

料 101 109024183

1.Surface engineering is the subdiscipline of materials science which deal with the surface of solid matter.It has applications to chemistry mechanica

l engineering ,and electrical engineering (particularly in relation to semiconductor manufacturing). 表面工程学是处理固体物质表面材料科学的学科分支。它在化工,机械工程和电 机工程(特别是与半导体制造业相关的)方面都有很多的应用。 2.Solids are composed of a bulk material covered by a surface. The surface which bounds the bulk material is called the Surface phase .It acts as an interface to the surrounding environment. The bulk material in a solid is called the Bulk phase. 固体是由被大量的物质覆盖的表面组成。 这个限制这些大量物质的表面被称作表 面相。 它表现为与周围环境接触的界面。这些在固体内部的大量的物质被称作体 相。 3.The surface phase of a solid interacts with the surrounding environment. This interaction can degrade the surface over time .Environmental degradation of the surface phase over time can be caused by wear, corrosion,fatigue and creep. 固体的表面相会同周围环境相互作用。 这种相互作用会随着时间逐渐退化固体的 表面。固体表面相随时间而发生的环境退化会由磨损,腐蚀,疲劳和蠕变引发。 4.Surface engineering involves altering the properties of the Surface Phase in order to reduce the degradation over time.This is accomplished by making the surface robust to the environment in which it will be used.A spectrum of topics that represent the diverse nature of the field of surface engineering includes Plating technologies, Nano and emerging technologies and Surface engineering, characterization and testing. 表面工程学涉及到改变表面相的特性,这是为了延缓它随时间的退化。这个是通 过使应用于环境中的表面得到加强来实现的。 一系列的论题呈现出了这个包含了 电镀技术、 纳米和新兴科技和表面工艺以及鉴定和测试的表面工程学不同性质的 领域。 5.Applications:Surface engineering techniques are being used in the automotive , aerospace, missile, power, electronic, biomedical, textile, petroleum, petrochemical, steel,power,cement,machine tools and construction industries including road surfacing.Surface engineering techniques can be used to develop a wide range of functional properties ,including physical, chemical , electrical ,electronic , magnetic , mechanical, wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant properties at the required substrate surfaces. Almost all types of materials ,including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites can be coated on similar or dissimilar materials .It is also possible to form coating of newer materials(e.g.,met-glass.beta-C3N4 ), graded deposits, multicomponent deposits etc. 应用:表面工程技术正被应用在汽车、航空、导弹、能源、电子、生物、纺织、 石油、石化、钢铁、陶瓷、机床和包含了路面铺设的建筑行业。表面工程技术能 被用于开发大范围的功能特性,包括物理性能、化学性能、电工、电子、磁学、 机械以及基板表面所必须的抗磨损和耐腐蚀特性。几乎所有种类的材料,包括金 属、陶瓷、聚合物和复合材料都能被涂覆相似或不相似的材料。它也能形成现代 材料涂层(如金属玻璃和β -C3N4) 、梯度镀层和多组分沉淀物等。 6.In 1995, surface engineering was a ? billion market in the United Kingdom. 10 Coatings, to make surface life robust from wear and corrosion ,was approximately half the market.
