第 3 章阅读理解
(一) A (2011·重庆卷，B) Mapping Your World Different forms of maps are appearing.They allow independent travelers to get local knowledge of places they are visiting ， from the
official to the unusual.Meanwhile，hi?tech developments are creating new ways for us to map the world.Here are two of our favorites： Green Maps Green Maps allows people to share with the world their knowledge of environmentally friendly places and attractions in the local areas. Users add information with a set of icons(图标)，making it easy to read any map, whatever the nationalities of those who produce it . At present there are over five hundred idea is
map projects being developed in 54 countries. Green Maps' advertised “think global，map local”．It is a wonderful way of
gaining all sorts of
information of a place ， ranging from community gardens to good places of birdwatching. Green Maps is not specifically intended for travelers. Not all of its maps are online, so it may be necessary for some users to communicate with the producers through the Green Maps website. Map Mashups Many people use online maps developed by Google, but not many know about the mashups of them. Working in a similar way to Green Maps, Map Mashups allows people to add icons of their own to existing maps to express a certain topic. The mashups is so called because it combines all the knowledge you could ever need. It ranges from the extremely useful, such as where all the World Heritage Sites are, to the most bizarre (古怪的)，such as where America's drunkest cities are.With the mashups added to the basic Google Maps, a multi?layered (多层的) map can be created. 本文讲述了人们最喜欢的地图，一种是 Greens maps，另一种是 Maps Mashups。他们的 共同特点是人们可以在网上编辑地图。 1．According to the passage，which of the following is a characteristic of Green
Maps? A．Aiming at environmental protection. B．Introducing local attractions with icons. C．Offering advice to independent travelers. D．Collecting icons worldwide for local maps. 答案：B。细节理解题。根据第二段一、二句话可知，绿色地图可允许人们分享当地一 些环保的地方及吸引人的东西，并且用图标来添加信息，使人们更容易地看地图，由此可知 B 项正确。 2．Which of the following icons is most probably NOT used in Green Maps?
答案：B。细节理解题。根据第三段第二句话“It's a wonderful way...to good places of bird watching”可知答案为 B。 3．“Map Mashups” is named with the word “mashups”because ________. A．it is produced by users all over the world B．it gathers various kinds of information C．it shares icons with Green Maps D．it is a branch of Google Maps 答案：B。由最后一段的第三句话可知，为什么用“mashups”这个名，是因为它把所有 的知识都结合起来，从最有用的到最古怪的。由此可知 B 项正确。 4．What do Green Maps and Map Mashups have in common? A. They are created by local people. B. They are environmentally friendly. C. Users can edit maps on the Internet. D. Users need to communicate with producers. 答案： C。细节理解题。根据短文最后一段第二句话“Working in a similar way to Greens Maps，Map Mashups allows people to add icons of their own to existing maps to express a certain topic.”可知 C 项正确。 B (2011·四川卷，B)
Exploit your parking space An unused parking space or garage can make money. If you live near a city center or an airport, you could make anything up to ￡ 200 or ￡ 300 a week. Put an advertisement(广告)for free on Letpark or Atmyhousepark. Rent(出租)a room Spare room? Not only will a lodger(房客)earn you an income, but also, thanks to the government?backed “rent a room” program, you won't have to pay any tax on the first ￡4,500 you make per year. Try advertising your room on Roomspare or Roommateeasy. Make money during special events Don't want a full?time lodger? Then rent on a short?term basis. If you live in the capital, renting a room out during the Olympics or other big events could bring in money. Grashpadder can advertise your space. Live on set Renting your home out as a “film set” could earn you hundreds of pounds a day, depending on the film production company and how long your home is needed. A quick search on the Internet will bring up dozens of online companies that allow you to register your home for free—but you will be charged if your home gets picked. Use your roof You need the right kind of roof, but some energy companies pay the cost of fixing solar equipment(around￡14,000), and let you use the energy produced for nothing. In return, they get paid for unused energy fed back into the National Grid. However, you have to sign a 25?year agreement with the supplier, which could prevent you from changing the roof. 如果你拥有自己的多余的房子， 房间或停车场， 如果你按照作者告诉你的上述做法去做， 会轻松地挣到大钱。 5．If you earn ￡5,000 from renting a room in one year, the tax you need to pay will be based on ________. A．￡300 C．￡4,500 B．￡500 D．￡5,000
答案：B。数字计算题。根据第二个段落的信息句“...won't have to pay any tax for the first ￡4,500”，可以明确：所挣得的 4500 磅是不用缴税的，即：需要缴税的是多于 这个数字的钱，本题中，该是 500 磅需要缴税。 6．Where can you put an advertisement to rent out a room during a big event?
A．On Letpark. C．On Grashpadder.
B．On Roomspare. D．On Roommateeasy.
答案：C。细节判断题。 根据第三个段落的最后一句话可以找到明确的答案，即选项 C 是正确的。 7．If you want to use energy free, you have to ________. A．sign an agreement with the government B．pay around ￡14,000 for the equipment C．sell the roof to some energy companies D．keep the roof unchanged within 25 years 答案：D。推理判断题。在最后一段中的最后一句话里含有本答案的信息： “25?year agreement”以及“prevent you from changing your roof”都可以断定选项 D 的说法是符 合原文的。 8．For whom is the text most probably written? A．Lodgers. C．House owners. B. Advertisers. D．Online companies.
答案：C。推理判断题。从每个段落都可以确定：这是个能够对外出租停车位，房间， 房顶等的人，即：是个 house owner，选项 C 是正确的。 C (2011·新课标卷，C) Cassandra Feeley finds it hard to manage on her husband's income. So this year she did something more than a hobby: She planted vegetables in her yard. For her first garden, Ms. Feeley has put in 15 tomato plants, and five rows of a variety
of vegetables. The family's old farm house has become a chicken house, its residents arriving next month. Last year, Ms.Rita Gartin kept a small garden. This year she has made it much larger because, she said, “The cost of everything is going up and I was looking to lose a few pounds too; so it's a win?win situation all around.” They are among the growing number of Americans who, driven by higher living costs and a falling economy(经济), have taken up vegetable gardening for the first time. Others have increased the size of their existing gardens. Seed companies and garden shops say that not since the 1970s has there been such an increase in interest in growing food at home. Now many gardens across the country have been sold out for several months. In Austin, Tex., some of the gardens have a three?year waiting list. George C．Ball Jr, owner of a company, said sales of vegetable seeds and plants are up by 40% over last year, double the average growth of the last five years. Mr.Ball
argues that some of the reasons have been building for the last few years. The big one is the striking rise in the cost of food like bread and milk, together with the increases in the price of fruits and vegetables. Food prices have increased because of higher oil prices. People are now driving less, taking fewer vacations, so there is more time to garden. 本文讲述了由于生活费用增高，加上经济下降，越来越多的人开始自己种菜，并且现在 人们开车少了，旅游少了，有更多的时间来种菜，减少生活费用。 9. What does the underlined word “residents” in Paragraph 1 probably refer to? A．chickens C．gardens B．tomatoes D．people
答案：A。词义猜测题。由上文的 a chicken house(鸡舍)可知，它的居民应该是小鸡， 故 A 项正确。 10．Why is vegetable gardening becoming increasingly popular? A．More Americans are doing it for fun. B ． The price of oil is lower than before. C．There's a growing need for fruits. D．The cost of living is on the rise. 答案：D。细节理解题。由短文第二段第一句话可知，由于生活费增高，经济下降，越 来越多的人们开始自己种菜。故 D 项正确。 11．Which of the following might be the best title for the text? A．Family Food Planning C．A Belt?tightening Move B．Banking on Gardening D．Gardening as a Hobby
答案：B。主旨大意题。本文主要讲述了由于生活费用增高，经济下降，迫使人们自己 种菜来减少开支。A 项意为：家庭食物计划；B 项：依靠种菜；C 项：紧缩腰带运动；D 项： 把种菜当做爱好。 D (2011·山东卷，D) Since the 1970s, scientists have been searching for ways to link the brain with computers. Brain?computer interface(BCI) technology could help people with disabilities send commands to machines. Recently, two researchers, Jose Millan and Michele Tavella from the Federal Polytechnic School in Lausanne, Switzerland, demonstrated(展示)a small robotic wheelchair directed by a person's thoughts. In the laboratory, Tavella operated the wheelchair just by thinking about moving
his left or right hand. He could even talk as he watched the vehicle and guided it with his thoughts. “Our brain has billions of nerve cells. These send signals through the spinal cord (脊髓)to the muscles to give us the ability to move. But spinal cord injuries or other conditions can prevent these weak electrical signals from reaching the muscles，” Tavella says. “Our system allows disabled people to communicate with
external world and also to control devices.” The researchers designed a special cap for the user. This head cover picks up the signals from the scalp( 头 皮 ) and sends them to a computer. The computer interprets the signals and commands the motorized wheelchair. The wheelchair also has two cameras that identify objects in its path. They help the computer react to commands from the brain. Prof. Millan, the team leader, says scientists keep improving the computer software that interprets brain signals and turns them into simple commands. “The practical possibilities that BCI technology offers to disabled people can be grouped in two categories: communication, and controlling devices. One example is this wheelchair.” He says his team has set two goals. One is testing with real patients, so as to prove that this is a technology they can benefit from. And the other is to guarantee that they can use the technology over long periods of time. 本文讲述了科学家正在寻找把大脑与电脑连系起来的方法， 从而帮助残疾人。 大脑与电 脑连接技术，可以帮助残疾人交流和控制设备装置，如轮椅。 12．BCI is a technology that can ________. A. help to update computer systems C. help the disabled to recover B. link the human brain with computers D. control a person's thoughts
答案：B。细节理解题。根据短文第一段可知，科学家寻找把人的大脑与电脑连接起来 的方法，这一方法也即：大脑与电脑连接技术，帮助残疾人向机器发送信号，由此可知 B 项正确。 13. How did Tavella operate the wheelchair in the laboratory? A. By controlling his muscles. C. By moving his hand. B. By talking to the machine. D. By using his mind.
答案：D。细节理解题。根据短文第三段可知，Tavella 通过思考来推动轮椅，用思想 来指导轮椅，故 D 项正确。 14. Which of the following shows the path of the signals described in Paragraph
5? A. scalp→computer→cap→wheelchair C. scalp→cap→computer→wheelchair B. computer→cap→scalp→wheelchair D. cap→computer→scalp→wheelchair
答案：C。顺序排列题，根据第五段的二、三句话可知，头皮把信号传递给帽子，帽子 再把信号传递给电脑，电脑再传译信号，并指令轮椅，由此可知 C 项正确。 15. The team will test with real patients to ________. A. make profits from them C. make them live longer condition 答案：B。细节理解题。根据短文最后一段第二句话可知，他们用真正的病人做实验， 是为了证明这是一项他们能受益的技术，故 B 项正确。 16. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? A. Switzerland, the BCI Research Center B. New Findings about How the Human Brain Works C. BCI Could Mean More Freedom for the Disabled D. Robotic Vehicles Could Help to Cure Brain Injuries 答案：C。主旨大意题。本文主要讲述了 BCI 技术能够帮助残疾人，使他们通过思考就 能操作一些设备装置，这样他们就有更多的自由，由此可知 C 项正确。 E (2011·福建卷，E) The internet will open up new vistas (前景)，create the global village—you B. prove the technology useful to them 2D. learn about their physical
can make new friends all around the world.That，at least, is what it promised us.The difficulty is thatit did not take the human mind into account.The reality is that we can not keep relationship with more than a limited number of people.No matter how hard the internet tries to putyou in communication, its best efforts will be defeated by your mind. The problem is twofold(双重的)．First, there is a limit on the number of people we can hold in mind and have a meaningful relationship with.That number is about 150 and is set by the size of our brain.Second, the quality of your relationships depends on the amount of time you invest (投入) in them.We invest a lot in a small number of people and then distribute what's left among as many others as we can.The problem is that if we invest little time in a person, our engagement with that person will decline (减弱)until eventually it dies into “someone I once knew”． This is not, of course, to say that the internet doesn't serve a socially valuable
function.Of course it does.But the question is not that it allows you to increase the size of your social circle to include the rest of the world, but that you can keep your relationships with your existing friends going even though you have to move to the other side of the world. In one sense, that's a good thing.But it also has a disadvantage.If you continue to invest in your old friends even though you can no longer see them, then certainly you aren't using your time to make new friends where you now live.And I suspect that probably isn't the best use of your time.Meaningful relationships are about being able to communicate with each other, face to face.The internet will slow down the rate with which relationships end, but it won't stop that happening eventually. 一般认为网络在让人与人交流方面起到了非常重要的作用。 而本文作者对此却持怀疑态 度。他认为网络在加强人与人之间的关系方面并没有起到应有的作用。 17．What is stressed in the first paragraph? A．The present situation of the internet. B．The difficulty in communication on the internet. C．The socially valuable function of the internet. D．The role of the human mind in the internet communication. 答案： 主旨大意题。 D。 由文章第一段特别是最后一句“No matter how hard the internet tries to put you in communication，its best efforts will be defeated by your mind.” 可知人类思维在网络交流中起到举足轻重的作用，故 D 项正确。 18．The underlined word “engagement” in the second paragraph probably means “______”． A．appointment C．interview B．connection D．agreement
答案：B。词义猜测题。句意为：问题是如果我们在一个人身上花很少时间，我们跟这 个人的联系将会减弱到“他只是一个曾经认识的人”，因此划线单词意为“联系，交往”。 19．According to the passage, the author holds the view that______. A．the internet fails to play so valuable a role in communication as it promised B．the internet determines the quality of social relationships C．the internet greatly increases the size of social circles D．the internet communication is no less effective than the face?to?face talk 答案：A。推理判断题。由文章的一些信息“This is not ，of course，to say that the internet doesn't serve a socially valuable function.以及 The internet will slow down the rate with which relationships end，but it won't stop that happening eventually.”
等可推知网络在人与人之间的交流上并没有起到应有的作用，故 A 项正确。 20．What is the author's attitude towards the use of the internet to strengthen relationships? A．He is uncertain about it. C．He approves of it. B．He is hopeful of it. D．He doubts it.
答案：D。态度观点题。通读全文可知，文章讲述了网络在人与人之间的交流方面并没 有起到应有的作用，因此作者对网络在加强人与人之间关系方面持的是怀疑的态度，D 项正 确。 (二) A (2011·福建卷，A) Driving a car is not just handling controls and judging speed and distance.It requires you to predict what other road users will do and get ready to react to something unexpected.When alcohol is consumed，it enters your bloodstream and acts as a depresant (抑制药)，damaging eyesight，judgement and co?ordination (协调)， slowing down reaction time and greatly increasing the risk of accidents.Even below the drink driving limit，driving will be affected. Alcohol may take a few minutes to be absorbed into the bloodstream and start action on the brain.Absorption rate is increased when drinking on an empty stomach or when consuming drinks mixed with fruit juice.To get rid of alcohol from the body is a very slow process and it is not possible to speed it up with any measures like taking a shower or having a cup of tea or coffee. The present Road Traffic Ordinance states clearly that the limit of alcohol concentration is： ●50 milligrams of alcohol per 100ml of blood；or ●22 micrograms of alcohol per 100ml of breath；or ●67 milligrams of alcohol per 100ml of uriue (尿液)． Drivers who cause traffic accidents，or who commit a moving traffic offence or are being suspected of drink driving will be tested. Any driver found drinking beyond the limit will be charged.The driver declared guilty may be fined a maximum of HK $25,000 and be sentenced to up to 3 years in prison and punished for 10 driving?offence points；or temporarily banned from driving. The same punishment applies to failing to provide speeimens(样本) for breath，
blood or urine tests without good excuse. Drink driving is a criminal offence.Be a responsible driver，think before you drink. For the safety of yourself and other road users，never drive after consuming alcohol. 本文主要讲述酒后驾车的危害，对酒驾的惩罚等，呼吁人们为了自身和他人的健康， 一定不要酒后驾车。 1．The first paragraph is mainly about______. A．the introductions of driving skills B．the damage of drinking to your body C．the effect of drinking on driving absorbed 答案：C。主旨大意题。由第一段的“it enters your bloodstream and acts as a depressant，damaging eyesight，judgement and co?ordination，slowing down reaction time and greatly increasing the risk of accidents.”可知，本段主要讲述酒后驾车的 影响，故 C 项正确。 2．The underlined word “it” in the second paragraph refers to “______”． A．alcohol C．blood B．absorption D．process D ． the process of alcohol being
答案：D。词义猜测题。由前半句“To get rid of alcohol from the body is a very slow process”，可知，后半句表示“采取像淋浴或者是喝杯茶，咖啡等的措施来加速这个 过程是不可能的”故 it 指代 process，D 项正确。 3．Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A．Drinking below the drink driving limit has no effect on driving. B．Alcohol is taken in more quickly when drunk with fruit juice. C．Having a cup of tea helps to get rid of alcohol from the body. D．50 milligrams of alcohol per 100ml of breath is below the drink driving limit. 答案：B。细节理解题。由第二段中“Absorption rate is increased when drinking on an empty stomach or when consuming drinks mixed with fruit juice”可知 B 项正确。 4．A driver suspected of drink driving______. A．should provide specimens for testing B．will be forbidden to drive for 3 years C．will be punished for 10 driving?offence points D．should pay a maximum fine of HK$25,000 答案：A。细节理解题。由文章信息“Drivers who cause traffic accidents ，or who commit a moving traffic offence or are being suspected of drink driving will be
tested”可知 A 项正确。 B (2011·安徽卷，B) Think about the different ways that people use the wind. You can use it to fly a kite or to sail a boat. Wind is one of our cleanest and richest power sources (来 源), as well as one of the oldest. Evidence shows that windmills (风车) began to be used in ancient Iran back in the seventh century BC. They were first introduced to Europe during the 1100s, when armies returned from the Middle East with knowledge of using wind power. For many centuries, people used windmills to grind (磨碎) wheat into flour or pump water from deep underground when electricity was discovered in the late 1800s, people living in remote areas began to use them to produce electricity. This allowed them to have electric lights and radio. However, by the 1940s when electricity was available to people in almost all areas of the United States, windmills were rarely used. During the 1970s, people started becoming concerned about the pollution that is created when coal and gas are burned to produce electricity. People also realized that the supply of coal and gas would not last forever. Then, wind was rediscovered, though it means higher costs. Today, there is a global movement to supply more and more of our electricity through the use of wind. 风能早在公元前七世纪就开始被人们用风车所利用， 当人们发明了电以后， 风能被用来 发电，但随着电的广泛使用，风车逐渐不被人们使用了。而进入二十世纪七十年代后，人们 又逐渐认识到了风能的优势。 5．From the text we know that windmills ________. A. were invented by European armies B. have a history of more than 2,800 years C. used to supply power to radio in remote areas D. have rarely been used since electricity was discovered 答案：C。细节理解题。由第一段最后两句话可知风车首先是在古代伊朗被使用，故排 除 A 项；公元前七世纪到现在应是不足 2800 年，故排除 B 项；由第二段当中的第二、三句 话可以排除 D 项，同时也能知道 C 项是正确的。 6．What was a new use for wind power in the late l9th century? A. Sailing a boat. C. Grinding wheat into flour. B. Producing electricity. D. Pumping water from underground.