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料 101 109024183

在 1995 年,表面工程学在大不列颠联合王国的市场价值达到 100 亿英镑。使表 面寿命强韧以抗磨损和耐腐蚀的涂层也一时占有这个市场的近乎一半。 7. In recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in surface engineering from age-old electroplating to processes such as vapor phase deposition ,diffusion, thermal spray & welding using advanced heat sources like plasma, laser ,ion ,electron ,microwave, solar beams, pulsed combustion ,spark, friction and induction. 近年来,表面工程领域一直有从陈旧的电镀向新的工序如蒸汽镀、扩散、热喷雾 熔接转变的范例,这是通过先进的热源像等离子体、激光、离子、微波、太阳能 光束、脉冲燃烧、 、电火花、摩擦和电磁感应来实现的。 8.It’s estimated that loss due to wear and corrosion in the US is approximately $500 billion . In the US, there are around 9524 establishments (including automotive, aircraft ,power and construction industries) who depend on engineered surfaces with support from 23,466 industries. 据估计,在美国由于磨损和腐蚀的损失接近 5000 亿美元。在美国,将近 9524 家企业(包括汽车、航空、能源和建筑工业)依靠着 23,466 家表面工程产业的 支持。 9.There are around 65 academic institutions world-wide engaged in surface engineering research and education. 世界范围内大概有 65 家大学机构参与了表面工程的研究和教育。 10.Surface Cleaning Techniques: Surface cleaning, synonymously referred to as dry cleaning, is a mechanical cleaning technique used to reduce superficial soil , dust, grime, insect droppings, accretions or other surface deposits.(Dry cleaning ,as the term is used in paper conservation , does not employ the use of organic solvents.) 表面清洁技术:表面清洁,大义上也是指干洗,是一种被用来减少表面的泥土、 灰尘、污垢、昆虫粪便、积垢或其它表面沉积物的机械清洁技术。 (干洗,是被 用在纸张环境保护方面,而不是利用有机溶剂) 11.Surface cleaning may be used as an independent cleaning technique ,as one step (usually the first) in a more comprehensive treatment ,or as a prelude to further treatments ( e.g. ,aqueous immersion ) which may cause dirt to set irreversibly in paper fibers. 表面清洁可能被当做一种独立的清洁技术来使用, 作为更加综合的治理方式中的 一步(通常是第一步) ,或者作为更深层次治理方式的前奏(像水洗)将导致纸 纤维中不可逆的脏渍。 12.Purpose: The purpose of surface cleaning is to reduce the potential for damage to paper artifacts by removing foreign material which can be abrasive , acidic , hygroscopic , or degradative, The decision to remove surface dirt is also for aesthetic reasons when it interferes with the visibility of the imagery or information. A decision must be made balancing the probable care of each object against the possible problems related to surface cleaning. 目的:表面清洁的目的是通过移除那些有腐蚀作用的、酸性的、潮湿的或降解作 用的外来异物来降低纸质文物的潜在损坏。 这个移除表面脏渍的决议也是为了美 学原因考虑的, 当脏渍干预到画像或是信息的清晰度的时候。为了平衡每一种可 能与表面清洁相关的合理的问题相矛盾的顾虑,必须要生成一个决定。 13.Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing
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physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material. 表面改性是一种通过促使物理、 化学或是生物特性与在本身基础上发现的表面物 质不同的修饰方式。 14.This modification is usually made to solid materials, but it is possible to find examples of the modification to the surface of specific liquids. 这种改性通常被制成固体材料, 但是它也可能发现一些表面特有的液体改性的例 子。 15.Materials science has assumed a key position for new technological developments , and is therefore strongly supported by industry and government. 材料科学在新的技术革新发展道路上呈现出了一种枢纽的作用, 也是因此得到了 工业和政府的强力支持。 16.Nowadays it occupies a bridging position between physics ,chemistry and engineering and extends from basic science in physics and chemistry on the atomic scale to large-scale applications in industry. 当今材料科学占有了物理学、 化学和工程学的连接点,同时从物理和化学原子层 面的科学基本知识延伸到工业的大规模应用。 17.The increasing number of materials science study courses at universities underlines the present and future importance of understanding and developing materials for the future. 