答案：B。细节理解题。由文章第二段中的第二句话可知“在十九世纪末期人们发现了 电以后，住在偏远地区的人们开始用风车发电”。 7．One of the reasons wind was rediscovered in the 1970s is that ________. A. wind power is cleaner B. it is one of the oldest power sources C. it was cheaper to create energy from wind D. the supply of coal and gas failed to meet needs 答案：A。主旨大意题。由文章最后一段可知。 8．What would the author probably discuss in the paragraph that follows? A. The advantages of wind power. B. The design of wind power plants. C. The worldwide movement to save energy. D. The global trend towards producing power from wind. 答案：D。推理判断题。文章最后一句话“如今，出现了一个全球化的运动，要通过风 能的利用来提供越来越多的电力”，表明作者会就这个话题继续展开。 C (2011·北京卷，C) Students and Technology in the Classroom I love my Blackberry—it's my little connection to the larger world that can go anywhere with me. I also love my laptop computer，as it holds all of my writing and thoughts.Despite this love of technology, I know that there are times when I need to move away from these device(设备) and truly communicate with others. On occasion，I teach a course called History Matters for a group of higher education managers. My goals for the class include a full discussion of historical themes and ideas.Because I want students to thoroughly study the material and exchange their ideas with each other in the classroom，I have a rule—no laptops, iPads, phones, etc.When students were told my rule in advance of the class, some of them were not happy. Most students assume that my reasons for this rule include unpleasant experiences in the past with students misusing technology. There's a bit of truth to that.Some students assume that I am anti?technology. There's no truth in that at all. I love technology and try to keep up with it so I can relate to my students. The real reason why I ask students to leave technology at the door is that I think there are very few places in which we can have deep conversations and truly
engage complex ideas. Interruptions by technology often break concentration and allow for too much dependence on outside information for ideas. I want students to dig deep within themselves for inspiration and ideas. I want them to push each other to think differently and to make connections between course material and the class discussion. I've been teaching my history class in this way for many years and the evaluations reflect student satisfaction with the environment that I create.Students realize that with deep conversation and challenge, they learn at a level that helps them keep the course material beyond the classroom. I'm not saying that I won't ever change my mind about technology use in my history class, but until I hear a really good reason for the change，I'm sticking to my plan. A few hours of technology?free dialogue is just too sweet to give up. 本文是一篇议论文。作者是一位老师，非常喜欢高科技产品，但是为了让他的学生在课 堂上讨论历史话题、互相交流观点，他规定在课堂上学生不允许使用手提电脑、iPads 及电 话。刚开始学生不能理解，但是后来在对学生的学习评估中，学生对这一方法还是非常满意 的。 9．Some of the students in the history class were unhappy with ________. A. the course material C. discussion topics B. others' misuse of technology D. the author's class regulations
答案：D。细节理解题。由第二段的“When students were told my rule in advance of the class, some of them were not happy .”可知 D 项正确。 10．The underlined word “engage ”in para.4 probably means ________. A. explore C. change B. accept D. reject
答案： A。 词义猜测题。 根据第四段的“I want students to dig deep within themselves for inspiration and ideas.”可知作者让学生们进行深切的交流，目的是让学生们获得激 励和一些观点，故 A 项 explore“探索”更为接近；accept “接受”；change“改变”； reject “拒绝”。 11．According to the author, the use of technology in the classroom may ________. A. keep students from doing independent thinking B. encourage students to have in?depth conversations C. help students to better understand complex themes D. affect students' concentration on course evaluation 答案： A。推理判断题。由第四段的“Interruptions by technology often break
concentration and allow for too much dependence on outside information for ideas .” 可知在教室内使用高科技产品使学生们对于外界信息过于依赖，不能独立思考。 12．It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the author ________. A. is quite stubborn B. will give up teaching history C. will change his teaching plan soon D. values technology?free dialogues in his class 答案： D。推理判断题。由最后一段的最后一句话可知作者对自己的不使用高科技产品 让学生进行对话的方法是满意的。 D (2011·陕西卷，A)
这是一则关于“PALACE THEATRE & OPERA HOUSE”的广告。介绍“Live Card”与“Get it together 团购”的好处以及预定方式。 13．If you want to join Live Card to save money on tickets, you can call________.
A．0844 847 2484 C．0844 499 6699
B．0800 587 5007 D．0161 245 6609
答案：C。细节理解题。根据 Live Card 一栏最后一句 Call 0844 499 6699 to join Live Card today 可知 C 项正确。 14．How can you pay for a ticket when you book by post? A．By visiting the website of a post office. B．By going to your local bank in person. C．By enclosing your Live Card in an envelope. D．By providing your credit card information. 答案：D。细节理解题。细读 By post 一栏可以排除 A、B、C 三项，D 项“提供个人信 用卡信息”与该栏中“enclosing (附寄)．..your credit details”相对应。 15．What benefit can group bookers enjoy according to the text? A．Delayed payment for tickets. C．Reduced booking fees by phone. B．Invitations to opening nights. D．Generous discounts on tickets.
答案：A。推理判断题。根据文中对于“团体预购”的介绍可知，团购者可以享受以下 好处：免费打预订电话、不拿预订费、被邀请参加宴会、先预定后付款的项目。所以 A 项正 确。 E (2011·江西卷，D) Why should mankind explore space? Why should money, time and effort be spent exploring and researching something with so few apparent benefits? Why should resources be spent on space rather than on conditions and people on Earth? These are questions that, understandably, are very often asked. Perhaps the best answer lies in our genetic makeup(基因构成) as human beings. What drove our ancestors to move from the trees into the plains, and on into all possible areas and environments? The wider the spread of a species, the better its chance of survival. Perhaps the best reason for exploring space is this genetic tendency to expand wherever possible. Nearly every successful civilization has explored, because by doing so, any dangers in surrounding areas can be identified and prepared for. Without knowledge, we may be completely destroyed by the danger. With knowledge, we can lessen its effects. Exploration also allows minerals and other potential(潜在的) resources to be found. Even if we have no immediate need of them, they will perhaps be useful later.
Resources may be more than physical possessions. Knowledge or techniques have been acquired through exploration. The techniques may have medical applications which can improve the length or quality of our lives. We have already benefited from other spin?offs including improvements in earthquake prediction, in satellites for weather forecasting and in communications systems. Even non?stick pans and mirrored sunglasses are by?products(副产品) of technological developments in the space industry! While many resources are spent on what seems a small return, the exploration of space allows creative, brave and intelligent members of our species to focus on what may serve to save us. While space may hold many wonders and explanations of how the universe was formed or how it works, it also holds dangers. The danger exists, but knowledge can help human beings to survive. Without the ability to reach out across space, the chance to save ourselves might not exist. While Earth is the only planet known to support life, surely the adaptive ability of humans would allow us to live on other planets. It is true that the lifestyle would be different, but human life and cultures have adapted in the past and surely could in the future. 本文是一篇议论文， 向我们阐述了人类进行太空探索的原因。 人类的基因构成决定了人 类探索其他领域包括太空的能力。 人类探索太空可能暂时没有多大用处， 但是在将来这可能 会帮助人类生存下去。 16．Why does the author mention the questions in Paragraph 1? A．To express his doubts. B．To compare different ideas.
C．To introduce points for discussion. D．To describe the conditions on Earth. 答案：C。推理判断题。作者在第一段提出问题目的是引出下面要讨论的话题。 17．What is the reason for exploring space based on Paragraph 2? A．Humans are nature?born to do so. B．Humans have the tendency to fight. C．Humans may find new sources of food. D．Humans don't like to stay in the same place. 答案：A。细节理解题。根据第二段的第一句可知人类探索太空的原因是其基因的构成。 18． underlined word “spin?offs” in Paragraph 4 probably refers to ________. The A．survival chances C．unexpected benefits B．potential resources D．physical possessions
答案：C。词义猜测题。后面所说的“improvements in earthquake prediction，in
satellites for weather forecasting and in communications systems”可知此处的划线 短语意为“益处，好处”。 19．What makes it possible for humans to live on other planets? A．Our genetic makeup. C．The adaptive ability of humans. B．Resources on the earth. D．By?products in space exploration.
答案：C。细节理解题。根据最后一段的第一句话可知，人类的适应能力会让人类在其 他星球生存下去。 20．Which of the statements can best sum up the passage? A．Space exploration has created many wonders. B．Space exploration provides the best value for money. C．Space exploration can benefit science and technology. D．Space exploration may help us avoid potential problems on Earth. 答案：D。主旨大意题。A、B 两项可以容易地排除。全文主要讲的是太空探索对帮助人 类生存的益处，而不是对科技的益处。 (三) A (2011·全国卷，A) Since 1984 ， Philadelphia has been cleaning up its act. One by one ， graffiti?covered walls are being changed into outdoor art. So far，more than 1,800 murals (壁画) have been painted. Philadelphia now has more murals than any other American city. The walls that were once ugly with graffiti (涂鸦) are now covered with beautiful pictures of historical heroes and modern art, thanks to the Mural Arts Program (MAP). Its work makes schools and public places attractive, and its citizens very proud. The program began as part of Philadelphia's Anti?Graffiti Network. Jane Golden is the MAP's artistic director. “When people ask me what our program is about, ”she says，“I answer them with one word: hope.” Each year, the MAP offers youth art programs and workshops. Some one?time graffiti writers even help paint MAP murals. The MAP's work, says Golden, is all about developing a sense of community (社 区). When a neighborhood requests a mural，the MAP works with the people there to develop a message. Some messages have been “Safe Streets，”“Love and Care, ”and “Peace Walk.” The MAP receives up to 50 requests for murals each week. Last year，the workers
painted 140 murals. “The making of a mural enters people's collective memory as an extraordinary， pleasant moment in neighborhood history，”says Golden，who began as a muralist in Los Angeles. 本文论述了费城通过 MAP 这一项目逐步地将墙体上的涂鸦变成了一种室外艺术形式 ——壁画，从而给人们带来了新的希望。 1. What can be the best title for the text? A. Love，from Graffiti Writers to Muralists B. MAP, a New Company in Philadelphia C. Jane，an Excellent Mural Artist D. Hope，One Wall at a Time 答案：D。主旨大意题。本文主要介绍费城通过 MAP 这一项目逐步地将墙体上的涂鸦变 成了一种室外艺术形式——壁画，从而给人们带来了新的希望。 2. What is the Mural Arts Program in Philadelphia aimed at? A. Helping the young find jobs. C. Fighting against graffiti. B. Protecting the neighborhood. D. Attracting more visitors.
答案：C。细节理解题。由第二段的“the program began as part of philadelphia's Anti?Graffiti Network.”可知 C 项正确。 3. How does the MAP decide on the message for a mural? A. By having discussions with people in the community. B. By seeking advice from the city government. C. By learning from the young graffiti writers. D. By studying the history of the city. 答案：A。细节理解题。由第三段第二句可知答案为 A 项。 4．Which of the following words best describes the work of the MAP? A. Difficult. C. Experimental. B. Dangerous. D. Successful.
答案：D。推理判断题。由文章第四段可知 the MAP 每周会收到很多的邀请，每年会画 很多的壁画，故可推出工作很成功，答案为 D 项。 B (2011·湖北卷，B) Howling is a behaviour commonly observed among a wolf pack.As pack animals， wolves work together to hunt and rely on howling as an important means of communication among each other.There are different explanations of a wolf's howl
and it appears that there may be more to discover. One theory is that wolves howl to bond better together.It's almost as if howling together helps the pack stay together.Perhaps something similar to people feeling a sense of involvement with each other when singing a song together. But this theory may be wrong，explains Fred H．Harrington，a professor who studies wolf behaviour. Indeed，there have been times when wolves have been seen one moment howling in a chorus，and the next，quarreling among each other.It appears that usually the lowest?ranking members of the pack may actually be “punished” for joining in the chorus at times.So is howling a way to strengthen a social bond or just a way to reconfirm status among its members? —Why do wolves howl for sure? What is clear，however，is that howling is often used among packmates to locate each other.Hunting grounds are distant and it happens that wolves may separate from one another at times.When this happens，howling appears to be an excellent means of gathering. Howling，interestingly，is a contagious behaviour.When one wolf starts to howl， very likely others will follow.This is often seen to occur in the morning，as if wolves were doing some sort of “roll call”where wolves all howl together to report their presence. 动物的嚎叫有其目的性， 而人的对唱也是为了呼唤同伴， 所以人们认为两者在这一方面 是相同的；但专家似乎发现，狼的嚎叫不仅仅是为了呼朋引伴，因为有时也会争斗，因此， 研究之后，专家发现：狼的嚎叫可能是个传染形式的行为，有时也是为了呼唤同伴。 5．What is the possible similarity between wolves' howling together and humans' singing in chorus? A．The act of calling each other. C．The act of hunting for something. B．The sense of accomplishment. D．The sense of belonging to a group.
答案： 细节判断题。 D。 从第二段的信息词“bond better together”以及“help the pack stay together”等可以确定两者的共同点与选项 D 的说法是一致的。 6．Why does Harrington think the“social bond”theory may be wrong? A．Wolves separate from each other after howling. B．Wolves tend to protect their hunting grounds. C．Wolves sometimes have quarrels after howling together. D．Wolves of low rank are encouraged to join in the chorus. 答案：C。细节判断题。根据第三段中提到的“and the next, quarrelling among each other”以及“it appears that...be punished for joining...”都可以表明选项 C 的说
法是符合原文之意的。 7．Researchers are sure that wolves often howl to________. A．show their ranks C．report the missing ones B．find their companions D．express their loneliness
答案：B。细节判断题。根据倒数第二段中的第一句话的信息词“locate each other” 以及最后一句中的“appears to be an excellent means of gathering”都可以明确：狼 的嚎叫正是为了找伴儿，故选项 B 的说法是最符合原文的。 8． “Howling...is a contagious behaviour”(in the last paragraph)means________. A．howling is a signal for hunting B．howling is a way of communication
C．howling often occurs in the morning D．howling spreads from one to another 答案：D。句意理解题。从最后一段中的第二句话中可以找到 contagious 一词的理解： 一个随着一个的去做事情，如同选项 D 所说的那样。 C (2011·江苏卷，C) According to the US government, wind farms off the Pacific coast could produce 900 gigawatts of electricity every year.Unfortunately，the water there is far too deep for even the tallest windmills(see picture)to touch bottom. An experiment under way off the coast of Norway，however，could help put them anywhere.
The project, called Hywind，is the world's first large?scale deepwater wind turbine( 涡 轮 发 电 机 ) ． Although it uses a fairly standard 152?ton,2.3?megawatt turbine，Hywind represents totally new technology. The turbine will be fixed 213 feet above the water on a floating spar(see picture)，a technology Hywind's creator， the Norwegian company StatoilHydro，has developed recently. The steel spar, which is filled with stones and goes 328 feet below the sea surface, will be tied to the ocean floor by three cables(缆索)；these will keep the spar stable and prevent the turbine from moving up and down in the waves.Hywind's stability(稳定性)in the cold and rough sea would prove that even the deepest corners of the ocean are suitable for wind power. If all goes according to plan, the turbine will start producing
electricity six miles off the coast of southwestern Norway as early as September. To produce electricity on a large scale, a commercial wind farm will have to use bigger turbines than Hywind does, but it's difficult enough to balance such a large turbine so high on a floating spar in the middle of the ocean. To make that turbine heavier, the whole spar's centre of gravity must be moved much closer to the ocean's surface. To do that, the company plans to design a new kind of wind turbine, one whose gearbox(变速箱) sits at sea level rather than behind the blades(see
Hywind is a test run, but the benefits for perfecting floating wind?farm technology could be extremely large. Out at sea, the wind is often stronger and steadier than close to shore, where all existing off shore windmills are planted. Deep?sea farms are invisible from land, which helps overcome the windmill?as?eyesore objection. If the technology catches on, it will open up vast areas of the planet's surface to one of the best low?carbon power sources available. 本文为科普短文， 讲述世界上第一个深海风力发电机——涡轮发电机以及它的发电原理 及好处。 9．The Hywind project uses totally new technology to ensure the stability of________. A. the cables which tie the spar to the ocean floor B. the spar which is floating in deep?sea water C. the blades driven by strong and steady sea wind D. the stones filled in the spar below the sea surface 答案：B。细节理解题。由文章第二段特别是“these will keep the spar stable and prevent the turbine from moving up and down in the waves”可知 B 项正确。 10．To balance a bigger turbine high on a floating spar, a new type of turbine is to be designed with its gearbox sitting________. A. on the sea floor C. at sea level B. on the spar top D. behind the blades
答案： 细节理解题。 C。 由文章第三段最后一句“...one whose gearbox sits at sea level rather than behind the blades.”可知 C 项正确。 11．Wide applications of deepwater wind power technology can________. A. solve the technical problems of deepwater windmills B. make financial profits by producing more turbines C. settle the arguments about environmental problems
D. explore low?carbon power resources available at sea 答案： 细节理解题。 D。 由文章最后一句“...it will open up vast areas of the planet's surface to one of the best low?carbon power sources available.”可知 D 项正确。 D (2011·天津卷，C) An idea that started in Seattle's public library has spread throughout America and beyond.The concept is simple：help to build a sense of community in a city by getting everyone to read the same book at the same time. In addition to encouraging reading as a pursuit (追求) to be enjoyed by all， the program allows strangers to communicate by discussing the book on the bus， as well as promoting reading as an experience to be shared in families and schools.The idea came from Seattle librarian Nancy Pearl who launched(发起)the“If All of Seattle Read the Same Book”project in 1998.Her original program used author visits, study guides and book discussion groups to bring people together with a book, but the idea has since expanded to many other American cities，and even to Hong Kong. In Chicago，the mayor (市长) appeared on television to announce the choice of
To Kill a Mockingbird as the first book in the “One Book，One Chicago”program.As
a result，reading clubs and neighborhood groups sprang up around the city.Across the US, stories emerged of parents and children reading to each other at night and strangers chatting away on the bus about plot and character. The only problem arose in New York，where local readers could not decide on one book to represent the huge and diverse population.This may show that the idea works best in medium?sized cities or large towns, where a greater sense of unity (一致) can be achieved.Or it may show that New Yorkers rather missed the point，putting all their energy and passion into the choice of the book rather than into discussion about a book itself. Ultimately，as Nancy points out, the level of success is not measured by how many people read a book，but by how many people are enriched by the process，or have enjoyed speaking to someone with whom they would not otherwise have shared_a_word. 西雅图的一名图书管理员建议大家在同一时间阅读同一本书， 并允许陌生人在公共场所 对这本书进行讨论， 这样做既可以促进陌生人之间的交流， 又能培养公众的社区意识。 然而， 在像纽约等一些大城市，由于人口背景复杂，很难选出一本具有代表性的书，或许这一想法 在一些中等城市更容易实施。 12．What is the purpose of the project launched by Nancy?