大学里不断增加的材料研究课程为今后增强了在现在和未来延伸并发展的材料 学重要性。 18.How to create a surface? To create a surface atoms have to be brought from the bulk to the surface of a substance.The substance has to change its shape if inside atoms are brought to the surface .For a fluid or liquid ,the shape change is readily accomplished .For a solid ,however, it is not . One way of bringing atoms from the bulk to the surface of a solid is to divide the solid bulk. 怎样创造一个表面呢? 为了创造一个表面, 材料内部原子必须被移至材料表面。这个材料也不得不改变 它的形状如果它内部的原子被移至表面的话。对于流体或是液体,这种形状的改 变会轻易完成。对于固体而言,无论如何,这是不可能的。一种将原子从体内移 至表面的方法就是分离这个固体。 19.What is the definition of friction? ■A force that resists motion between two objects that are in contact with each other. Smoother surfaces exhibit more friction. 摩擦的定义是什么? 一种相互接触的物体相对运动时产生的阻力。 ■Friction plays an important role in manufacturing processes because of the relative motion and the forces that always are present on tools , dies, and workpieces. Friction (a) dissipates energy (that generating heat, which can have detrimental effects on an operation) and (b) impedes free movement at interfaces (thus friction can affect significantly the flow and deformation of materials in metalworking processes). On the other hand, friction is not always undesirable. For example, without friction, it
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料 101 109024183

would be impossible to roll metals, clamp workpieces on machines, or hold drill bits in chucks. 摩擦力在工业制造的工序中扮演着一个重要的角色, 因为相对运动和一直呈现在 工具、专用模具和工作部件上不同的力。摩擦力一方面(a)消耗能量(像可能 在工序操作中会产生有害影响的热能) (b)它阻碍界面上的自由运动(因此摩擦 力能深远地影响材料在加工工序中的移动和变形) ,另一方面,摩擦力也不是经 常不合需要的。例如,若没有摩擦力,像滚动金属、在机器上夹住工件或者在卡 盘夹头中握住钻头这些都是不可能做到的。 20.Corrosion may be defined as the deterioration of a material resulting from chemical attack by its environment. Since corrosion is caused by chemical reaction, the rate at which the corrosion takes place will depend to some extent on the temperature and the concentration of the reactants and products. Other factors such as mechanical stress and erosion may also contribute to corrosion. 腐蚀被定义为来自环境中化学反应侵蚀导致的材料变坏。 既然腐蚀是由化学反应 导致的, 腐蚀作用的程度就多少有点决定于温度和反应物及生成物的浓度。其它 如机械应力和侵蚀等因素也可能导致腐蚀。 21.When we speak of corrosion, we are usually referring to an electrochemical attack process on metals. Metals are susceptible to this attack because they possess free electrons and can set up electrochemical cells within their structure. Most metals are corroded to some extent by water and the atmosphere. Metals can also be corroded by direct chemical attack from chemical solutions and even liquid metals. 当我们谈论腐蚀时, 我们经常是指金属上的电化学侵蚀过程。金属对于电化学侵 蚀很敏感, 因为它们本身拥有自由电子, 同时也能在内部结构里产生电化学电池。 大多数金属一定程度上也会因为水和大气发生腐蚀。 金属也能直接被来自化学溶 液甚至是液态金属的化学侵蚀而发生腐蚀。 22.For example, iron oxides exist commonly in nature and are reduced by thermal energy to iron, which is in a higher energy state. There is ,therefore, a tendency for the metallic iron to spontaneously return to iron oxide by corroding (rusting) so that it can exist in a lower energy state. 例如, 铁氧化物通常存在于自然界,当它处于高能量状态时会通过对铁加以热能 而被还原。因此,精炼铁有通过腐蚀(生锈)自发地变回为铁的氧化物的一种倾 向,所以它也会以更低的能量态存在。 23.Nonmetallic materials such as ceramics and polymers do not suffer electrochemical attack but can be deteriorated by direct chemical attack. For example, ceramic refractory materials can be chemically attacked at high temperatures by molten salts. Organic polymers can be deteriorated by the chemical attack of organic solvents.Water is absorbed by some organic polymers, which causes changes in dimensions or property changes. The combined action of oxygen and ultraviolet radiation will deteriorate some polymers even at room temperature. 非金属材料, 如陶瓷和聚合物就不会承受电化学的侵蚀,但是能被直接的化学反 应侵蚀而变坏。例如,陶瓷耐火材料在高温时能被熔融盐类造成化学侵蚀。有机 聚合物能被有机溶剂造成的化学侵蚀而变坏。水能被一些有机聚合物吸收,这将 导致尺寸或是特性的改变。 室温下,氧气和紫外线辐射的共同作用就能造成一些 聚合物的破坏。