A．To invite authors to guide readers. B．To encourage people to read and share. C．To involve people in community service. D．To promote the friendship between cities. 答案：B。细节理解题。由第二段“Her original program used author visits，study guides and book discussion groups to bring people together with a book”．可以推 知正确答案。 13．Why was it difficult for New Yorkers to carry out the project? A．They had little interest in reading. B．They were too busy to read a book. C．They came from many different backgrounds. D．They lacked support from the local government. 答案：C。细节理解题。由第四段第一句话可知，纽约城市大，人口众多且文化背景多 样化，因此人们很难选出一本有代表性的书。 14．According to the passage，where would the project be more easily carried out? A．In large communities with little sense of unity. B．In large cities where libraries are far from home. C．In medium?sized cities with a diverse population. D．In large towns where agreement can be quickly reached. 答案：D。细节理解题。由第四段第二句话可知，这一想法在中等城市或大的城镇较容 易实施，因为在那儿人们很容易达成一致。C 项为人口多样化的中等城市，与句意不符。 15．The underlined words“shared a word”in Paragraph 5 probably mean______. A．exchanged ideas with each other C．gained life experience B．discussed the meaning of a word D．used the same language
答案：A。词义猜测题。由第二段内容可知，该活动的目的就是让陌生人通过讨论这本 书而达到交流的目的，故 A 项正确。 16．According to Nancy，the degree of success of the project is judged by______. A．the careful selection of a proper book B．the growing popularity of the writers C．the number of people who benefit from reading D．the number of books that each person reads 答案：C。细节理解题。根据最后一段“...the level of success is not measured by how many peope read the book，but by how many people are enriched by the process...”
可知 C 项正确。 E (2011·辽宁卷，D) The Coalition for the Homeless is an organization that seeks to address the needs of the homeless population in the United States.It is a network of offices，some of which provide food and houses for the homeless population，and some of which fight for the passing of laws that would give every American the right to a place to call home.According to the Coalition's studies，of over two hundred million people living in the United States，up to three million are homeless—and the number is still growing.Since the late 1970s，fast?rising house prices，large cuts in government supported housing programs， economic recession(经济衰退) have made it impossible and for many Americans to meet housing costs.Sadly，this has resulted in a number of persons being forced to leave their homes and/or unable to find new affordable homes.According to another research ， families with children appear to be the fastest?growing part of the homeless population，making up 39% of it.The old idea of a homeless person，that of the single man who gets drunk all the time，is no longer true.A much larger part of the population now finds itself homeless.Even worse， once a person becomes homeless，he often finds it impossible to find a job，since most employers require anyone who wants a job from them to provide a home address on a job application. 本文记叙了无家可归者联盟试图帮助解决无家可归人的需要。为他们提供食物和房屋， 为他们的权力而战。从二十世纪七十年代以来，由于房价上升，政府支持减少，经济衰退， 使无家可归者越来越多，更糟的是，他们找不到工作。 17．The underlined word “address” in the first line probably means “______”． A．talk about C．fight for B．deal with D．write to
答案：B。词义猜测题。从下文可知，该联盟提供给无家者食物，房子，即表明该联盟 在努力满足和解决无家者的需求。故 B 项正确。 18．How many people are homeless in the U．S.according to the Coalition studies? A．39% of the population. C．About 3 million people. B．200 million people. D．About one?fifth of the population.
答案：C。细节理解题。根据短文第三句话可知，美国有两亿人口，其中有多达三百万 人无家可归，且这个数还在上升。 19．Homeless people often have difficulty finding a job because______.
A．they have no home addresses B．they mostly have a drinking problem C．they aren't supported by government programs D．they often don't have enough work experience 答案：A。细节理解题。根据短文最后一句可知，因为大多数雇主要求找工作的人在申 请表上填上家庭住址，所以无家可归者发现他们不可能找到工作。 20．What is the main cause of the rising number of the homeless in the U．S.? A．The passing of new housing laws. C．The slow construction of houses. B．The fast growth of family size. D．The ever?rising price of housing.
答案：D。细节理解题。根据第四句话可知，从 20 世纪 70 年代，房价快速增长，使许 多美国人不可能满足住房费用，从而使更多的人无家可归。 (四) A (2011·辽宁卷，A) I got my first driver's license (执照) in 1953 by taking driver education in my first year at Central High School in Charlotte，North Carolina.Four years later when it was time to renew my license I was a married woman.Henry and I were living in Baltimore，Maryland.Two weeks before my 20th birthday，Henry drove me to the motor vehicle office on a hot July afternoon.When I got to the office and showed to the man behind the counter my North Carolina driver's license，ready to renew，the man told me that I was under age by Maryland law since I was not yet 21.“Mr.Henry Smith， your husband，will have to sign for you，”he said. I argued，pointing to a very large belly (肚子) of mine，“I am married.I am having a baby.Why should I have to have someone sign for me to drive？”He answered coldly，“It's the law，madam.” Henry encouraged me to calm down，just go ahead and get the license and be done with it.“No，”I said.I refused to have him sign for me.So I left without a Maryland license. I called the North Carolina Motor Vehicle Office and renewed my NC license by mail—using my name Susan Brown.And thus it was for the next twelve years.Since Henry was in the army I could drive under my home state license.By the time Henry left the army we were once again living in Maryland，and I had to take the Maryland driver's exam.Since then I just go in and renew every four years—sign the name Susan Brown， have my new picture taken，and walk out with a license to drive.
本文讲述了美国不同的州法律不一样。在北卡罗莱纳州，中学时就可拿驾照，而在马里 兰州 21 岁才能申请驾照。 1．Susan got her first driver's license______. A．before she got married to Henry C．after she finished high school B．when she was twenty years old D．when she just moved to Maryland
答案：A。细节理解题。根据短文第一段第一、二句话可知，苏珊在上中学时拿到的第 一个驾照，四年后换证时，她已结婚了。由此可知 A 项正确。 2．Susan failed to renew her license the first time in Maryland because______. A．she was forbidden to drive by Maryland law B．she lacked driving experience in Maryland C．she was to give birth to a baby soon D．she insisted on signing for herself 答案：D。推理判断题。根据第三段可知，她拒绝丈夫替她签名注册，因此她没拿到驾 照。由此可知正是因为她坚持自己签名注册，使她没换证成功。 3．We can infer from the text that in the U．S.______. A．American males should serve in the army B．different states may have different laws C．people have to renew their licenses in their home states D．women should adopt their husbands' family names after marriage 答案：B。推理判断题。由马里兰州和北卡罗莱纳州的法律来看，不同的州有不同的法 律。 B (2011·山东卷，B) Tim Richter and his wife, Linda, had taught for over 30 years near Buffalo, New York—he in computers, she in special education. “Teaching means everything to us，” Tim would say. In April 1998, he learned he would need a heart operation. It was the kind of news that leads to some serious thinking about life's purpose. Not long after the surgery, Tim saw a brochure describing Imagination Library, a program started by Dolly Parton' s foundation (基金会) that mailed a book every month to children from birth to age five in the singer's home town of Sevier, Tennessee.“I thought, maybe Linda and I could do something like this when we retire，” Tim recalls. He placed the brochure on his desk, “as a reminder.” Five years later, now retired and with that brochure still on the desk, Tim clicked on imagination library.com. The program had been opened up to partners who
could take advantage of book and postage discounts. The quality of the books was of great concern to the Richters. Rather than sign up online, they went to Dollywood for a look?see. “We didn't want to give the children rubbish，” says Linda. The books—reviewed each year by teachers, literacy specialists, and Dollywood board members—included classics such as Ezra Jack Keats's The Snowy Day and newer books like Anna Dewdney's Llama Llama series. Satisfied, the couple set up the Richter Family Foundation and got to work. Since 2004, they have shipped more than 12,200 books to preschoolers in their area. Megan Williams, a mother of four, is more than appreciative: “This program introduces us to books I've never heard of .” The Richters spend about $400 a month sending books to 200 children. “Some people sit there and wait to die，” says Tim. “Others get as busy as they can in the time they have left.” 本文讲述了 Tim 心脏手术后， 对人生的目标有严肃认真的思考， 术后， 参加 Dolly Parton 的基金会， 并与妻子 Linda 成立了 Richter 家庭基金会， 每月花 400 美元给学龄前儿童买书。 4．What led Tim to think seriously about the meaning of life? A．His health problem. C．The influence of his wife. B．His love for teaching. D．The news from the Web.
答案：A。细节理解题。根据短文第一段第二句话“In April...leads to some serious thinking about life's purpose”可知 A 项正确。 5．What did Tim want to do after learning about Imagination Library? A．Give out brochures. C．Write books for children. B．Do something similar. D．Retire from being a teacher.
答案：B。细节理解题。根据短文第二段第二句话“I thought，maybe Linda and I could do something like this when we retire”可知 B 项正确。 6．According to the text, Dolly Parton is ________. A. a well?known surgeon C. a singer born in Tennessee B. a mother of a four?year?old D. a computer programmer
答案：C。细节理解题。根据短文第二段第一句话“...a program started by Dolly Parton's foundation that mailed a book to children from birth to age five in the singer's home town of sevier，Tenneasea”中的 singer 可知 C 项正确。 7．Why did the Richters go to Dollywood? A. To avoid signing up online. B. To meet Dollywood board members.
C. To make sure the books were the newest. D. To see if the books were of good quality. 答案：D。细节理解题。根据短文倒数第三段第一、二句话可知，书的质量是 Richter 夫妇关心的问题。因此他们没有在网上报名，而是亲自去多莉坞看看。因此可知 D 项正确。 8．What can we learn from Tim's words in the last paragraph? A. He needs more money to help the children. B. He wonders why some people are so busy. C. He tries to save those waiting to die. D. He considers his efforts worthwhile. 答案：D。推理判断题。Tim 最后说：有些人坐着等死，而另一些人在剩余的时间内尽 可能的忙碌。 由上文可知， Richter 夫妇对自己所做的事情很满意， 并且其他人也非常感激， 由此可推出 D 项正确。
Attractions Do you： ◆Love the National Park, value it and hope to safeguard its future? ◆Wish to see the beautiful landscape of the Park protected? ◆Like to enjoy peaceful, informal recreation within the Park? Aims The Friends organization aims are to help protect and improve the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park for all to enjoy. We are a voluntary organization and registered charity without financial links to the National Park Authority. Activities We encourage everyone to enjoy the National Park through regular talks and visits to interesting places in the Park with expert guides. We keep an eye on planning applications, Park Authority policies and threats to the National Park such as massive leisure complexes. We work with likeminded organizations such as the Campaign for National Parks to make our voice more effective. We help children to understand the National Park by sponsoring publications such as an adventure booklet and projects in local schools. Benefits ◆Guided visits to places of interest which may not always be available to the general public. ◆All members receive our regular News and Views. ◆Talks by experts in their fields on current issues. ◆A discount is available on Friends items for sale. ◆Satisfaction of participation in work parties, for those willing and able to be involved. If interested, please complete the Application Form at www._fpnp.org.uk.
本篇是一份海报，介绍了一个叫做“Friends organization”的组织。 9．Which of the following is discouraged by the Friends organization? A. To build massive complexes for public amusement.
B. To prevent possible damages to the National Park. C. To help protect and improve the Park for all to enjoy. D. To sponsor publications and projects in local schools. 答案： 细节理解题。 Activities 中第二段第一句“We keep an eye on...and threats A。 由 to the National Park such as massive leisure complexes.”可知，这一组织不赞成建 大量的休闲娱乐设施。 10. One of the benefits for members of Friends is to________. A. have Friends' goods free of charge B. visit any place not open to the public C. take part in work parties if they want to D. give talks in their fields on current issues 答案：C。细节理解题。由 Benefits 中的第五条“Satisfaction of participation in work parties, for those willing and able to be involved.”可知 C 项符合题意。 11．The purpose of this poster is to invite more people to________. A. raise money for the Friends organization B. join the Friends organization and be members of it C. work as managers for Pembrokeshire National Park D. enjoy the landscape of Pembrokeshire National Park 答案：B。写作意图题。由文章最后一句“If interested, please complete the Application Form at www.fpnp.org.uk.”可知该海报的目的是邀请更多的人参与。 D (2011·湖南卷，C) A recent study of ancient and modern elephants has come up with the unexpected conclusion that the African elephant is divided into two distinct(不同的) species. The discovery was made by researchers at York and Harvard Universities when they were examining the genetic relationship between the ancient woolly mammoth and mastodon to modern elephants—the Asian elephant, African forest elephant, and African savanna elephant. Once they obtained DNA sequences (序列)from two fossils (化石), mammoths and mastodons, the team compared them with DNA from modern elephants. They found to their amazement that modern forest and savanna elephants are as distinct from each other as Asian elephants and mammoths. The scientists used detailed genetic analysis to prove that the African savanna elephant and the African forest elephant have been distinct species for several
million years. The divergence of the two species took place around the time of the divergence of Asian elephants and woolly mammoths. This result amazed all the scientists. There has long been debate in the scientific community that the two might be separate species, but this is the most convincing scientific evidence so far that they are indeed different species. Previously, many naturalists believed that African savanna elephants and African forest elephants were two populations of the same species, despite the elephants' significant size differences. The savanna elephant has an average shoulder height of 3.5 metres while the forest elephant has an average shoulder height of 2.5 metres. The savanna elephant weighs between six and seven tons, roughly double the weight of the forest elephant. But the fact that they look so different does not necessarily mean they are different species. However the proof lay in the analysis of the DNA. Alfred Roca, assistant professor in the Department of Animal Sciences at the University of Illinois, said, “We now have to treat the forest and savanna elephants as two different units for conservation purposes. Since 1950, all African elephants have been conserved as one species. Now that we know the forest and savanna elephants are two very distinctive animals, the forest elephant should become a bigger priority (优先) for conservation purposes.” 本文讲述了一项新的科学发现： 通过对非洲森林大象和非洲草原大象 DNA 的鉴定， 科学 家们得出结论：它们是两种不同的物种。我们要保护这些珍稀动物。 12．One of the fossils studied by the researchers is that of ________ A．the Asian elephant C．the savanna elephant B．the forest elephant D．the mastodon elephant
答 案 ： D 。 细 节 理 解 题 。 由 第 3 段 第 一 句 话 “...two fossils ， mammoths and mastodons...”可知 D 项正确。 13．The underlined word “divergence”in Paragraph 4 means “________ ”． A．evolution C．separation B．exhibition D．examination
答案：C。词义猜测题。科学家门一直在证明非洲森林大象和非洲草原大象是两种不同 的物种，他们之间的分歧使科学家们大为惊讶。 14．The researchers' conclusion was based on a study of the African elephant's ________.
答案：A。细节理解题。由倒数第二段最后一句话“However the proof lay in the analysis of the DNA”可知。 15．What are Alfred Roca's words mainly about? A．The conservation of African elephants. B．The purpose of studying African elephants. C．The way to divide African elephants into two units. D．The reason for the distinction of African elephants. 答案：A。推理判断题。由文章最后一段“...for conservation purposes”可知 A 项 正确。 16．Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A．Naturalists' Beliefs about Elephants B．Amazing Experiments about Elephants C．An Unexpected Finding about Elephants D．A Long Scientific Debate about Elephants 答案：C。主旨大意题。全文讲述了关于非洲大象的一项意外的发现。 E (2011·新课标卷，D) Wanted, Someone for a Kiss We're looking for producers to join us on the sound of London Kiss 100FM. You'll work on the station's music programmes. Music production experience in radio is necessary, along with rich knowledge of modern dance music. Please apply in writing to Producer Vacancies, Kiss100. Father Christmas We're looking for a very special person, preferably over 40, to fill our Father Christmas suit. Working days: Every Saturday from November 24 to December 15 and every day from December 17 to December 24 except Sundays, 10：30?16：00. Excellent pay. Please contact( 联 系 )the Enterprise Shopping Centre, Station Parade, Eastbourne. Accountants Assistant When you join the team in our Revenue Administration Unit, you will be providing
assistance within all parts of the Revenue Division, dealing with post and other general duties. If you are educated to GCSE grade C level we would like to talk to you. This position is equally suitable for a school leaver or for somebody who has office experience. Wealden District Council Software Trainer If you are aged 24?45 and have experience in teaching and training, you could be the person we are looking for. You should be good at the computer and have some experience in programme writing. You will be allowed to make your own decisions, and to design courses as well as present them. Pay upwards of ￡15,000 for the right person. Please apply by sending your CV (简历) to Mrs R. Oglivie, Palmlace Limited. 本文是一则招聘音乐制作人、圣旦老人、会计助理、软件培训人员的广告。 17．Who should you get in touch with if you hope to work in a radio station? A．Producer Vacancies, Kiss 100. C．The Enterprise Shopping Centre. B．Mrs Oglivie, Palmlace Limited. D．Wealden District Council.
答案：A。细节理解题。根据第一则广告的最后一句可知答案。 18．We learn from the ads that the Enterprise Shopping Centre needs a person who ________. A．is aged between 24 and 40 C．should deal with general duties B．may do some training work D．can work for about a month
答案： 细节理解题。 D。 根据第二则广告的“working days： Every Saturday from November 24 to December 15 and every day from December 17 to December 24 except Sundays, 10?30?16?00”可知 D 项正确。 19．Which position is open to recent school graduates? A．Producer, London Kiss. C．Accountants Assistant. B．Father Christmas. D．Software Trainer.
答案：C。细节理解题。根据第三则广告的最后一句可知中学毕业生适合这一工作。 20．What kind of person would probably apply to Palmlace Limited? A．One with GCSE grade C level. B．One with some office experience. C．One having good computer knowledge. D．One trained in producing music programmes. 答案：C。细节理解题。根据最后一则广告可知，擅长电脑和程序编写的人可以申请 Palmlace 有限公司。
(五) A (2011·新课标卷，A) When milk arrived on the doorstep When I was a boy growing up in New Jersey in the 1960s, we had a milkman delivering milk to our doorstep. His name was Mr. Basille. He wore a white cap and drove a white truck. As a 5?year?old boy, I couldn't take my eyes off the coin changer fixed to his belt. He noticed this one day during a delivery and gave me a quarter out of his coin changer. Of course, he delivered more than milk. There was cheese, eggs and so on. If we needed to change our order, my mother would pen a note—“Please add a bottle of buttermilk next delivery”—and place it in the box along with the empty bottles. And then, the buttermilk would magically (魔术般) appear. All of this was about more than convenience. There existed a close relationship between families and their milkmen. Mr.Basille even had a key to our house, for those times when it was so cold outside that we put the box indoors, so that the milk wouldn't freeze. And I remember Mr. Basille from time to time taking a break at our kitchen table, having a cup of tea and telling stories about his delivery. There is sadly no home milk delivery today. Big companies allowed the production of cheaper milk, thus making it difficult for milkmen to compete. Besides, milk is for sale everywhere, and it may just not have been practical to have a delivery service. Recently, an old milk box in the countryside I saw brought back my childhood memories. I took it home and planted it on the back porch (门廊). Every so often my son's friends will ask what it is. So I start telling stories of my boyhood, and of the milkman who brought us friendship along with his milk. 本文讲述了自己小时候与送奶人之间的故事。Basille 先生不仅是送奶的，而且和他的 家人建立了密切的关系。现在大公司开始大量生产奶，到处都有卖奶的，因此不再需要送奶 服务，但作者很怀念以前的事情。 1．Mr. Basille gave the boy a quarter out of his coin changer ________. A．to show his magical power C．to satisfy his curiosity B．to pay for the delivery D．to please his mother
答案：C。推理判断题。由短文第一段最后两句话可知：“我一直盯着他腰带上的钱包， 当 Basille 注意到这一点时，从里面拿了一枚硬币给了我”。由此可知，是为了满足我的好
奇心。 2．What can be inferred from the fact that the milkman had the key to the boy's house? A．He wanted to have tea there. B．He was a respectable person.
C．He was treated as a family member. D．He was fully trusted by the family. 答案：D。推理判断题。由短文第三段可知，我们与送奶人有密切的关系，他有我们家 的钥匙，并不时来我们家休息、聊天、讲故事。由此可推断我们一家人非常信任他。 3．Why does home milk delivery no longer exist? A．Nobody wants to be a milkman now. B．It has been driven out of the market. C．Its service is getting poor. D．It is forbidden by law. 答案：B。推理判断题。由短文倒数第二段可知，由于大公司生产大量的廉价奶，人们 到处都可以买到，不再需要送奶的。由此可知送奶业被挤出的市场。 4．Why did the author bring back home an old milk box? A．He missed the good old days. stories. C．He needed it for his milk bottles. D．He planted flowers in it. 答案：A。细节理解题。由短文最后一段可知，旧奶箱使他回想起来童年时代的记忆， 因此他把这个旧奶箱带回家。由此可知，他想念过去的美好日子。 B (2011·陕西卷，B) Most people know that Marie Curie was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize, and the first person to win it twice. However, few people know that she was also the mother of a Nobel Prize winner. Born in September, 1897, Irene Curie was the first of the Curies' two daughters. Along with nine other children whose parents were also famous scholars, Irene studied in their own school, and her mother was one of the teachers. She finished her high school education at the College of Sévigné in Paris. Irene entered the University of Paris in 1914 to prepare for a degree in mathematics and physics. When World War I began, Irene went to help her mother, who was using X?ray facilities(设备) to help save the lives of wounded soldiers.Irene continued the work by developing X?ray facilities in military hospitals in France and Belgium. Her services were recognised in the form of a Military' Medal by the
B ． He wanted to tell interesting
French government. In 1918, Irene became her mother's assistant at the Curie Institute. In December 1924, Frederic Joliot joined the Institute, and Irene taught him the techniques required for his work. They soon fell in love and were married in 1926. Their daughter Helene was born in 1927 and their son Pierre five years later. Like her mother, Irene combined family and career. Like her mother, Irene was awarded a Nobel Prize, along with her husband, in 1935. Unfortunately, also like her mother, she developed leukemia because of her work with radioactivity(辐射能). Irene Joliot?Curie died from leukemia on March 17, 1956. 本文是一篇人物介绍。介绍居里夫人大女儿 Irene Curie 的一生。 5．Why was Irene Curie awarded a Military Medal? A．Because she received a degree in mathematics. B．Because she contributed to saving the wounded. C．Because she won the Nobel Prize with Frederic. D．Because she worked as a helper to her mother. 答案：B。细节理解题。根据文章第三段可知，第一次世界大战开始后，Irene 帮助母 亲救助伤员，法国政府以军功章的形式表示对她的贡献的认可。所以选择 B 项。 6．Where did Irene Curie meet her husband Frederic Joliot? A．At the Curie Institute. C．At a military hospital. B．At the University of Paris. D．At the College of Sévigné.
答案：A。推理判断题。文章第四段说：在 1918 年，Irene 在居里夫人研究院成为母亲 的助手，1924 年 12 月 Frederic Joliot 加入了该研究院，Irene 教给他该项工作要求的技 术，不久他们相爱了并于 1926 年结婚，由此可推断出 C 项正确。 7．When was the second child of Irene Curie and Frederic Joliot born? A．In 1932. C．In 1897. B．In 1927. D．In 1926.
答案：A。细节理解题。第四段最后一句表明：他们第一个孩子于 1927 年出生，5 年后 (1932 年)第二个孩子出生，所以 A 项正确。 8．In which of the following aspects was Irene Cuire different from her mother? A．Irene worked with radioactivity. C．Irene won the Nobel Prize once. B．Irene combined family and career. D．Irene died from leukemia.
答案：C。推理判断题。纵观全文可知，Irene 在“与放射性物质打交道/把家庭与事业 相结合/死于 leukemia”这三方面与母亲相同，不同的是 Irene 获得一次诺贝尔奖，母亲两 次。
C (2011·辽宁卷，C) Many people believe Henry Ford invented the automobile (汽车)．But Henry Ford did not start to build his first car until 1896.That was eleven years after two Germans developed the world's first automobile.Many people believe Henry Ford invented the production line that moved a car's parts to the worker，instead of making the worker move to the parts.That is not true， either.Many factory owners used methods of this kind before Ford.What Henry Ford did was to use other people's ideas and make them better.And he made the whole factory a moving production line. In the early days of the automobile，almost every car maker raced his cars.It was the best way of gaining public notice.Henry Ford decided to build a racing car.Ford's most famous race was his first one.It was also the last race in which he drove the car himself. The race was in 1901，at a field near Detroit.All of the most famous cars had entered, but only two were left：the Winton and Ford's.The Winton was famous for its speed.Most people thought the race was over before it began. The Winton took an early lead.But halfway through the race, it began to lose power.Ford started to gain.And near the end of the race, he took the lead.Ford won the race and defeated the Winton.His name appeared in newspapers and he became well?known all over the United States.Within weeks of the race, Henry Ford formed a new automobile company.In 1903, a doctor in Detroit bought the first car from the company.That_sale was the beginning of Henry Ford's dream.Ford said: “I will build a motor car for the great mass of people.It will be large enough for the family, but small enough for one person to operate and care for.It will be built of the best materials.It will be built by the best men to be employed.And it will be built with the simplest plans that modern engineering can produce.It will be so low in price that no man making good money will be unable to own one.” The Model T was a car of that kind.It only cost $850.It was a simple machine that drivers could depend on.Doctors bought the Model T ． So did farmers.Even criminals. They considered it the fastest and surest form of
transportation.Americans loved the Model T．They wrote stories and songs about it.Thousands of Model T's were built in the first few years. 本文记叙了亨利福特充分利用别人的想法， 生产出了自己的汽车， 形成了自己的生产流 水线。通过赛车比赛，使公众关注到自己的汽车，然后建立了自己的汽车公司，为所有的普
通顾客生产汽车。 9．What do we know about Henry Ford from Paragraph 1? A．He made good use of ideas from others. B．He produced the first car in the world. C．He knew how to improve auto parts. D．He invented the production line. 答案：A。细节理解题。根据短文第一段倒数第二句话可知：福特所做的就是利用别人 的想法，然后更好地利用。 10．Why did Henry Ford take part in the 1901 car race? A．To show off his driving skills. C．To learn about new technology. B．To draw public attention. D．To raise money for his new company.
答案：B。细节理解题。根据短文第二段可知，开始时，每个汽车制造者都开赛车，并 且这是引人注意的最好方法。因此他制造自己的赛车，进行比赛，目的是引人注意。 11．“That sale” in Paragraph 4 refers to______. A．the selling of Ford cars at reduced prices B．the sale of Model T to the mass of people C．the selling of a car to a Detroit doctor D．the sales target for the Ford Company 答案：C。词义猜测题。由上一句话“In 1903, a doctor in Detroit bought the first car from the company”可知，that sale 指代的是医生买车这件事。 12．What was Henry Ford's dream according to the text? A．Producing cars for average customers. B．Building racing cars of simple design. C．Designing more car models. D．Starting more companies. 答案：A。细节理解题。由短文倒数第二段及最后一段可知，他造的车价格低，能挣钱 的人都能买得起他的车，医生，农民甚至罪犯都买他的车。由此可知他的梦想就是为普通老 百姓造车。 D (2011·四川卷，D) “Experience may possibly be the best teacher，but it is not a particulary good teacher.” You might think that Winston Churchill or perhaps Mark Twain spoke those words, but they actually come from James March, a professor at Stanford University and a pioneer in the field of organizational decision making. For years
March( possibly the wisest philosopher of management) has studied how humans think and act，and he continues to do so in his new book The Ambiguities of Experience. He begins by reminding us of just how firmly we have been sticking to the idea of experiential learning ： “Experience is respected ； experience is sought ； experience is explained.”The problem is that learning from experience involves(涉 及) serious complications (复杂化)，ones that are part of the nature of experience itself and which March discusses in the body of this book. In one interesting part of the book，for example, he turns a doubtful eye toward the use of stories as the most effective way of experiential learning. In our efforts to make stories interesting, he argues, we lose part of the complicated truth of things. He says“The more accurately( 精 确 地 )reality is presented ， the less understandable the story，and the more understandable the story，the less realistic it is.” Besides being a broadly knowledgeable researcher, March is also a poet, and his gift shines through in the depth of views he offers and the simple language he uses. Though the book is short, it is demanding：Don't pick it up looking for quick, easy lessons. Rather, be ready to think deeply about learning from experience in work and life. 多年来，人们强调经验型学习。而一位名叫 James Mark 的却说：经验可能是最好的老 师，却不是一个特别好的老师。通过对于经验型学习，本文介绍了 James Mark 的关于经验 的书。 13．According to the text, James March is ________. A．a poet who uses experience in his writing B．a teacher who teaches story writing in university C．a researcher who studies the way humans think and act D．a professor who helps organizations make important decisions 答案：C。细节判断题。从第一个段落中最后一句话里可以找到信息句，即同选项 C 所 说的一致。 14．According to James March, experience ________. A．is overvalued C．should be actively sought 答案：A B．is easy to explain D．should be highly respected
推理判断题。从文章的开头以及文中的字里行间“the problem is...”
“turn a doubtful eye on...” 以及“think deeply about experience learning”等可 以推测出 James 对于经验学习持怀疑态度，认为人们太过于重视经验学习这一方式了。
15．What can we learn from Paragraph 3? A．Experience makes stories more accurate. B．Stories made interesting fail to fully present the truth. C．The use of stories is the best way of experiential learning. D．Stories are easier to understand when reality is more accurately described. 答案：B。细节判断题。在倒数第二段中，James 所说的话中“to make stories more interesting, we lose part of the complicated truth of things”就表明了故事越有趣， 就越没有真实感，同选项 B 所说。 16．What's the purpose of this text? A．To introduce a book. C．To explain experiential learning. making. 答案：A。作者意图判断题。纵观全文，作者一直都在围绕着一本书，在阐述关于本书 中的内容以及本书作者的观点等，故选 A。 E (2011·湖北卷，E) Which are you more likely to have with you at any given moment—your cell?phone or your wallet? Soon you may be able to throw your wallet away and pay for things with a quick wave of your smart phone over an electronic scanner. In January，Starbucks announced that customers could start using their phones to buy coffee in 6,800 of its stores.This is the first pay?by?phone practice in the U．S.，but we're likely to see more wireless payment alternatives as something called near field communication(NFC)gets into America's consumer electronics.Last December，some new smart phones which contain an NFC chip were introduced to the public. Already in use in parts of Asia and Europe，NFC allows shoppers to wave their phones a few inches above a payment terminal—a contact?free system built for speed and convenience.But before NFC becomes widely adopted in the U．S.，a few problems need to be worked out，like who will get to collect the profitable transaction(交 易 )fees.Although some credit card providers have been experimenting with wave?and?pay systems that use NFC?enabled credit cards，cellphone service providers may try to muscle their way into the point?of?sale (POS)market.Three big cellphone service providers have formed a joint venture(合资企业)that will go into operation over the next 15 months.Its goal is“to lead the U．S. payments industry from cards
B．To describe a researcher. D．To discuss organizational decision
to mobile phone.” The other big NFC issue ， apart from how payments will be processed ， is security.For instance，what's to stop a thief from digitally pickpocketing you? “We're still not at the point where an attacker can just brush against you in a crowd and steal all the money out of your phone，”says Jimmy Shah，a mobile security researcher，“Users may also be able to set transaction limits，perhaps requiring a password to be entered for larger purchases.” Still uneasy about this digital?wallet business？Keep in mind that if you lose your smart phone，it can be located on a map and remotely disabled.Plus，your phone can be password protected.Your wallet isn't. 随着手机的普遍使用，以及手机功能的提升，如今，用手机付费购物都已经成了现实。 随着第一部能够付费的手机的诞生， 以及其配套的科技手段的支撑， 付费购物手机很快便成 为美国市场上的抢手货。 17．What is predicted to happen in the U．S.? A．The expansion of cellphone companies. B．The boom of pay?by?phone business. C．The disappearance of credit cards. D．The increase of Starbucks sales. 答案：B。推理判断题。从第二个段落的第二句话，随着第一部“用手机付费”的手机 的上市，美国人会看到“more wireless payment”，可以推断出：这种手机会迅速火起来， 即如同选项 B 所说的“boom”。 18．The NFC technology can be used to________. A．ensure the safety of shoppers C．make purchase faster and simpler B．collect transaction fees easily D．improve the quality of cellphones
答案：C。理解判断题。根据本段中关于 NFC 的说法“wireless payment alternative” 可以断定：这种无限付费方式自然是极其方便的，即：快捷的购物手段。故选项 C 的说法是 对的。 19．Three cellphone service providers form a joint venture to________. A. strengthen their relationship B. get a share in the payments industry C. sell more cellphones D. test the NFC technology 答案：B。理解判断题。根据第三个段落“may try to muscle their way into the point?of?sale market”以及最后一句话“Its goal is...”可以找到本问题的提示，即：
为了打入这个新兴行业的市场，由此可见，选项 B 的说法与原文的信息句非常吻合。 20．According to the passage，what can users do if they lose their smart phones? A. Stop the functioning of their phones. C. Get all the money out of their phones. B. Set up a password. D. Cancel large purchases.
答案：A。细节判断题。从最后一段中的信息词“remotely disabled”可以断定选项 A 是正确的。 (六) A (2011·全国卷，B) For those who study the development of intelligence (智力) in the animal world， self?awareness is an important measurement. An animal that is aware (意识) of itself has a high level of intelligence. Awareness can be tested by studying whether the animal recognizes itself in the mirror, that is, its own reflected image (反射出的影像). Many animals fail this exercise bitterly, paying very little attention to the reflected image. Only humans， and some intelligent animals like apes and dolphins，have been shown to recognize that the image in the mirror is of themselves. Now another animal has joined the club. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers report that an Asian elephant has passed the mirror self?reflection test. “We thought that elephants were the next important animal，”said Diana Reiss of the Wildlife Conservation Society, an author of the study with Joshua M. Plotnik and Fans their large brains ， Reiss said, dolphins.” The researchers tested Happy. Maxine and Patty, three elephants at the Bronx Zoo. They put an 8?foot?square mirror on a wall of the animals' play area (out of the sight of zoo visitors) and recorded what happened with cameras, including one built in the mirror. The elephants used their long noses to find what was behind it，and to examine parts of their bodies. Of the three, Happy then passed the test，in which a clear mark was painted on one side of her face. She could tell the mark was there by looking in the mirror, and she used the mirror to touch the mark with her long nose.
B. M. de Waal of Emory University. With elephants “seemed like cousins to apes and
Diana Reiss said，“We knew elephants were intelligent, but now we can talk about their intelligence in a better way.” 文章通过实验说明能意识到自身形象的动物具有高智商。 1. What can mirror tests tell us about animals? A. Whether they have large brains. B. Whether they have self?awareness. D. Whether they enjoy playing
C. Whether they enjoy outdoor exercises. with mirrors.
答案：B。细节理解题。由文章第二段第一句话“Awareness can be tested by...”可 知 B 项正确。 2. Why does the author mention apes and dolphins in the text? A. They are most familiar to readers. B. They are big favorites with zoo visitors. C. They are included in the study by Reiss. D. They are already known to be intelligent. 答案：D。推理判断题。由第二段最后一句可知人们已经知道 apes 和 dolphins 是聪明 的。 3. What made Happy different from Maxine and Patty? A. She used her nose to search behind the mirror. B. She recognized her own image in the mirror. C. She painted a mark on her own face. D. She found the hidden camera. 答案：B。推理判断题。由倒数第二段可推出 Happy 能辨别出自己在镜子中的形象。 B (2011·山东卷，A) Arthur dramatists Miller(1915?2005)is universally recognized as one of the greatest of the 20th century. Miller's father had moved to the USA from
Austria?Hungary, drawn like so many others by the“Great American Dream”. However, he experienced severe financial hardship when his family business was ruined in the Great Depression of the early 1930s. Miller's most famous play, Death of a Salesman, is a powerful attack on the American system, with its aggressive way of doing business and its insistence on money and social status as indicators of worth. In Willy Loman, the hero of the play, we see a man who has got into trouble with this system. Willy is “burnt out” and in the cruel world of business there is no room for sentiment: if he can't do the
work, then he is no good to his employer, the Wagner Company, and he must go. Willy is painfully aware of this, and at a loss as to what to do with his lack of success. He refuses to face the fact that he has failed and kills himself in the end. When it was first staged in 1949, the play was greeted with enthusiastic reviews， and it won the Tony Award for Best Play，the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award, and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.It was the first play to win all three of these major awards. Miller died of heart failure at his home in Roxbury，Connecticut, on the evening
of February 10, 2005, the 56th anniversary of the first performance of Death of a
Salesman on Broadway.
本文讲述了亚瑟·米勒，美国著名的剧作家，以及他的著名的戏剧《男售货员之死》 ， 当这部戏剧第一次搬上舞台时，赢得了巨大的成功，获得了三项大奖。 4. Why did Arthur Miller' s father move to the USA? A. He suffered from severe hunger in his home country. B. He was attracted by the “Great American Dream”． C. He hoped to make his son a dramatist. D. His family business failed. 答案：B。细节理解题。根据短文第一段第二句话“Miller's father had moved to the USA from Austria?Hungary ， drawn like so many others by the ‘Great American Dream’．”可知答案。 5．The play Death of a Salesman ________. A. exposes the cruelty of the American business world B. discusses the ways to get promoted in a company C. talks about the business career of Arthur Miller D. focuses on the skills in doing business 答案：A。细节理解题。根据短文第二段第三、四句话可知，Willy Loman 已陷入美国 社会制度的困境中，他已精疲力尽，在这残酷的商业世界中，他不知道应该怎样做，最后， 他选择了自杀。由此可知 A 项正确。 6. What can we learn about Willy Loman? A. He treats his employer badly. B. He runs the Wagner Company. C. He is a victim of the American system. D. He is regarded as a hero by his colleagues. 答案：C。推理判断题。由短文第二段可知，Willy Loman 在这残酷的商业世界中，根
本没有情感可言，但是他又不能对不起他的雇主和公司，他又不知道如何处理自己的失败， 只有选择自杀，由此可知他是美国社会制度的牺牲品。 7. After it was first staged, Death of a Salesman________. A. achieved huge success C. was warmly welcomed by salesmen B. won the first Tony Award D. was severely attacked by dramatists
答案：A。细节理解题。由短文第三段可知，戏剧 Death of a Salesman 第一次搬上舞 台，就赢得了三项大奖，故 A 项正确。 8. What is the text mainly about? A. Arthur Miller and his family. C. The hardship Arthur Miller experienced. play. 答案： 主旨大意题。 D。 综观全文可知， 本文主要讲述了亚瑟·米勒及他的名著 Death of a Salesman，故 D 项正确。 C (2011·江苏卷，A) We know the famous ones—the Thomas Edisons and the Alexander Graham Bells—but what about the less famous inventors? What about the people who invented the traffic light and the windshield wiper(雨刮器)？Shouldn't we know who they are? Joan McLean thinks so. In fact, McLean, a professor of physics at Mountain University in Range, feels so strongly about this matter that she's developed a course on the topic. In addition to learning “who”invented“what”， however, McLean also likes her students to learn the answers to the“why” and “how” questions. According to McLean， “When students learn the answers to these questions, they are better prepared to recognize opportunities for inventing and more motivated to give inventing a try.” Her students agree. One young man with a patent for an unbreakable umbrella is walking proof of McLean's statement. “If I had not heard the story of the windshield wiper's invention，”said Tommy Lee, a senior physics major，“I never would have dreamed of turning my bad experience during a rainstorm into something so constructive.”Lee is currently negotiating to sell his patent to an umbrella producer. So, just what is the story behind the windshield wiper? Well，Mary Anderson came up with the idea in 1902 after a visit to New York City.The day was cold and stormy, but Anderson still wanted to see the sights，so she jumped aboard a streetcar.