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黄健

料 101 109024183

24.Corrosion ,therefore, is a destructive process as far as the engineer is concerned and represents an enormous economic loss.Thus, it is not surprising that the engineer working in industry must be concerned about corrosion control and prevention. The purpose of this chapter is to serve as an introduction to this important subject. 腐蚀,对于工程师它所呈现出的巨大的经济损失而言,因此是破坏性的。所以, 对于工程师在工业生产中必须去关注腐蚀控制和预防是不必大惊小怪的。 这一章 的目的是充当这个重要论题的引言。 25.Cleaning of Surfaces 表面清洁 ■ We have stressed the importance of surfaces in manufacturing and the effects of deposited or adsorbed layers of various elements and contaminants on surface characteristics. A clear surface can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. 我们已经强调了表面在制造业中的重要性以及沉积物或吸附多层各种各样元素 和污染物对表面特性的影响。清洁的表面兼具有利及有害的效果。 ■Although a surface that is not clean may reduce the tendency for adhesion and galling, cleanliness generally is essential for a more effective application of coating, painting, adhesive bonding, welding, brazing, and soldering, as well as for the reliable functioning of manufactured parts in machinery, assembly operations, and food and beverage containers. 尽管不清洁的表面会延缓粘结和摩擦的倾向, 清洁对于在涂层、 喷涂、 附着粘合、 焊接、黄铜镀和焊合,一般情况下发挥着更有效的应用,除此之外在人造机器、 装配操作、饮食和饮料容器方面也有着可靠的功用。 ■Clearing involves the removal of solid , semisolid, or liquid contaminants from a surface, and it is an important part of manufacturing operations and the economics of production. The word clean or the degree of cleanliness of a surface is somewhat difficult to define. Two simple and common tests are as follows: 1.Wiping with a clean cloth the surface of ,say, a dinner plate and observing any residues on the cloth. 2.Observing whether water continually coats the surface of the plate (water-break test). If water collects as individual droplets, the surface is not clean.(You can test this phenomenon by wetting dinner plates that have been cleaned to different degrees.) 清洁包含了从表面去除固态、半固态或液态污染物,同时,它也是制造业工序和 经济产值中重要的一部分。如何鉴定一个表面的清洁或是清洁程度有一点儿困 难。以下是两个简单常用的测试: 1.用一块清洁的布料擦除一个餐盘的表面并观察这个布料上的残余物。 2.观察是否连续覆盖在这个餐盘上(水膜测试) 。如果水以独立的水珠聚集,那 么这个表面就不是清洁的。 (你能通过润湿已经被不同程度清洁过的餐盘来测试 这个现象。 ) ■The type of cleaning process required depends on the type of metalworking-fluid residues and contaminants to be removed.For example ,water-based fluids are easier and less expensive to remove than oil-based fluids. 这种类型的清洁过程要求决定于金属加工液残渣和污染物必须被清除。例如,水 基流体在清除方面不仅比油基流体较容易也不像它那么昂贵。 ■Contaminants (also called soils) may consist of rust, scale, chips (and other metallic and nonmetallic debris), metalworking fluids, solid lubricants, pigments, polishing
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and lapping compounds, and general environment elements. 污染物(也被称作脏物)由铁锈、脱落物、碎片(和其它金属和非金属碎片) 、 金属加工流体、固体润滑剂、颜料、打磨和研磨产生的混合物以及一般情况下的 环境因素。 ■Basically, there are three types of cleaning methods, as described here. 1.Mechanical cleaning. This operation consists of physically disturbing the contaminants ,often with wire or fiber brushing, abrasive blasting (jets), tumbling, or steam jets. Many of these processes are effective particularly in removing rust ,scale, and other solid contaminants. Ultrasonic cleaning also is placed in this category. 