B. The awards Arthur Miller won. D. Arthur Miller and his best?known
Noticing that the driver was struggling to see through the snow covering the windshield，she found herself wondering why there couldn't be a built?in device for cleaning the window. Still wondering about this when she returned home to Birmingham, Alabama, Anderson started drafting out solutions. One of her ideas, a lever(操作 杆)on the inside of a vehicle that would control an arm on the outside, became the first windshield wiper. Today we benefit from countless inventions and innovations. It's hard to imagine driving without Garrett A． Morgan's traffic light. It's equally impossible to picture a world without Katherine J．Blodgett's innovation that makes glass invisible. Can you picture life without clear windows and eyeglasses? 大发明家与重要的发明固然令人振奋， 但生活中也离不开小发明， 本篇文章鼓励年轻人 要善于把握发明的契机。 9． mentioning “traffic light”and “windshield wiper”， author indicates By the that countless inventions are________. A. beneficial，because their inventors are famous B. beneficial，though their inventors are less famous C. not useful, because their inventors are less famous D. not useful, though their inventors are famous 答案：B。细节理解题。由文章最后一段，特别是第一句“Today we benefit from countless inventions and innovations.”可知信号灯和雨刮器等这些小的发明使我们受 益。第一段最后一句“Shouldn't we know who they are？”意思是“难道我们不该知道他 们(发明者)是谁吗？”可知发明者不怎么出名。 10．Professor Joan McLean's course aims to________. A. add colour and variety to students' campus life B. inform students of the windshield wiper's invention C. carry out the requirements by Mountain University D. prepare students to try their own inventions 答案： 细节理解题。 D。 由第二段内容， 特别是最后一句“...‘When students learn the answers to these questions, they are better prepared to recognize opportunities for inventing and more motivated to give inventing a try.’”可知 D 项最佳。 11．Tommy Lee's invention of the unbreakable umbrella was______. A. not eventually accepted by the umbrella producer B. inspired by the story behind the windshield wiper C. due to his dream of being caught in a rainstorm
D. not related to Professor Joan McLean's lectures 答案：B。细节理解题。由第三段中 Tommy Lee 的话“If I had not heard the story of the windshield wiper's invention...I never would have dreamed of turning my bad experience during a rainstorm into something so constructive.”可知他的发明是因 为受到雨刮器的发明故事的启发。 12．Which of the following can best serve as the title of this passage? A. How to Help Students to Sell Their Inventions to Producers? B. How to Design a Built?in Device for Cleaning the Window? C. Shouldn't We Know Who Invented the Windshield Wiper? D. Shouldn't We Develop Invention Courses in Universities? 答案：C。主旨大意题。全文讲述一些重要的发明，虽不为人知，却非常有益，借以鼓 励年轻人要善于把握发明的契机。其他选项都比较片面。 D (2011·辽宁卷，B) About 21,000 young people in 17 American states do not attend classes in school buildings.Instead，they receive their elementary (初等) and high school education by working at home on computers.The Center for Education Reform says the United States has 67 public“cyberschools”，and that is about twice as many as two years ago. The money for students to attend a cyberschool comes from the governments of the states where they live.Some educators say cyberschools receive money that should support traditional public schools.They also say it is difficult to know if students are learning well. Other educators praise this new form of education for letting students work at their own speed.These people say cyberschools help students who were unhappy or unsuccessful in traditional schools.They say learning at home by computer ends long bus rides for children who live far from school. Whatever the judgment of cyberschools， they are getting more and more popular.For example，a new cyberschool called Commonwealth Connections Academy will take in students this fall.It will serve children in the state of Pennsylvania from ages five through thirteen. Children get free equipment for their online education.This includes a computer， a printer，books and technical services.Parents and students talk with teachers by telephone or by sending emails through their computers when necessary.
Students at cyberschools usually do not know one another.But 56 such students who finished studies at Western Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School recently met for the first time.They were guests of honor at their graduation. 本文讲述了美国很多年轻人不去学校学， 而是在家参加网络学习。 教育家对网络学校持 不同的看法。 有些教育家认为很难知道网络学习质量的好坏。 有些教育家认为网络学习可按 学生自己的速度进行，且不用坐车去上学。不管怎样，网络学习越来越受欢迎。 13．What do we know from the text about students of a cyberschool? A．They have to take long bus rides to school. B．They study at home rather than in classrooms. C．They receive money from traditional public schools. D．They do well in traditional school programs. 答案：B。细节理解题。根据短文第一段第一、二句可知，学生不用去学校而是在家里 通过电脑学习。 14．What is a problem with cyberschools? A．Their equipment costs a lot of money. B．They get little support from the state government. C．It is hard to know students' progress in learning. D．The students find it hard to make friends. 答案：C。细节理解题。根据短文第二段最后一句话可知：很难知道网络学习的好坏。 15．Cyberschools are getting popular because______. A．they are less expensive for students B．their students can work at their own speed C．their graduates are more successful in society D．they serve students in a wider age range 答案：B。细节理解题。根据短文第三段第一句话可知，网络学习的好处是学生可按自 己的速度进行。 16．We can infer that the author of the text is______. A．unprejudiced in his description of cyberschools B．excited about the future of cyberschools C．doubtful about the quality of cyberschools D．disappointed at the development of cyberschools 答案：A。推理判断题。综观全文可知，作者客观地描述了网络学习的优缺点，由此可 知作者对网络学校并不含偏见。 E
(2011·福建卷，D) Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis was one of the most private women in the world, yet when she went to work as an editor in the last two decades of her life, she revealed (展现) herself as she did nowhere else. After the death of her second husband，Greek shipping magnate (巨头) Aristotle Onassis lacqueline's close friend and former White House social secretary Letitis Baldrige made a suggestion that she consider a career (职业) in publishing.After consideration，Jacqueline accepted it.Perhaps she hoped to find there some ideas about how to live her own life. She became not less but more interested in reading.For the last 20 years of her life, Jacqueline worked as a publisher's editor, first at Viking，then at Doubleday, pursuing(追求)a late?life career longer than her two marriages combined.During her time in publishing, she was responsible for managing and editing more than 100 successfully marketed books.Among the first books were
In the Russian Style and Inventive Paris Clothes.She also succeeded in persuading
TV hosts Bill Moyers and Joseph Campbell to transform their popular television conversation into a book ， The Power of Myth.The book went on to become an international best?seller.She dealt，too with Michael Jackson as he prepared his autobiography(自传)，Moonwalk. Jacqueline may have been hired for her name and for her social relations，but she soon proved her worth.Her choices，suggestions and widespread social relations were of benefit both to the publishing firms and to Jacqueline herself.In the books she selected for publication，she built on a lifetime of spending time by herself as a reader and left a record of the growth of her mind.Her books are the autobiogaphy she never wrote.Her_role_as_First_Lady ， in_the_end ，
was_overshadowed_by_her_performance_as_an_editor.However，few knew that she had achieved so much. 本文主要讲述 Jacqueline 在选择了编辑这一职业后所做出的成就。 在这一行业里她的 光芒甚至压过了她作为第一夫人的头衔。 17．We can learn from the passage that Jacqueline______. A．became fond of reading after working as an editor B．was in charge of publishing 100 books C．promoted her books through social relations D．gained a lot from her career as an editor 答案：D。推理判断题。由文章内容可知，在第二任丈夫去世后 ，朋友推荐 Jacqueline
考虑在出版业谋一职位，没有想到她在此行业取得了成功，即 D 项正确。 18．The underlined sentence in the last paragraph probably means that______. A．Jacqueline ended up as an editor rather than as First Lady B．Jacqueline's life as First Lady was more colorful than as an editor C．Jacqueline was more successful as an editor than as First Lady D．Jacqueline's role as First Lady was more brilliant than as an editor 答案：C。句意理解题。解本题的关键在于正确理解 overshadow 一词。通读全文可知， Jacqueline 作为编辑取得了巨大成功，光芒超过了她第一夫人的头衔，故 C 项正确。 19．What can be inferred from the passage? A．Jacqueline's two marriages lasted more than 20 years. B．Jacqueline's own publishing firm was set up eventually. C．Jacqueline's views and beliefs were reflected in the books she edited. D．Jacqueline's achievements were widely known. 答 案： C。 推理 判断 题。由 文章 最后 一段 信息 “In her books she selected for publication，she built on a lifetime of spending time by herself as a reader and left a record of the growth of her mind.”可知她的一些个人观点在自己编辑的书中有 所表露，故 C 项正确。 20．The passage is mainly______. A．an introduction of Jacqueline's life both as First Lady and as an editor B．a brief description of Jacqueline's lifelong experiences C．a brief account of Jacqueline's career as an editor in her last 20 years D．an analysis of Jacqueline's social relations in publishing 答案：C。主旨大意题。通读全文可知，本文主要讲述 Jacqueline 作为编辑所取得的成 就，故 C 项正确。 (七) A (2011·福建卷，B) For five days，Edmonton's Downtown Park is transformed into one huge stage where artists are able to share their talents，and where people are able to celebrate and enjoy themselves.Since its beginning in 1980，the Edmonton Folk Music Festival has been commemorating (纪念) the true feeling of what folk music is all about and that's the traditional togetherness(友爱)that is felt when people gather to share stories and feelings through song. This year will be the sixth year when volunteer Riedel will be offering up her
time to the festival.“People coming off a busy spring and summer have a moment of relaxation.”Riedel said.“It's really easy to relax，and it's great seeing family and friends have fun together.”These families and friends come from all different kinds of musical tastes.People who take pleasure in Blues are there，so are people who love Bluegrass.This festival does its best to develop everyone's musical interests. With so many years of experience，the festival has become a well?oiled machine， and does whatever it can to make attendees feel as comfortable as possible.There are free water stations throughout the venue (举办地) for people to fill up their travel cups.When people buy food，reusable dishes are given a $2 plate fee，but that is returned when the plate is brought back. The festival has completely sold out of tickets, and in record time.But with big names such as Van Morrison and Jakob Dylan, it's easy to see how that was going to happen.There is no parking area during the festival, so using the Park & Ride system or Edmonton Transit is highly recommended.A bike lock?up area is provided and will be available Thursday until Sunday one hour before the gates open until 45 minutes after the gates close. The Edmonton Folk Music Festival begins on Wednesday, Aug.4 with Van Morrison playing the special donation fund (基金)concert, and will finish up on Sunday, Aug.8. 本 文 主 要 讲 述 为 了 让 人 们 了 解 民 间 音 乐 的 真 正 意 义 而 举 办 的 一 个 节 日 ——the Edmonton Folk Music Festival。 1．The Edmonton Folk Music Festival is held mainly to______. A．gather people with different musical tastes B．remind people of the real sense of folk music C．exhibit the good voices of great talents in folk music D．collect old stories of folk music 答案： 细节理解题。 B。 由本文的第一段信息“...the Edmonton Music Festival has been commemorating the true feeling of what folk music is all about...”可知 B 项正确。 2．Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A．Riedel has volunteered for the festival for at least 5 years. B．It's hard for people to appreciate Blues. C．It costs people a little to fill up their cups from water stations. D．People have to pay ﹩2 for a plate of food. 答案：A。推理判断题。由第二段第一句话“This year will be the sixth year when
volunteer Riedel will be offering up her time to the festival”．可推知 Riedel 至少做志愿者五年了，故 A 项正确。 3．We can learn from the passage that______. A．people can get tickets easily for the festival B．the Edmonton Folk Music Festival is well organized C．driving one's own car to the festival is highly recommended D．bikes are available at the festival from Wednesday to Sunday 答案：B。推理判断题。由第三段“With so many years of experience，the festival has become a well?oiled machine...”可知该节日组织得井井有条，故 B 项正确。 4．What would be the best title for this passage? A．Folk Music of Blues C．Festival for Family Gathering B．One Festival for All D．Edmonton's Downtown Park
答案： 主旨大意题。 B。 通读全文可知。 文章主要讲述 the Edmonton Folk Music Festival 这一个节日，故 B 项最佳。 B (2011·全国卷，C) Student Membership—Cambridge Arts Cinema Cambridge Arts Cinema is one of the art houses in Britain and home of the internationally celebrated Cambridge Film Festival. Since 1947 generations of students have discovered the wealth of world cinema. Now you too can make the most of it and save money.
●choose from up to 40 films a month ●see up to 8 premieres (首映) each month ●catch screenings when you like—we open early and close late ●increase your knowledge of film with our special events—each year we run seasons on various types of films and directors ●meet the filmmakers
So what are you waiting for? Just fill in the form and return it either in person or by post to: Box Office Cambridge Arts Cinema 8 Market Passage Cambridge CN2 3PF It costs ￡15 to join and your card can be used from 1 October 2011 to 30 June 2012. Cinema Information:
●invitation to a preview screening (试映) ●￡1 off the standard prices (￡4.50/￡3. 50) for any screening including special events
●your own copy of each cinema programme mailed free of charge ●a card with your own membership number ●50% off membership to the Cambridge Darkroom Gallery
01223 572929 (24hr) Box Office：01223 504444
本文主要介绍剑桥艺术影院以广告的形式吸引更多的会员。 5．Which of the following is the most famous event held at Cambridge Arts Cinema? A. The Cambridge Film Festival. C. The preview screening. B. Meetings with filmmakers. D. Monthly premieres.
答案：A。细节理解题。由第一段第一句可判断 A 项正确。 6．If you're a member of Cambridge Arts Cinema, you will enjoy free ________. A. Darkroom Gallery shows C. special film events B. mailed programmes D. film shows
答案：B。细节理解题。由文中“your own copy of each cinema programme mailed free of charge”可知 B 项正确。 7．How long will the membership for Cambridge Arts Cinema last? A. Four months. C. Nine months. 答案：C。细节理解题。由文中“...from 1 知答案为 C 项。 8．For what purpose is the text written? A. Offering students cheaper tickets. B. Announcing the opening of a premiere. C. Telling the public of the cinema's address. D. Increasing the cinema's membership. 答案：D。主旨大意题。综观全文可知本文的主要目的是吸引更多的人成为会员。 C (2011·湖北卷，C) In today's throw?away society，dealing with the city's growing mountain of waste is an increasing challenge for the city council(市议会)． Recently, Edinburgh is faced with the problem of disposing of(处理)about 250,000 million tons of waste a year. Despite different ways to dispose of much of it in a green manner—largely through encouraging recycling—its aging facilities such as the Powderhall landfill do not have the ability to deal with it.
B. Eight months. D. One year.
October 2011 to 30
The European Union(EU) has issued a new policy，regulating how such mountains of waste are to be disposed of.The five councils (Edinburgh，East Lothian, West Lothian，Midlothian and Borders) face fines around ￡18 million a year from 2013 if they don't increase recycling levels and rely less on landfill.With this in mind， the councils got together with the idea of building a large incinerator plant (垃 圾焚烧厂)to burn half of the waste produced in their districts.But this plan fell apart after the change of target levels by a new UK government waste policy which required that no more than 25% of the city's waste should be disposed of in this way by 2025. After the plan was abandoned，a private company which already transported millions of tons of the city's waste by train to a landfill site near Dunbar，offered an alternative solution when it suggested opening a huge waste site near Portobello. Since Powderhall is supposed to close in 2015， seemed necessary for the members it of the Edinburgh Council to accept the suggestion.But soon they turned it down—after 700 local objections reached them—because it would have meant hundreds of lorries a day making loud noise through heavily populated areas. That still leaves the council with a problem.By 2013，only 50% of 1995 levels of waste will be allowed to be sent to landfill.Even if recycling targets are met， there will still be a large amount of rubbish to be burnt up.Due to this，Edinburgh and Midlothian councils have now decided to work together to build an incinerator plant as time to find a solution is fast running out. 回收利用曾是最绿色的垃圾处理方式。 但是，这种处理方法却不能短时间内满足欧盟 对于及时解决废物的政策需求，因此，在回收利用的同时，他们还是得重建一所大型的垃圾 焚烧厂。 9．The main way of handling waste in a green manner in Edinburgh is ________. A．recycling C．burying B．restoring D．burning
答案： 细节判断题。 A。 第二段中的信息词“largely through encouraging recycling” 可以断定选项 A 的说法是与原文保持一致的。 10． The five councils worked out a plan to build an incinerator plant to ________. A．reduce the cost of burying waste C．speed up waste recycling B．meet the EU requirements D．replace landfill sites
答案：B。细节判断题。在第三个段落的开头提到了“The EU has issued a new policy...”便可以断定他们制定这个处理垃圾的计划也正是这个政策的出台，所以与选项
B 的说法是相符合的。 11．The city council of Edinburgh rejected the suggestion to open a huge landfill site near Portobello because ________. A．it came from a private company C．it was not supported by EU B．the council was not interested in it D．the local people were against it
答案：D。细节判断题。根据倒数第二段最后一句“...700 local objections reached them...”，可以断定市民是反对的。 12．What is the final decision of Edinburgh and Midlothian councils? A．To open a new landfill nearby. B．To close the Powderhall landfill in 2015. C．To set up a plant for burning waste. D．To persuade people to reduce their waste. 答案：C。细节判断题。根据文章最后一句话中的“set up an incenerator plant”， 即：建一个垃圾焚烧厂，就可以断定，选项 C 与本信息句是相吻合的。 D (2011·重庆卷，E) Skeptics are a strange lot.Some of them refuse to admit the serious threat of human activities to the enviroment, and they are tired of people who disagree with them.Those people ， say skeptics ， spread nothing but bad news about the environment.The “eco?guilt”brought on by the discouraging news about our planet gives rise to the popularity of skeptics as people search for more comforting worldviews. Perhaps that explains why a new book by Bjorn Lomborg received so much publicity.That book ，The Skeptical Environmentalist, declares that it measures the “real state of the world”as fine. Of course ，another explanation is the deep pockets of some big businesses with special interests. Indeed, Mr. Lomborg's views are similar to those of some industry?funded organizations, which start huge activities through the media to confuse the public about issues warming. So it was strange to see Mr. Lomborg's book go largely unchallenged in the media though his beliefs were contrary to most scientific opinions. One national newspaper in Canada ran a number of articles and reviews full of words of praise, even with the conclusion that “After Lomborg, the environmental movement will begin to die down.”
Such one?sided views should have immediately been challenged. But only a different review appeared in Nature, a respected science magazine with specific readership. The review remarked that Mr. Lomborg's “preference for unexamined materials is incredible(不可信的)”． A critical (批判的)eye is valuable, and the media should present information in such a way that could allow people to make informed decisions. Unfortunately, that is often inaccessible as blocked by the desire to be shocking or to defend some special interests. People might become half?blind before a world partially exhibited by the media. That's a shame, because matters concerning the health of the planet are far too important to be treated lightly. 本文讲述了怀疑论者不承认人类活动对环境造成的危胁， 认为地球状况是良好的， 这迎 合了一些追求利益的商业公司。 但是关系地球健康的问题是相当重要的， 人们一定要严肃对 待。 13. According to the passage, which of the following may be regarded as “skeptics”？ A. People who agree on the popularity of “eco?guilt”． B. People who disbelieve the serious situation of our planet. C. People who dislike the harmful effect of human activities. D. People who spread comforting news to protect our environment. 答案：B。细节理解题。根据短文第一段可知，怀疑论者不承认人类活动对环境的影响。 短文第二段第二句话中提到，他们认为世界的真正状态是好的，由此可知 B 项正确。 14. Which of the following can be a reason for the popularity of Lomborg's book? A．Some big businesses intend to protect their own interests. B．The book challenges views about the fine state of the world. C．The author convinces people to seek comforting worldviews. D．Industry?funded media present confusing information. 答案：A。细节理解题。根据短文第二段最后一句话可知 Lomborg 的观点与一些由工业 资助的组织的观点是相似的。因此可知这些大的组织为了自己的利益也不会注重环保。 15. The author mentioned the review in Nature in order to ______. A. voice a different opinion B. find fault with Lomborg's book
C. challenge the authority of the media D. point out the value of scientific views 答案：A。推理判断题。第三段提到加拿大的一家报纸对 Lomborg 的书大加赞扬，第四 段又提到这片面的观点应当受到挑战， 然后说“Nature”杂志上就有不同的评论。 由此可知
A 项正确。 16. What is the author's main purpose in writing the passage? A. To encourage the skeptics to have a critical eye. B. To warn the public of the danger of half?blindness with reviews. C. To blame the media's lack of responsibility in presenting information. D. To show the importance of presenting overall information by the media. 答案：D。作者意图题。由短文最后一段第二句话可知，媒体应当提供全方位的信息， 让人们在了解情况的前提下做出决定。由此可知 D 项正确。
E (2011·四川卷，E) In business, there's a speed difference ： It's the difference between how important a firm's leaders say speed is to their competitive (竞争的) strategy(策 略)and how fast the company actually moves.The difference is important regardless of industry and company size. Companies fearful of losing their competitive advantage spend much time and money looking for ways to pick up the speed. In our study of 343 businesses, the companies that chose to go, go, go to try to gain_an_edge ended up with lower sales and operating incomes than those that paused at key moments to make sure they were on the right track. What's more, the firms that “slowed down to speed up ”improved their top and bottom lines, averaging 40% higher sales and 52% higher operating incomes over a three?year period. How did they disobey the_laws_of_business_physics,_taking more time than competitors yet performing better? They thought differently about what “slower ” and “faster” mean. Firms sometimes fail to understand the difference between operational speed (moving quickly )and strategic speed (reducing the time it takes to deliver value ). Simply increasing the speed of production, for example, may be one way to try to reduce the speed difference. But that often leads to reduced value over time, in the form of lower?quality products and services. In our study, higher?performing companies with strategic speed always made changes when necessary. They became more open to ideas and discussion. They encouraged new ways of thinking. And they allowed time to look back and learn. By contrast (相比而言), performance suffered at firms that moved fast all the time, paid too much attention to improving efficiency, Stuck to tested methods, didn't develop team spirit among their employees, and had little time thinking about
changes. Strategic speed serves as a kind of leadership. Teams that regularly take time to get things right, rather than plough ahead full bore, are more successful in meeting their business goals. That kind of strategy must come from the top. 提速，似乎是历来公司老总们所追求的，增加效益更是他们的最终目标。而人们对于速 度的不同理解和方法的不同，确实适得其反。 17．What does the underlined part “gain an edge” in Paragraph 2 mean ? A．Increase the speed. C．Reach the limit. B．Get an advantage. D．Set a goal.
答案：B。理解判断题。在文章的第一段中就提到了许多公司提速的目的就是利益问题， 信息词“fearful of losing their competitive advantage”可以表明划线部分的意义同 选项 B。 18．The underlined part “the laws of business physics” in Paragraph 3 means ________. A．spending more time and performing worse B．spending more time and performing better C．spending less time and performing worse D．spending less time and performing better 答案：D。归纳概况题。既然公司追求的是提速，自然意味着：take less time ；而最 终的效益还得需要 performing better， 故两者结合， 才是公司一直在梦寐以求的最佳目标。 故选 D。 19. What can we learn from the text? A．How fast a firm moves depends on how big it is. B．How competitive a firm is depends on what it produces. C．Firms guided by strategic speed take time to make necessary changes. D．Firms guided by operational speed take time to develop necessary team spirit. 答案：C。细节判断题。倒数第二段的第一句里含有本题的信息，即同选项 C 的说法是 一致的。 20．Which could be the best title for the text? A．Improve quality? Serve better. C．Reduce time? Move faster. B．Deliver value? Plough ahead. D．Need speed? Slow down.
答案：D。主旨大意题。文章的开头就已经点明了本文的主题方向，即：公司想方设法 提高工作速度； 而文中通过分析比较不同公司的不同的做法和他们对于速度不同的理解， 如 果没有好的决策，适得其反，故选项 D 是最佳答案。
(八) A (2011·四川卷，A) It's 5：00 in the morning when the alarm (闹钟) rings in my ears. I roll out of bed and walk blindly through the dark into the bathroom. I turn on the light and put on my glasses. The house is still as I walk downstairs while my husband and three kids sleep peacefully. Usually I go for a long run, but today I choose my favorite exercise DVD, Insanity. Sweat pours down my face and into my eyes. My heart races as I force my body to finish each movement. As I near the end of the exercise, I feel extremely tired, but a smile is on my face. It's not a smile because the DVD is over, but a smile of success from pushing my body to its extreme limit. Some people enjoy shopping, smoking, food, work, or even chocolate. But I need exercise to get through each day. Some shake heads when they see me run through the town. Others get hurt when I refuse to try just one bite of their grandmother's chocolate cake. They raise their eyebrows, surprised by my “no thank you，” or by my choice to have a salad. Over the years, I have learned it's okay to just say “no”. I shouldn't feel sorry for refusing food that I don't want to eat. So what drives me to roll out of bed at 5：00 a．m.？What gives me the reason to just say no to ice cream? Commitment. A commitment to change my life with a way that reduces daily anxiety, increases self?confidence and energy，extends life and above all improves my body shape.This is the point where a smile appears on my face as I look at myself in the mirror or try on my favorite pair of jeans that now fit just right.It's through commitment and sweat that I can make a difference within myself inside and out. 一个每天按时起床锻炼身体的女人， 一个有着自己个性与喜好的女人， 为了保持自己的 体型， 降低压力， 提高自信， 坚持着这种日复一日的锻炼， 让自己每天都挂着笑容面对生活。 1．Why is there a smile on the author's face in the morning? A．Because she sees her family sleeping peacefully. B．Because she finishes her favorite exercise. C．Because she enjoys the interesting DVD. D．Because she feels a sense of achievement. 答案：D。 细节判断题。根据第一个段落的最后一句话， 先排除 C 的说法； 在本句中“a smile of success of pushing?”可以断定其实是一种成就感令她脸上挂着笑容。最大的 干扰项可能会是 B，但如果细读，会找到关键词“success”。
2．Which of the following is TRUE according to Paragraph 2? A．She doesn't treat others politely. B．She likes to make others surprised. C．Others don't understand what she dose. D．Others try to help her by offering her food. 答案： 细节判断题。 C。 从本段的情节来看， 选项 A， 都相差甚远； D 而“I need exercise to get through each day”正是表明了作者的喜好，而不是像选项 B 说的喜欢出奇，故排 除 B。从“raised their eyebrows, surprised by...”来看，其实别人是感到奇怪而已。 3．What does the underlined word “commitment” in the last paragraph mean? A．Good health. C．A strong power. B．Firm belief. D．A regular habit.
答案：B。词意理解题。从全文的语境信息来看，这么多年，这么坚持，这么享受，而 且从“sweat”一词身上也能找到提示，即：坚定的信念与汗水，故选项 B 最符合语境。 4．What can we learn about the author from the text? A．She acts in a strange way. B．She wants to look different from others. C．She aims to develop a good body shape. D．She has difficulty getting along with others. 答案：C。理解判断题。文章的最后一段中有一句话“above all improves my body shape”，从这句话中可以确定选项 C 的说法是正确的。 B (2011·重庆卷，C) Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt. In the early 16 century, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water could open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was thought to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So did the king of England in 1546. Thus began a long time when the rich and the poor in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famously dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out. Though the belief in the merit of dirt was long?lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18 century. Scientifically speaking,
cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness have moved beyond science since World War Ⅱ.Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea; clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has the hate for dirt, however, gone too far? Attitudes to dirt still differ hugely nowadays.Many first?time parents nervously try to warn their children off touching dirt, which might be responsible for the spread of disease.On the contrary，Mary Ruebush，an American immunologist(免 疫学家)，encourages children to play in the dirt to build up a strong immune system.And the latter position is gaining some ground. 本文介绍了人们对灰尘的不同态度和看法。16 世纪早期，人们认为灰尘能阻挡疾病。 人们不能洗澡。18 世纪时人们认为洗掉灰尘对身体有好处，能阻止疾病。而现在，人们对 灰尘有不同看法，有人认为不能碰灰尘，而有人认为灰尘能增强免疫力。 5．The kings of France and England in the 16 century closed bath houses because ________. A．they lived healthily in a dirty environment B．they thought bath houses were too dirty to stay in C．they believed disease could be spread in public baths D．they considered bathing as the cause of skin disease 答案：C。细节理解题。根据短文第二段第二、三句话可知。人们认为公共浴池是特别 危险的，法国和英国的国王都关闭了他们的浴池，由此可知 C 项正确。 6．Which of the following best describes Henry IV's attitude to bathing? A．Afraid. C．Approving. B．Curious. D．Uninterested.
答案：A。推理判断题。根据短文第二段最后两句话可知，享利四世以脏出名，当他得 知有人洗澡，为了避免疾病侵袭，他下令不准这人出门。由此可知享利四世对于洗澡是相当 害怕的。 7. How does the passage mainly develop? A. By providing examples. C. By following the order of time. importance. 答案：C。细节理解题，本文是以时间为线索进行写作的。先写 16 世纪人们对灰尘的态 度，然后是 17 世纪，最后写到今天人们的态度。 8．What is the author's purpose in writing the passage?
B. By making comparisons. D. By following the order of
A. To stress the role of dirt.
B. To introduce the history of dirt.
C. To call attention to the danger of dirt. D. To present the change of views on dirt. 答案：D。细节理解题。整篇文章作者陈述了三个不同的时间，人们对待灰尘的看法， 由此向我们展示了人们对灰尘观点的改变。 C (2011·湖北卷，D) Feeling blue about the world ? “Cheer up ， ” says science writer Matt Ridley.“The world has never been a better place to live in，and it will keep on getting better both for humans and for nature.” Ridley calls himself a rational optimist—rational，because he's carefully weighed the evidence optimistic，because that evidence shows human progress to be both unavoidable and good. And this is what he's set out to prove from a unique point of view in his most recent book The Rational Optimist. He views mankind as a grand enterprise that，on the whole，has done little but progress for 100, 000 years.He backs his findings with hard facts gathered through years of research. Here's how he explains his views. 1)Shopping fuels invention It is reported that there are more than ten billion different products for sale in London alone.Even allowing for the many people who still live in poverty，our own generation has access to more nutritious food，more convenient transport，bigger houses，better cars，and of course，more pounds and dollars than any who lived before us .This will continue as long as we use these things to make other things.The more we specialize and exchange，the better off we'll be. 2) Brilliant advances One reason we are richer，healthier，taller，cleverer，longer?lived and freer than ever before is that the four most basic human needs—food，clothing，fuel and shelter—have grown a lot cheaper.Take one example.In 1800 a candle providing one hour's light cost six hours' work.In the 1880s the same light from an oil lamp took 15 minutes' work to pay for.In 1950 it was eight seconds.Today it's half second. 3) Let's not kill ourselves for climate change Mitigating(减轻) climate change could prove just as damaging to human welfare as climate change itself.A child that dies from indoor smoke in a village，where the use of fassil?fuel(化石燃料) electricity is forbidden by well?meaning members
of green political movements trying to save the world，is just as great a tragedy as a child that dies in a flood caused by climate change.If climaic change proves to be mild，but cutting carbon causes real pain，we may well find that we have stopped a nose?bleed by putting a tourniquet(止血带) around our necks. 人类的进步是无法阻挡的，是令人乐观。在《理性的乐观主义者》一书中，作者阐述了 自己对于生活中的乐观现象， 并且对于购物这样普通的日常行为所带来的积极影响都做了详 尽的分析和描述。 9．What is the theme of Ridley's most recent book? A．Weakness of human nature. C．Importance of practical thinking. B．Concern about climate change. D．Optimism about human progress.
答案：D。理解判断题。从第二段的前两句话中，反复提到一个关键词“optimistic” 以及信息句“because that evidence shows...”；另外，“this is what he's set out to prove...”一句也正好清楚的表明了作者在本书中所以阐述的正是这个话题，正是与选项 D 的说法是一致的，即：人类的进步总是不可避免的。 10．How does Ridley look at shopping? A．It encourages the creation of things. goods. C．It demands more fossil fuels. D．It causes a poverty problem. B ． It results in shortage of
答案：A。细节判断题。从“Shopping fuels invention”一段正是反映了 Ridley 的观 点：购物能够激发创造发明。选项 A 与之相吻合。 11．The candle and lamp example is used to show that ________. A．oil lamps give off more light than candles B．shortening working time brings about a happier life C．advanced technology helps to produce better candles D．increased production rate leads to lower cost of goods 答案：D。细节判断题。根据 Brilliant advances 一段中的“Take one example”一 句很明显的确定为： 作者拿蜡烛与灯的比较与变化正是为了前面他所提到的看法， 故与选项 D 的说法是一致的。 12．What does the last sentence of the passage imply? A．Cutting carbon is necessary in spite of the huge cost. B．Overreaction to climate change may be dangerous. C．People's health is closely related to climate change. D．Careless medical treatment may cause great pain. 答案：B。推理判断题。根据最后一句话中的“cutting carbon causes real pain”可
以排除选项 A 与 C 的说法，因为它们大相径庭；而根据“putting... around our necks” 一句可以表明选项 D 中“careless”一词运用不当， 是不符合语境的。 故只有选项 B 是最正 确的。 D (2011·全国卷，D) The way we do things round here Some years ago，I was hired by an American bank. I received a letter from the head of the Personnel Department that started，“Dear John，I am quite pleased that you have decided to join us.” That “quite” saddened me. I thought he was saying “we're kind of pleased you decided to join us although I wish we had hired someone else.”Then I discovered that in American English “quite” sometimes means “very”， while in British English it means “fairly”． So the first lesson about working in other countries is to learn the language and by that I don't just mean the words people speak. It is body language，dress， manners, ideas and so on. The way people do things highlights many of the differences we see between cultures (文化)． Some of these differences may be only on the surface—dress，food and hours of work—while others may be deeper and take longer to deal with. Mostly, it is just a question of getting used to the differences and accepting them, like the climate (气候)，while getting on with business. Some of the differences may be an improvement. People are more polite；the service is better；you ask for something to be done and it happens without having to ask again. However，other differences can be troubling, like punctuality (准 时). If you invite people to a party at 7 o'clock your guests will consider it polite to turn up exactly on time in Germany, five minutes early in the American Midwest， an hour early in Japan, 15 minutes afterwards in the UK, up to an hour afterwards in Italy and some time in the evening in Greece. I prefer not to use the word “late” because there is nothing wrong with the times people arrive. It is simply the accepted thing to do in their own country. 本文介绍了作者所感受到的文化差异。 13. The author was unhappy as mentioned in Paragraph 1 because he thought ________. A. the American bank didn't think much of him B. the American bank might hire another person
C. it's difficult to get used to American culture D. it's easy to misunderstand Americans 答案：A。推理判断题。由第一段中“That “quite” saddened me”．可以推断出作 者认为这家美国银行不重视他。 14．The underlined word “highlights” in Paragraph 2 probably means ________. A. encourages C. increases B. helps to narrow D. draws attention to
答案：D。词义猜测题。由下文可知人们做事情的方式引起了作者对文化差异的关注。 15．According to the author，what should we do with most cultural differences? A. Ask the native people for help. C. Do things in our own way. B. Understand and accept them. D. Do in?depth research.
答案：B。细节理解题。由第三段最后一句可知我们要习惯文化差异并接受存在的文化 差异。 16．When invited to a party the people who are usually punctual are________. A. Italians C. Greeks B. Germans D. the British
答案：B。细节理解题。由最后一段“If you invite people...on time in Germany...” 可知 B 项正确。 E (2011·北京卷，D) As the railroads and the highways shaped the American West in the past centuries, a new electrical generating (发电) and transmission (输送) system for the 21 century will leave a lasting mark on the West, for better or worse. Much of the real significance of railroads and highways is not in their direct physical effect on the scenery, but in the ways that they affect the surrounding community. The same is true of big solar plants and the power lines that will be laid down to move electricity around. The 19 century saw land grants (政府拨地) offered to railroad companies to build the transcontinental railroads, leaving public land in between privately owned land. In much of the west, some of the railroad sections were developed while others remained undeveloped, and in both cases the landownership has presented unique challenges to land management. With the completion of the interstate highway system, many of the small towns which sprang up as railway stops and developed well, have lost their lifeblood and died.