2.Electrolytic cleaning. In this process, a charge is applied the part to be cleaned in an aqueous ( often alkaline) cleaning solution. This charge results in bubbles of hydrogen or oxygen (depending on polarity) being released at the part’s surface. The bubbles are abrasive and aid in the removal of contaminants. 3.Chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning usually involves the removal of oil and grease from surface.The operation consists of one or more of the following processes: · Solution · Saponification(Saponify) · Emulsification · Dispersion · Aggregation 总的说来,有三种清洗方式,描述如下: 1.机械清洗。 这种操作由物理方法干扰污染物组成, 经常用金属丝或是纤维擦拭、 喷砂法(喷嘴) 、抛光或是蒸汽喷雾。这些工序中大多数部分是很高效的,尤其 是在除去铁锈、脱落物和其它固体污染物。超声波清洗液是在这个范畴之内。 2.电化学清洗。在这个工序中,一块电池被应用于用水洗(经常呈碱性)部分澄 清液当中。 这块电池导致在这部分表面被释放出氢气泡或是氧气泡(这依赖于电 极) 。这些气泡有磨蚀作用同时帮助去除一些污染物。 3.化学清洗。化学清洗经常涉及到从表面清除油脂。这个操作由一个或是更多的 过程,如下: ·溶解 ·皂化(使之皂化) ·乳化 ·分散 ·聚集 ? Solution: The soil dissolves in the cleaning solution. ? Saponification: A chemical reaction that converts animal or vegetable oils into a soap that is soluble in water. ? Emulsification: The cleaning solution reacts with the soil or lubricant deposits and forms an emulsion; the soil and the emulsifier then become suspended in the emulsion. ? Dispersion: The concentration of soil on the surface is decreased by surface-active elements in the cleaning solution. ? Aggregation: Lubricants are removed from the surface by various agents in the cleanser and are collected as large dirt particles. ? 溶解:脏物溶解在清洗溶液当中。 ? 皂化:一种能使动植物油转变成能溶于水的皂类。 ? 乳化:清洗溶液同脏物或是润滑剂残存物反应并形成乳化液;这脏物和乳化 剂之后就会变成乳化液中的悬浮液。 ? 分散:表面脏物浓度将被清洗液中表面活性元素减少。 ? 聚集:润滑剂将通过清洁剂中的各种药剂从表面被清除,同时将以巨大的脏 物微利聚集。 26.Cleaning fluids. Common cleaning fluids used in conjunction with electrochemical
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processes for more effective cleaning include the following: · Alkaline solutions· Emulsions· Solvents· vapors · Hot Acids, Salts, and Organic compound mixtures ? Alkaline solutions: A complex combination of water-soluble chemicals. They are the least expensive and most widely used in manufacturing operations. Small parts may be cleaned in rotating drums or barrels. Most parts are cleaned on continuous conveyors by spraying them with the solution and rinsing them with water. ? Emulsions: Generally consist of kerosene and oil in water and various types of emulsifiers. ? Solvents: Typically petroleum solvents, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits. They generally are used for short runs. Fire and toxicity are major hazards. ? Hot vapors: Chlorinated solvents can be used to remove oil, grease, and wax. The solvent is boiled in a container and then condensed. This hot-vapor process is simple, and the cleaned parts are dry. ? Acids , Salts, and Organic compound mixtures: These are effective in cleaning parts covered with heavy paste or oily deposits and rust. 清洁液: 通常的清洁液都是同电化学协同作用以便发挥更有效的清洁作用,这些 清洁液包括: ·碱性溶液 ·乳剂 ·溶剂 ·高温蒸气 ·酸、盐和有机化合物的混合物 ? 碱性溶液:一种由可溶于水的化学药剂组成的复杂混合物。它们是最便宜也 在制造业工序中被广泛使用。小部分的脏物可以在旋转鼓或桶中被清洗。大 部分脏物都是通过喷涂溶剂和用水漂洗的循环带上被清洗。 ? 乳剂:一般在水中由煤油和汽油组成,因此存在很多类型的乳剂: ? 溶剂:代表性的有石油溶剂、绿色碳氢化合物、溶剂油。它们一般很少使用。 火和毒物是主要阻碍他们被广泛使用的原因。 ? 高温蒸气:绿色溶剂能够被用来清除石油、动物油脂和蜡状物。溶剂将在容 器中被煮沸然后变得浓稠。这种高温蒸气过程很简单,被清洁的部分也是干 燥的。 ? 酸、盐和有机化合物的混合物:这些物质在清洗被稠物或是油性沉积物和铁 锈覆盖的部分是很有效。 27.Design guidelines for cleaning.Cleaning discrete parts with complex shapes can be difficult. Some design guidelines are as follows: ·Avoid deep, blind holes. ·Make several smaller components instead of one large component, which may be difficult to clean. ·Provide appropriate drain holes in the parts to be cleaned. The treatment and disposal of cleaning fluids, as well as of various fluids and waste materials from the processes described in this chapter, are among the most important considerations for environmentally safe manufacturing operations. 清洗液的设计指导原则。 清洗液分离清洗那些复杂形状的部分会使困难的。一些 设计指导原则如下: ·避免深层而且有视野盲区的坑。