Big solar plants and their power lines will also have effects far beyond their direct footprint in the West. This is not an argument against building them. We need alternative energy badly, and to really take advantage of it we need to be able to move electricity around far more readily than we can now. So trade?offs will have to be made. Some scenic sports will be sacrificed. Some species (物种) will be forced to move, or will be carefully moved to special accommodations. Deals will be struck to reduce the immediate effects. The lasting effects of these trade?offs are another matter. The 21
development of the American West as an ideal place for alternative energy is going to throw off a lot of power and money in the region. There are chances for that power and money to do a lot of good. But it is just as likely that they will be spent wastefully and will leave new problems behind, just like the railroads and the highways. The money set aside in negotiated trade?offs and the institution that control it will shape the West far beyond the immediate footprint of power plants and transmission lines. So let's remember the effects of the railroads and the highways as we construct these new power plants in the West. 本文是一篇说明文。19 世纪，美国政府拨款修建铁路和公路，这既带来了好处，也带 来了一些不利。现在 21 世纪，一种新型的电力系统会给美国带来好处还是坏处，这是值得 考虑的一个问题。在建这种新型的电力系统时，我们要记住铁路和公路的影响。 17．What was the problem caused by the construction of the railways? A. Small towns along the railways became abandoned. B. Some railroad stops remained underused. C. Land in the West was hard to manage. D. Land grants went into private hands. 答案：C。细节理解题。根据第二段的“...and in both cases the landownership has presented unique challenges to land management.”可知，建铁路导致的问题是“土地 所有权给土地管理带来了挑战”。A 项是修建公路的影响；B 项说一些铁路站一直未被充分 利用，是错误的；D 项原文未说。 18．What is the major concern in the development of alternative energy according to the last two paragraphs? A. The transmission of power. C. The conservation of solar energy. B. The use of money and power. D. The selection of an ideal place.
力，钱和力可能带来一些好处，有可能被浪费掉，并且带来一些其他的问题。 19．What is the author's attitude towards building solar plants? A. Cautious. C. Doubtful. B. Approving. D. Disapproving.
答案： 推理判断题。 A。 根据全文以及文章的最后一句话“So let's remember the effects of the railroads and the highroads as we construct these new power plants in the West.”可知，对正在建立新的电力系统是比较谨慎的。 20．Which is the best title for the passage? A. How the Railways Have Affected the West B. How Solar Energy Could Reshape the West C. How the Effects of Power Plants Can Be Reduced D. How the Problems of the Highways Have Been Settled 答案：B。主旨大意题。文章借助于铁路和公路对美国的影响，要说明的是太阳能这种 新的电力系统对美国西部地区会有什么的影响。 (九) A (2011·江西卷，A) “Mum，what does it mean when someone tells you that they have a skeleton(骨 骼) in the closet(衣橱)？” Jessica asked. “A skeleton in the closet？” her mother paused thoughtfully, “Well, it's something that you would rather not have anyone else know about. For example, if in the past, someone in Dad's family had been arrested for stealing a horse, it would be ‘a skeleton in his family's closet’. He really wouldn't want any neighbor to konw about it.” “Why pick on my family？” Jessica's father said with anger. “Your family history isn't so good, you know. Wasn't your great?great?grandfather a prisoner who was transported to Australia for his crimes？” “Yes, but people these days say that you are not a real Australian unless your ancestors arrived as prisoners.” “Gosh, sorry I asked. I think I understand now，” Jessica cut in before things grew worse. After dinner, the house was very quiet. Jessica's parents were still quite angry with each other. Her mother was ironing clothes and every now and then she glared at her husband, who hid behind his newspaper pretending to read. When she finished, she gathered the freshly pressed clothes in her arms and walked to Jessica's closet. Just as she opened the door and reached in to hang a skirt, a bony arm stuck out
from the dark depths and a bundle of white bones fell to the floor. Jessica's mother sank into a faint(晕倒), waking only when Jessica put a cold, wet cloth on her forehead. She looked up to see the worried faces of her husband and daughter. “What happened? Where am I？” she asked. “You just destroyed the school's skeleton, Mum，” explained Jessica. “I brought it home to help me with my health project. I meant to tell you, but it seemed that as soon as I mentioned skeletons and closets, it caused a problem between you and Dad.” Jessica looked in amazement as her parents began to laugh madly. “They're both crazy，” she thought. 本文是一篇记叙文， 讲述了一个幽默故事。 杰西卡问妈妈“衣橱里放骨骼”是什么意思， 妈妈解释说那是不为人知的秘密， 并以杰西卡爸爸的祖先做例子， 引起了杰西卡爸爸的恼火。 饭后，杰西卡爸爸依然生气，杰西卡妈妈熨完衣服后把衣服放到衣橱里，结果发现了衣橱里 的骨骼而吓昏过去。 原来杰西卡为了完成学校的健康计划， 把骨骼带回了家并放在了衣橱里。 1．According to Jessica's mother, “a skeleton in the closet” means ________. A．a family honor C．a family story B．a family secret D．a family treasure
答案：B。细节理解题。由第一段的“it's something that you would rather not have anyone else know about”可知，B 项正确。 2．What can we learn about some Australians' ancestors from Paragraph 2? A．They were brought to Australia as prisoners. B．They were the earliest people living in Australia. C．They were involved in some crimes in Australia. D．They were not regarded as criminals in their days. 答案：A。推理判断题。根据第二段的“but people these days say that you are not a real Australian unless your ancestors arrived as prisoners”可推断 A 项正确，即 一些澳大利亚人的祖先是被作为犯人带到澳大利亚。 3．Jessica's mother fell down into a faint because she was ________. A．knocked C．injured B．frightened D．surprised
答案：B。推理判断题。杰西卡的妈妈是看到了衣橱里的骨骼而晕倒的，我们推断应该 是吓倒的。 4．Why did Jessica bring a skeleton home? A．She was curious about it. B．She planned to keep it for fun.
C．She needed it for her school task. D．She intended to scare her parents. 答案： 细节理解题。 C。 由最后一段的“You just destroyed the school's skeleton...I
brought it home to help me with my health project”可知答案 C 正确。 5．Jessica's parents laughed madly at the end of the story probably because ________. A．they were crazy B．they were overexcited C．they realized their misunderstanding D．they both thought they had won the quarrel 答案：C。推理判断题。通读全文可知，杰西卡的父母误解了杰西卡的意思。 B (2011·广东卷，B) Can dogs and cats live in perfect harmony in the same home? People who are thinking about adopting a dog as a friend for their cats are worried that they will fight. A recent research has found a new recipe of success. According to the study, if the cat is adopted before the dog, and if they are introduced when still young (less than 6 months for cats, a year for dogs), it is highly probable that the two pets will get along swimmingly. Two?thirds of the homes interviewed reported a positive relationship between their cat and dog. However, it wasn't all sweetness and light. There was a reported coldness between the cat and dog in 25% of the homes, while aggression and fighting were observed in 10% of the homes. One reason for this is probably that some of their body signals were just opposite. For example, when a cat turns its head away it signals aggression, while a dog doing the same signals submission. In homes with cats and dogs living peacefully, researchers observed a surprising behaviour. They are learning how to talk each other's language. It is a surprise that cats can learn how to talk “dog” ，and dogs can learn how to talk “cat”． What's interesting is that both cats and dogs have appeared to develop their intelligence. They can learn to read each other's body signals, suggesting that the two may have more in common than we previously suspected. Once familiar with each other's presence and body language, cats and dogs can play together, greet each other nose to nose, and enjoy sleeping together on the sofa. They can easily share the same water bowl and in some cases groom (梳理) each other. The significance of this research on cats and dogs may go beyond pets—to people who don't get along, including neighbors, colleagues at work, and even world superpowers. If cats and dogs can learn to get along, surely people have a good
chance. 有人一直担心如果在家里同时养猫和狗， 它们会相处得不好。 可是研究发现猫和狗是可 以和谐相处的。既然猫狗都能和谐相处，人和人以及世界大国之间就更容易做到这一点了。 6．The underlined word “swimmingly” in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ________. A. early C. quickly B. sweetly D. smoothly
答案：B。词义猜测题。文章第一段第一句话“Can dogs and cats live in perfect harmony in the same home？”意为“猫和狗在一个家里能和谐相处吗？”有人担心它们会 打架，但是研究发现，如果猫被领养在先，而且它们都在很小的时候就认识的话，它们很可 能会相处得很和谐。sweetly“甜美地”；smoothly“顺利地”。所以 swimmingly 在此意为 sweetly。另外第二段第一句话：“However, it wasn't all sweetness and light.”中也 有暗示。 7．Some cats and dogs may fight when________. A. they are cold to each other B. they look away from each other C. they misunderstand each other's signals D. they are introduced at an early age 答案：C。细节理解题。根据第二段第二、三句话“There was a reported coldness between the cat and dog in 25% of the homes, while aggression and fighting were observed in 10% of the homes. One reason for this is probably that some of their body signals were just opposite.”可知因为猫狗的有些身体信号正好相反，所以才打架 或对彼此冷漠。 8．What is found surprising about cats and dogs? A. They eat and sleep together. B. They observe each other's behaviours. C. They learn to speak each other's language. D. They know something from each other's voices. 答案：C。细节理解题。由第三段中的“They are learning how to talk each other's language. It is a surprise that cats can learn how to talk ‘dog’，and dogs can learn how to talk ‘cat’．”可知答案。 9．It is suggested in Paragraph 4 that cats and dogs ________. A. have common interests C. have a common body language B. are less different than was thought D. are less intelligent than was
expected 答案：B。推理判断题。第四段中的“They can learn how to read each other's body signals, suggesting that the two may have more in common than we previously suspected.”意为： 它们能够学会如何去理解彼此的身体语言， 这表明猫狗有比我们以前所 认为的更多的相同之处。也就是说，猫狗的不同之处比我们原来认为的要少。所以选 B。 10．What can we human beings learn from cats and dogs? A. We should learn to live in harmony. B. We should know more about animals. C. We should live in peace with animals. languages. 答案：A。推理判断题。从最后一段可以推知答案。 C (2011·浙江卷，C) In the more and more competitive service industry, it is no longer enough to promise customer satisfaction. Today, customer “delight” is what commpaines are trying to achieve in order to keep and increase market share. It is accepted in the marketing industry, and confirmed by a number of researches, that customers receiving good service will promote business by telling up to 12 other people; those treated badly will tell their tales of woe to up to 20 people. Interestingly, 80 percent of people who feel their complaints are handled fairly will stay loyal. New challenges for customer care have come when people can obtain goods and services through telephone calls centers and the Internet.For example ， many companies now have to invest (投资)a lot of money in information technology and staff training in order to cope with the “phone_rage”—caused by delays in answering call，being cut off in mid?conversation or left waiting for long periods. “Many people do not like talking to machines， ”says Dr， Storey， Senior lecturer in Marketing at City University Business School.“Banks ，for example，encourage staff at call centers to use customer data to establish instant and good relationship with them. The aim is to make the customer feel they know you and that you can trust them—the sort of comfortable feelings people have during face?to?face chats with their local branch manager.” Recommended ways of creating customer delight include：under?promising and over?delivering (saying that a repair will be carried out within five hours，but getting it done within two) replacing a faulty product immediately；throwing in a
D. We should learn more body
gift voucher (购物礼券)as an unexpected “thank you” to regular customers; and always returning calls, even when they are complaints. Aiming for customer delight is all very well，but if services do not reach the high level promised，disappointment or worse will be the result.This can be eased by offering an apology and an explanation of why the service did not meet usual standards with empathy (for example，“I know how you must feel”)，and possible solutions (replacement，compensation or whatever fairness suggests best meets the case)． Airlines face some of the toughest challenges over customer care. Fierce competition has convinced them that delighting passengers is an important marketing tool， while there is great potential for customer anger over delays caused by weather, unclaimed luggage and technical problems. For British Airways staff，a winning telephone style is considered vital in handling the large volume of calls about bookings and flight times.They are trained to answer quickly, with their name ， job title and a “we are here to help”attitude.The company has invested heavily in information technology to make sure that information is available instantly on screen. British Airways also says its customer care policies are applied within the company and staff are taught to regard each other as customers requiring the highest standards of service. Customer care is obviously here to stay and it would be a foolish company that used slogans such as “we do as we please”．On the other hand，the more customers are promised，the greater the risk of disappointment. 本文阐述了顾客的满意度对企业发展的重要作用。 11．We can learn from Paragraph 2 that ________. A．complaining customers are hard to satisfy B．unsatisfied customers receive better service C．satisfied customers catch more attention D．well?treated customers promote business 答案： 推理判断题。 抱怨中的顾客难以令其满意； 不满意的顾客得到更好的服务； D。 A B C 满意的顾客得到更多的注意；D 良好的对待顾客促进企业的发展。根据信息句“It is accepted in the marketing industry, and confirmed by a number of researches, that customers receiving good service will promote business”可以看出 D 项正确。 12．The writer mentions“phone rage”(Paragraph 3)to show that________.
A．customers often use phones to express their anger B．people still prefer to buy goods online C．customer care becomes more demanding D．customers rely on their phones to obtain services 答案：C。细节理解题。A 顾客常常用电话表达自己的愤怒；B 人们依然偏爱网上购物； C 客户关注更加成为人们的关注；D 顾客靠电话得到服务。根据本段首句“New challenges for customer care have come when people can obtain goods and services through
telephone call centers and the Internet”可知 C 项正确。 13．What does the writer recommend to create customer delight? A．Calling customers regularly. C．Delivering a quicker service. B．Giving a “thank you” note. D．Promising more gifts.
答案：C。细节理解题。A 定期给顾客打电话；B 给“感谢”便条；C 给予快捷服务；D 许诺更多的礼物。根据文中信息“saying that a repair will be carried out within five hours ， but getting it done within two”和“replacing a faulty product immediately” 可知 C 项正确，其他三项曲解了文意。 14．If a manager should show his empathy (Paragraph 6)，what would he probably say? A．“I know how upset you must be.” understanding.” C．“I'm sorry for the delay.” D．“I know it's our fault.” B ． “I appreciate your
答案：A。词义猜测题。A 我知道你准是很难过；B 我很感激你的理解；C 很抱歉，耽误 您了；D 我知道，这是我们的错。根据其后信息句“for example，‘I know how you must feel’”可知 A 项正确。 15．Customer delight is important for airlines because ________. A．their telephone style remains unchanged B．they are more likely to meet with complaints C．the services cost them a lot of money D．the policies can be applied to their staff 答案：B。推理判断题。A 他们的电话样式没变；B 他们很有可能遇到投诉；C 这些服务 花费了他们很多钱；D 这些政策可以应用到职员身上。根据文中信息“...delighting passengers is an important marketing tool, while there is great potential for customer anger over delays caused by weather ，unclaimed luggage and technical problems”．推理可知，航空公司很有可能因为恶劣天气、行李主人不明以及技术等问题导 致耽误顾客，以及被投诉，此时使顾客满意是很重要的市场手段。
16．Which of the following is conveyed in this article? A．Face?to?face service creates comfortable feelings among customers. B．Companies that promise more will naturally attract more customers. C．A company should promise less but do more in a competitive market. D．Customer delight is more important for airlines than for banks. 答案：C。事实理解题。A 面对面的服务创造顾客中舒适的感觉；B 承诺更多的公司自然 吸引更多的顾客；C 在激烈的市场竞争中，公司应该少承诺，多做实事；D 顾客满意度对于 航空公司来说比银行更重要。 通读全文不难排除 A、 D 三项， B、 根据最后一段可知 C 项正确。 D (2011·全国卷，E) “I didn't hear them call my name，” explained Shelley Hennig to Active Teens (AT) as she talked about that exciting moment on national television when she won the honor of Miss Teen USA 2004. “Are you ready？”is what she heard.Then she said， “I shook my head no，and then they said ‘yes’and it was announced again.” It was four days after that life changing moment for the seventeen?year?old high school student from Destrehan, Louisiana?she was still on_cloud_nine. “I was so shocked! I never believed that it could actually really happen. ”Present in the audience (观众) that day were: her mother and father, older brother, her friends, and her dance teacher. Understanding why members of her family and her friends would be there，AT asked why her dance teacher had traveled so far to see her compete (比赛). “She's always been my role model. I've danced with her since I was six. She's been through so many difficulties and came through them all. I've learned to get over bad life's experiences and learned how to move on because of her.” One of those bad life's experiences for Shelley happened three years ago when her brother Brad was killed in a drunk driving accident. He was 18. She found writing helped her get through the rough days. She said, “I write a lot about my brother. I write a lot, a lot，a lot...” As Miss Louisiana Teen, she traveled around the state speaking to teens (青 少年) about the dangers of drinking and driving. In her role as Miss Teen USA, Shelley will continue to speak to youth about safe driving，in addition to many other things to help the youth. When AT asked Miss Teen USA if she had any advice for our readers, she said, “Don't let anyone change you. Hang out with people that make you feel good about
yourself. That way，it is easy to be yourself.” 人生要经历许多苦难，但不管怎样都要勇敢面对，不能让任何人改变你自己。 17. What do the underlined words “on cloud nine” in Paragraph 2 probably mean? A. Frightened C. Very happy B. Troubled D. Very angry
答案： 词义猜测题。 C。 由第一段中“...as she talked about that exciting moment...” 可知 C 项正确。 18．Shelley takes her dance teacher as a role model mainly because she is ________. A. determined C. strict B. friendly D. experienced
答案：A。细节理解题。由第四段“She's been through so many difficulties and came through them all”．可知答案为 A 项。 19．How many children did the Hennigs have according to the text? A. 1. C. 3. B. 2. D. 4.
答案：C。细节理解题。第三段中提到“older brother”，第五段中提到“her brother Brad”以及 Shelley Hennig，由此可知 the Hennigs 共有三个孩子。 20．What did Shelley often do after she became Miss Louisiana Teen? A. She visited drunken drivers. B. She gave dance performances.