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·制作一些较小的零部件取代一块难以被清洗的大块部件。 ·在将被清洗的部分提供适当的排水孔。 清洗液此外还有各种各样液体和本章描述的来自工序中浪费的材料的处理处置 都是在制造业操作工程最重要考虑的因素。 28.SUMMARY ? Surface treatments are an important aspect of all manufacturing processes. They are used to impart specific physical and mechanical properties, such as appearance ,and corrosion ,friction ,wear, and fatigue resistance. Several techniques are available for modifying surfaces. ? The processes used include mechanical working and surface treatments, such as heat treatment,deposition, and plating and additional surface coatings, such as enamels, nonmetallic materials, and paints. ? Clean surfaces can be important in the further processing and use of the product (e.g., coating, painting, or welding).Cleaning can have a significant economic impact on manufacturing operations. Various mechanical and chemical cleaning methods may be utilized. 摘要 ? 表面处理在所有的制造业工序中是重要的方面。他们被用来赋予特别的物理 和机械物理性能,像外观和耐腐蚀性、耐摩擦性、耐磨损和抗疲劳性。一些 技术在表面改性方面是有效的。 ? 被使用的工序包括机械加工和表面处理,像热处理、沉积作用、电镀以及表 面附加的如搪瓷、非金属材料和涂料等涂层。 ? 清洁表面在更进一步的处理和产品的使用(例如:涂层、喷涂或是焊接)中 很重要。表面清洁在制造业操作中有着深远的经济影响。各式各样的机械和 化学清洗方法也将得到使用。 29.Mechanical Surface Treatment ? Several techniques are used to mechanically improve the surface properties of manufactured components. The more common methods are described here. ? Shot peening Laser shot peening Water-jet peening Ultrasonic peening ? Roller burnishing Explosive hardening 机械表面处理 ? 一些技术被用来机械性的提高制造部件的表面特性。较为通常的一些方法描 述如下。 ? 喷丸硬化 激光喷射硬化 水力喷射硬化 超声波硬化 ? 滚筒抛光 爆炸硬化 30.Shot peening ? In shot peening, the workpiece surface is impacted repeatedly with a large number of cast steel, glass, or ceramic shot (small balls), which make overlapping indentations on the surface. This action causes plastic surface deformation at depth up to 1.25mm using shot sizes that range from 0.125 to 5 mm in diameter. 喷丸硬化 ? 在喷丸硬化操作过程中, 工件表面被大量的铸钢、 玻璃或是陶瓷球丸 (小球) 反复冲击在表面上造成重叠缺口。 通过使用直径从 0.125 到 5mm 的不同钢球 尺寸,这种操作会导致塑性表面深达 1.25mm 的变形。
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31.Because the plastic deformation is not uniform throughout the part’s thickness, shot peening causes compressive residual stresses on the surface, thus improving the fatigue life of the component by delaying fatigue crack initiation. 因为这种塑性变形在贯穿深度方向上是不规整的, 喷丸硬化导致表面产生残余压 缩应力,所以要通过延缓疲劳开裂来提高部件的疲劳寿命。 ? Unless the process parameters are controlled properly, the plastic deformation of the surface can be so severe that it can damage the surface. The extent of deformation can be reduced by gravity peening, which involves larger shot sizes but with fewer impacts on the workpiece surface. ? 如果不对过程参数进行合理控制,表面的塑性变形会十分严重以致损坏表 面。变形程度可以通过尺寸更大但对工件表面影响更小的球丸冲击来降低。 ? Shot peening is used extensively on shafts, gears, springs, oil-well drilling equipment, and jet-engine parts (such as turbine and compressor blades). However, it should be noted that (if these parts are subjected to high temperatures) the residual stress will begin to relax (thermal relaxation) and their beneficial effects will be diminished greatly. An example is gas-turbine blades at their operating temperatures. ? 喷丸硬化被广泛应用在轴具、齿轮、弹簧、油井钻头设备以及喷气发动机零 件(像涡轮机和压缩机叶片) 。然而,应该注意到(如果这些部分承受高温 的话)残余应力将会变得松弛(热弛豫) ,而且它们的有益的功用也将会被 严重减弱。工作温度下的燃气涡轮叶片就是一个例子。 32.Case Hardening ? The heat-treatment processes described thus far involve microstructural alterations and property changes in the bulk of the material or component by means of through hardening. It is not desirable to through harden parts because a hard part lacks the necessary toughness for these application; a small surface crack could propagate rapidly through such a part and cause total failure. ? 热处理工艺迄今为止一直被描述为包括微结构变化和通过穿透淬火使得材 料或零件内部大部分性质的改变。零件的淬透是不可取的,因为对于这些应 用来讲硬的部分缺乏必需的韧性;一小部分表面裂纹会穿透这个部分快速扩 散导致整体完全失效。 ? In many cases, however , alteration of only the surface properties of a part (hence, the term case hardening) is desirable. This method is useful particularly for improving resistance to surface indentation, fatigue, and wear. Typical application for case hardening are gear teeth, cams , shafts, bearings, fasteners, pins, automotive clutch plates, tools ,and dies. ? 一些案例中,不管怎样,表面一部分的变性(因此,这就是表面硬化)是可 取的。 这个方法是有用的特别是在提高表面压痕阻力、 抗疲劳性及耐磨损性。 表面硬化的经典应用有齿轮齿、凸轮、轴承座、紧固件、钉子、汽车离合器 踏板、工具以及专用模具。 33.Several surface-hardening processes are available: ? A.Carburizing(gas, liquid, and pack carburizing) B.Carbonitriding C. Cyaniding ? D.Nitriding E.Boronzing F. Flame hardening ? G.Introduction hardening H. Laser hardening
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一些常见的表面硬化工序: ? A.渗碳(气体、液体和固体渗碳) B.碳氮共渗 C. 氰化 ? D.渗氮 E.镀青铜 F.火焰淬火 G.感应淬火 H.激光硬化 34.Ion implantation and diffusion coating 离子注入和扩散涂层 ? In ion implantation, ions (charged atoms) are introduced into the surface of the workpiece material. The ions are accelerated in a vacuum to such an extent that they penetrate the substrate to a depth of a few ?m. Ion implantation (not to be confused with ion plating) modifies surface properties by increasing surface hardness and improving resistance to friction, wear, and corrosion. This process can be controlled accurately, and the surface can be masked to prevent ion implantation in unwanted location. ? 在离子注入方面,离子(充满了原子)被注入工件材料的表面。离子在真空 中被加速到它们能够穿透基片达些许微米的程度。离子注入(不要同离子电 镀混淆)通过表面硬度及耐摩擦、耐磨损及耐腐蚀性达到表面改性的目的。 这个过程可以被精确地控制,同时表面也可以被隐蔽起来以防止离子注入到 不需要的位置。 ? Ion implantation is effective particularly on materials such as aluminum, titanium, stainless steels, tool and die steels, carbides, and chromium coating. This process typically is used on cutting and forming tools, dies and molds, and metal prostheses, such as artificial hips and knees. When used in some specific applications, such as semiconductors, this process is called doping-meaning alloying with small amounts of various elements. ? 离子注入法特别在譬如铝、钛、不锈钢、工具和专用模具钢、硬质合金和铬 镀层这些材料商是很有效的。这个工序经常性地被用在工具、专用模具和模 子的切割和成型以及像人造臀股和膝盖的金属假肢上。当被用在像半导体一 些特别的应用上时,这个工序被称为半导体掺杂——意即用少量的各种各样 元素炼制合金。 ? Diffusion coating. This is a process in which an alloying element is diffused into the surface of the substrate (usually steels), altering its surface properties. The alloying elements can be supplied in solid, liquid, or gaseous states . This process has acquired different names (depending on the diffused element), as was seen in Table 4.1, which included diffusion processes such as carburizing, nitriding, and boronizing. ? 扩散法涂层。这是一种掺杂元素被扩散到基体(通常是钢)表面能时改变了 表面特性的工艺。这些掺杂元素能在固态、液态或是气态得到补充。这个工 艺拥有了一些不同的命名(取决于扩散元素) ,正如上面包含了像渗碳、渗 氮和渗硼的扩散过程的表格 4.1 所列。

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