C. She made speeches on safe driving. D. She helped other teens with their studies. 答案：C。细节理解题。由倒数第二段中“...she traveled around the state speaking to teens (青少年) about the dangers of drinking and driving.”可知正确答案为 C。 21．What suggestion does Shelley give to the teens? A. Be yourself with the support of friends. B. Meet friends whenever possible. C. Go easy on yourself and others. D. Have a good role model. 答案：A。细节理解题。由最后一段 Shelley 所说的话可知她对青少年的建议是 A 项。 (十) A (2011·湖北卷，A) Honesty，my mum always used to tell me，is the best policy.Of course，this didn't
include her when she told me that if I didn't eat all my vegetables Father Christmas would find out and wouldn't give me any presents. But when it comes to medicine，I had assumed it was important to always be honest with my patients.After all，the doctor?patient relationship is based on trust， and therefore honesty is essential. Or so I thought. I had just started working in geriatrics (老年病科)．Mr.McMahon was brought in when his belly was found very swollen.I took a medical history from his daughter who'd accompanied him in the ambulance.She'd been his main carer for years.I stood looking at him as she gave a detailed history.“Has he lost any weight recently？” I asked， “Well， it's funny you should mention that， but yes， she said slowly.There ” was silence for a few moments.“Why? What are you worried about？” she asked，I hesitated.She was obviously very involved in his care and it was only fair that I told her the truth.“Well，we need to prove it's not cancer.” I said and talked briefly about some of the tests I was going to order. Half an hour later，a nurse called me: “Mr.McMahon's daughter broke down—she said you told her he had cancer.” My heart sank.By the time I arrived at the ward， my consultant was already there，explaining that we still had to run lots of tests and that it was by no means confirmed that he had cancer.I stood silently at the end of the bed.My consultant was obviously angry with me and as we left Mr.McMahon， she turned to me.“Why on earth did you do that？” she asked in disbelief.I looked at her and bit my lip.“She asked me what I was worried about and I told her.” I said ， hanging_my_head.“And give her more to worry about ？ ” replied my consultant.“You don't say the word ‘cancer’ until it's confirmed.Even if you suspect it，think very carefully before you tell people.” As it turned out，it wasn't cancer.But I did learn that when someone is stressed and worried about their loved one they're sometimes selective in what they hear—and as a doctor it's important to be mindful of this.In being truthful，I'd made the situation worse. 原本在一位医生的心目中， 诚实是第一位的； 而且在工作中也是奉行诚实本分的处世原 则。可是因为一次说了不够确切的实话，却让一位病人受到了打击，这件事让这位医生得出 了一个结论：诚实有时候也会出错。 1．The purpose of the first two paragraphs is to show that the author ________. A．misunderstood the doctor?patient relationship B．was anxious to receive Christmas gifts
C．regarded honesty as the best policy D．had an unhealthy eating habit 答案：C。作者意图题。从两个段落的第一句话，字里行间“the best”“important” 都透露出作者对于 honesty 的看法。 2．The author's consultant was angry with him because ________. A．he told the daughter what he suspected B．he delayed running the necessary tests C．he failed to confirm the patient's disease D．he forgot what the consultant had advised 答案：A。细节判断题。第四段的开头已经表明因为我的一番话，以及本段落的最后一 句话也可以读出正是因为我的不假思索，让病人受到了打击，故 consultant 对我不满与气 愤，故选 A。 3．The author hung his head (the underlined part in Para.4) because he was feeling ________. A．guilty C．disappointed B．hurt D．helpless
答案：A。细节判断题。guilty 意为：罪过感，羞愧，与划线部分“耷拉了脑袋”在语 境上非常符合。 4．What lesson has the author learnt from his experience? A．Learning from parents is necessary. B．Jumping to a conclusion is dangerous. C．Telling the truth may not always be the best solution. D．Selecting pleasant words may not be the perfect policy. 答案：C。理解判断题。文章的最后一句话，正表明了作者的体会与结论：有时候，诚 实不受欢迎。故选 C。 B (2011·重庆卷，D) William Butler Yeats, a most famous Irish writer, was born in Dublin on June 13,1865. His childhood lacked the harmony (和睦) that was typical of a happy family. Later, Yeats shocked his family by saying that he remembered “little of childhood but its pain”. In fact, he inherited (继承) excellent taste in art from his family—both his father and his brother were painters. But he finally settled on literature, particularly drama (戏剧) and poetry. Yeats had strong faith in the coming of new artistic movements. He set himself
the fresh task in founding an Irish national theatre in the late 1890s.His early theatrical experiments，however，were not received favorably at the beginning. He didn't lose heart，and finally enjoyed success in his poetical drama. Compared with his dramatic works, Yeats's poems attract much admiring notice.The subject matter includes love， nature， history， time and aging. Though Yeats generally relied on very traditional forms, he brought modern sensibility to them. As his literary life progressed, his poetry grew finer and richer, which led him to worldwide recognition. He had not enjoyed a major public life since winning the Nobel Prize in 1923.Yet， he continued writing almost to the end of his life. Had Yeats stopped writing at age 40，he would probably now be valued as a minor poet, for there is no other example in literary history of a poet who produces his greatest works between the ages of 50 and 75. After Yeats's death in 1939, W．H. Auden wrote, among others, the following lines： Earth，receive an honoured guest： William Yeats is laid to rest. Let the Irish vessel (船) lie Emptied of its poetry. 本文介绍了爱尔兰著名作家威廉·巴特勒叶慈， 他在 19 世纪 90 年代成立了爱尔兰国家 剧院，他以诗体戏剧及诗歌闻名，于 1923 年获得了诺贝尔奖。 5．Which of the following can describe Yeats's family? A．It filled Yeats's childhood with laughter. B．It was shocked by Yeats's choice. C．It was a typically wealthy family. D．It had an artistic atmosphere. 答案：D。细节理解题。根据短文第一段倒数第二句话可知：他从家人那儿继承了很好 的艺术鉴赏能力，他的父亲和哥哥都是画家，证明他是在一个有艺术氛围的家庭中长大。 6．According to the passage，what do we know about Yeats's life? A．Yeats founded the first Irish theater. B．Yeats stuck to modern forms in his poetry. C．Yeats began to produce his best works from the 1910s. D．Yeats was not favored by the public until the 1923 Noble Prize. 答案：C。细节理解题。根据短文第二段第二句话“He set himself...theatre in the late 1890s.”可知 A 项不对。根据第三段第三句话“Though Yeats...to them”可知，B
项不对。根据第三段最后一句话可知，D 项不对。由此可知 C 项正确。 7．What kind of feeling is expressed in W．H.Auden's lines? A．Envy. C．Emptiness. B．Sympathy. D．Admiration.
答案：D。推理判断题。envy 忌妒；sympathy 同情；emptiness 空虚；admiration 敬佩， 钦佩。Auden 的诗词中有 honored guest，最尊敬的客人，可知 Auden 是敬佩叶慈的。 8．What is the passage mainly about? A. Yeats's literary achievements. C. Yeats's artistic ambition. B. Yeats's historical influence. D. Yeats's national honor.
答案：A。主旨大意题。本文主要讲述作家叶慈在文学方面所取得的成绩，他的诗体戏 剧获得了很大的成功，他的诗歌赢得了广泛的认可，1923 年，他获得了诺贝尔文学奖。 C (2011·四川卷，C) The multi?million pound new Library of Birmingham(LoB)will be the most visible sign of the way the city is accepting the digitalization(数字化)of everyday life. Set to open in 2013, the ￡188m LoB is already beginning to take shape next to the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, with which it will share some equipment. As digital media( 媒 介 )is important to its_idea,_the project is already providing chances for some of the many small new local companies working at the new technologies. Brian Gambles, the LoB project director, says it is about giving people the right tools for learning：“The aim is to mix the physical with the digital, providing 24?hour services which can be used through many different ways. It is important to enable us to reach more people, more effectively.” The digital library will, he says, be as important as the physical one, allowing the distant use of the services, making sure that it is never closed to the public. Even before the LoB is complete, the public has been able to go online to visit the Virtual( 虚 拟 的 )LoB, designed by Baden, the Birmingham virtual worlds specialists. Not only have the public been able to learn about the LoB, but the virtual one has also enabled those working on the LoB to understand the building and how it will work before it even opens. Two other small Birmingham?based digital companies are also working on the LoB projects. Substrat, a digital design company, is developing what it calls an example of an “enlarged reality” project. It is about the use of an exciting smart phone,
an important part of the LoB which is in the early stages of development. And The People's Archice is an online library of historical figures of the city being built up by a digital content company in Cahoots, in which users will be encouraged to add to and comment on the material. Gambles says: “Technology will enable us to make the library's content and services open to citizens as never before.” 投资数百万英镑的伯明翰新建图书馆将会是目前很有代表性的数字化图书馆， 在这样的 图书馆，人们将会体验新的阅览工具，并且能够真正做图书馆的主人，即：能够参与图书内 容的增补与建议。 9．The underlined part “its idea” in Paragraph 3 refers to the idea of ________. A．the equipment C．the digital media B．the project D．the physical library
答案： 词义猜测题。 B。 根据下一句话的信息词“the project is already providing...” 可以断定此处的代词 its 指的就是 the project。 10．While visiting the Virtual LoB, the public can ________. A．get a general idea of the LoB B．meet many world?famous experts C．learn how to put up a library building
D．understand how the specialists work on the project 答案：A。细节判断题。在倒数第三段中，信息句“Not only have the public been able to learn about the LoB...”可以给以提示：即：公众可以很好地了解 LoB 的具体情况， 即同选项 A 所说的一样。 11．Which of the following is TRUE of the LoB when it opens? a．It offers better learning tools. b．It reaches users in different ways. c．It provides users with smart phones. d．It allows users to enrich its material. e．It gives non?stop physical and digital services. A．a，b，d C．b，c，d B．a，c，e D．b，d，e
答 案 ： A 。 细 节 判 断 题 。 在 文 章 的 第 三 段 中 提 到 这 样 “right tools for learning”“used through many different ways ”以及倒数第二段的最后“add to and comment on the material”都表明了关于开放时的 LoB 的情况，即同选项 A。 12．The text is most probably taken from ________.
A．a computer book C．a project handbook
B．a library guide D．a newspaper report
答案：D。文章出处判断题。既然是针对于公众的信息，应该是面对普通公众，即选择 最大众化的媒体，即新闻报道。 D (2011·陕西卷，D) Ever since they were first put on the market in the early 1990s, genetically modified (GM, 转基因) foods have been increasingly developed and marketed in many countries in the world，mainly on the basis of their promise to end the worldwide food crisis. But can GM technology solve world hunger problems? Even if it would， is it the best solution? Despite what it promises ， GM technology actually has not increased the
production potential(潜力)of any crop. In fact studies show that the most widely grown GM crop, GM soybeans, has suffered reduced productivity. For instance, a report that analysed nearly two decades of research on major GM food crops shows that GM engineering has failed to significantly increase US crop production. Something else, however, has been on the rise. While GM seeds are expensive, GM companies tell farmers that they will make good profits by saving money on pesticides(杀虫剂). On the contrary, US government data show that GM crops in the US have produced an overall increase in pesticide use compared to traditional crops. “The promise was that you could use less chemicals and boost production. But
neither is true，” said Bill Christison, President of the US National Family Farm Coalition. At the same time, the authors of the book World Hunger: Twelve Myths argue that there actually is more than enough food in the world and that the hunger crisis is not caused by production, but by problems in food distribution and politics. These indeed deserve our efforts and money. Meanwhile, the rise in food prices results from the increased use of crops for fuel rather than food, according to a 2008 World Bank report. As a matter of fact，scientists see better ways to feed the world. Another World Bank report concluded that GM crops have little to offer to the challenges of worldwide poverty and hunger, because better ways out are available, among which “green” farming is supposed to be the first choice. 主要讲转基因技术并不是解决世界饥饿问题最好的方式。
13．The author develops the second paragraph mainly________. A. by classification C. by example B. by comparison D. by process
答案：C。写作手法题中的段落行文题。根据第二段第三行的 for instance(例如)可知， C 项(by example 通过举例)正确， 排除 by classification“通过分类”/by comparison“通 过类比”/by process“根据事物发展流程”。 14． What does the underlined word “boost” in the third paragraph probably mean? A. Control. C. Obtain. B. Evaluate. D. Increase.
答案：D。词义猜测题。 control 控制；evaluate 评估，评价；obtain 获得；increase 增加，提高，根据前后文可知，boost 在此相当于 increase(增加生产量)。 15．GM companies promise farmers that they will benefit from________. A. practising “green” farming C. fair distribution of their crops B. use of less chemicals D. using more crops for fuel
答案：B。事实细节题。通过题干中 promise 和 benefit from 分别定位到文章第三段 第二行和第四行引号部分就可选出答案。 16．Which of the following best describes the attitude of the author towards GM technology? A. Optimistic. C. Disapproving. B. Defensive. D. Casual.
答案：C。态度观点题。通读全文可知，本文主要讲转基因技术并不是解决世界饥饿问 题最好的方式。A 乐观的；B 保护的；C 不赞成的；D 随便的，漫不经心的。显然 C 项是作者 对于转基因技术的态度。 E (2011·安徽卷，E) George Prochnik would like the world to_put_a_sock_in_it. He makes his case in a new book, listening for Meaning in a World of Noise. Here he explains himself (using his indoor voice)： “We've become so accustomed to noise, there's almost a deep prejudice against the idea that silence might be beneficial. If you tell someone to be quiet, you sound like an old man. But it's never been more important to find continuing quiet. Silence focuses us, improves our health, and is a key to lasting peace and satisfaction.” “We need to excite people about the sounds you start to hear if you merely quiet things down a little. During a Japanese tea ceremony, the smallest sounds
becomes a kind of art—the spoons making a light ringing sound on a bowl, the edges of a kimono (和服)brushing against the floor.” “Deaf people are very attentive(专注的)in almost every aspect of life. If two deaf people are walking together, using sign language，they constantly watch out for each other and protect each other by paying steady attention to the other. They are connected yet also fully aware of their surroundings. Even deaf teenagers! We in the hearing world can learn from them. If we remove the powerful blasts(一阵 阵)of noise, we become aware of an extraordinarily rich world around us—of little soft and the sound of footsteps, of bird songs and ice cracking(开裂声). It's astonishing how beautiful things sound when you can really listen. ” 我们生活在一个充满噪音的世界里，并且习以为常。但让我们安静下来倾听吧，我们会 发现世界是更加美好的，这对我们是有益的。 17. What does the phrase “to put a sock in it” in Paragraph 1 probably mean? A. To be quiet. C. To be full of love. B. To be colorful. D. To be attentive to someone.
答案：A。词义猜测题。由下文内容可知，George Prochnik 认为人们习惯了周围噪音 的存在，但却没有意识到安静的环境对人们是有益的，故画线部分点出了他的观点，即希望 世界是安静的。 18. What does Prochnik say about us? A. We are used to quietnesss. B. We have to put up with noise. C. We do not think silence to be beneficial. D. We do not believe lasting peace to be available. 答案：C。细节理解题。由第二段第一句话可知，我们习惯了噪音的存在，因而对安静 对人们有益这一说法有很深的偏见，故 C 项正确。 19. Which of the following is TRUE according to Prochnik? A. We need more sounds in our lives. B. There is nothing to be learned from the deaf.
C. We are not aware how rich the world around us is. D. There is too much noise at a Japanese tea ceremony. 答案：C。细节理解题。根据最后一段内容可知，聋哑人能专注于周围的环境，这一点 是我们有听力的人应该向他们学习的，因此，如果我们能摆脱周围的噪音的话，我们就会意 识到周围的世界是多么的丰富多彩。 20. It can be inferred from the text that ________.
A. we can benefit a lot from old people B. it is a good idea to use sign language C. there is no escape from the world of sound D. it is possible to find how beautiful things sound 答案： 推理判断题。 D。 根据文章最后一句 It's astonishing how beautiful things sound when you can really listen.可知，当我们能真正聆听大自然的各种声音的时候，我们就 会发现周围的世界是美好的。 (十一) A (2011·浙江卷，A) One evening in February 2007, a student named Paula Ceely brought her car to a stop on a remote road in Wales. She got out to open a metal gate that blocked her path. That's when she heard the whistle sounded by the driver of a train. Her Rensult Clio was parked across a railway line. Seconds later, she watched the train drag her car almost a kilometre down the railway tracks. Ceely's near_miss made the news because she blamed it on her GPS device (导 航仪). She had never driven the route before. It was dark and raining heavily. Ceely was relying on her GPS, but it made no mention of the crossing. “I put my complete trust in the device and it led me right into the path of a speeding train，” she told the BBC. Who is to blame here? Rick Stevenson, who tells Ceely's story in his book When
Machines Fail Us, points the finger at the limitations of technology. We put our
faith in digital devices, he says, but our digital helpers are too often not up to the job. They are filled with small problems. And it's not just GPS devices: Stevenson takes us on a tour of digital disasters involving everything from mobile phones to wireless keyboards. The problem with his argument in the book is that it's not clear why he only focuses on digital technology, while there may be a number of other possible causes. A map?maker might have left the crossing off a paper map. Maybe we should blame Ceely for not paying attention. Perhaps the railway authorities are at fault for poor signalling system. Or maybe someone has studied the relative dangers and worked out that there really is something specific wrong with the GPS equipment. But Stevenson doesn't say. It's a problem that runs through the book. In a section on cars, Stevenson gives
an account of the advanced techniques that criminals use to defeat computer?based locking systems for cars. He offers two independent sets of figures on car theft; both show a small rise in some parts of the country. He says that once again not all new locks have proved reliable. Perhaps, but maybe it's also due to the shortage of policemen on the streets. Or changing social circumstances. Or some combination of these factors. The game between humans and their smart devices is amusing and complex. It is shaped by economics and psychology and the cultures we live in. Somewhere in the mix of those forces there may be a way for a wiser use of technology. If there is such a way, it should involve more than just an awareness of the shortcomings of our machines. After all, we have lived with them for thousands of years. They have probably been fooling us for just as long. 本文是议论文。讨论了人与现代科技的关系。 1．What did Paula Ceely think was the cause of her accident? A．She was not familiar with the road. B．It was dark and raining heavily then. C．The railway workers failed to give the signal. D．Her GPS device didn't tell her about the crossing. 答案：D。细节理解题。根据文中所述“Ceely was relying on her GPS. But it made no mention of the crossing.‘I put my complete trust in the device and it led me right into the path of a speeding train，’she told the BBC.”可知，Ceely 行驶中 完全依赖导航仪， 显然 Ceely 认为出事故的原因是导航仪对于十字路口没有任何提示造成 的。 2．The phrase “near miss” (Paragraph 2) can best be replaced by ________. A．close hit C．narrow espace B．heavy loss D．big mistake
答案：C。词义猜测题。根据上下文不难看出，在此 near miss 与 narrow escape 同义， 意为“侥幸逃生”。 3．Which of the following would Rick Stevenson most probably agree with? A．Modern technology is what we can't live without. B．Digital technology often falls short of our expectation. C．Digital devices are more reliable than they used to be. D．GPS error is not the only cause for Ceely's accident. 答案：B。推理判断题。A 现代技术是我们的生活必备；B 数字技术常常出乎的我们的意
料；C 数字仪器比以前更可靠了；D 导航仪的失误不是 Ceely 出事故的唯一原因。根据 Rick Stevenson 所说 We put our faith in digital devices, he says，but our digital helpers are too often not up to the job.不难看出，Rick Stevenson 认为我们信赖的数字仪器 常常不能胜任它的工作，显然 B 项正确。 4．In the writer's opinion，Stevenson's argument is ________. A．one?sided C．puzzling B．reasonable D．well?based
答案：A。 观点态度判断题。one?sided 片面的；偏于一方的 ；reasonable 合情合理的； puzzling 令人困惑的；well?based 有事实依据的。在第四段中作者发表自己的观点，并且 说 But Stevenson doesn't say，显然 A 项正确。 5．What is the real concern of the writer of this article? A．The major causes of traffic accidents and car thefts. B．The relationship between humans and technology. C．The shortcomings of digital devices we use. D．The human unawareness of technical problems. 答案：B。主旨大意题。A 交通事故和车辆盗窃事故的主要原因；B 人类和技术的关系； C 我们所用数字仪器的弊端；D 人类没有意识到技术问题。通读全文可以看出 B 项正确。 B (2011·江西卷，C) The garden city was largely the invention of Ebenezer Howard (1850～1928). After immigrating from England to the USA, and an unsuccessful attempt to make a living as a farmer, he moved to Chicago, where he saw the reconstruction of the city after the disastrous fire of 1871. In those days, it was nicknamed “the Garden City”， almost certainly the source of Howard's name for his later building plan of towns. Returning to London, Howard developed his design in the 1880s and 1890s, drawing_on ideas that were popular at the time, but creating a unique combination of designs. The nineteenth?century poor city was in many ways a terrible place, dirty and crowded; but it offered economic and social opportunities. At the same time, the British countryside was in fact equally unattractive: though it promised fresh air and nature, it suffered from agricultural depression(萧条)and it offered