高中英语语法大全 词法 第 1 章 主谓一致 一.概念: 主谓一致是指： 1） 语法形式上要一致，即单复数形式与谓语要一致。 2） 意义上要一致，即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。 3） 就近原则，即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语， 一般来说，不可数名词用动词单数，可数名词复数用动词复数。例如： There is much water in the therm
os. 但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时，谓语动词用复数形式。例如： Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.并列结构作主语时谓语用复数，例如： Reading and writing are very important. 读写很重要。 注意：当主语由 and 连结时，如果它表示一个单一的概念，即指同一人或同一物时，谓 语动词用单数，and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。例如： The iron and steel industry is very important to our life. 钢铁工业对我们的生活有重要意 义。 典型例题 The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting. A. is B. was C. are D. were 答案 B. 注： 先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时，先排除 A.，C。 本题易误选 D，因为 The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人，但仔细辨别，monitor 前没有 the，在英语中，当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用 and 相 连。这样本题主语为一个人，所以应选 B。 2. 主谓一致中的靠近原则 1)当 there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时，谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。例如： There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk. 桌上有一支笔、一把小刀和几本书。 There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.班上有二十个男孩， 二十三个女孩。 2）当 either... or... 与 neither... nor，连接两个主语时，谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。 如果句子是由 here, there 引导，而主语又不止一个时，谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。例 如： Either you or she is to go. 不是你去，就是她去。 Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you. 给你笔、信封和纸。 3.谓语动词与前面的主语一致 当主语有 with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词组成的短语时，谓 语动词与前面的主语部分一致。例如： The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 教师和一些学生在参观工 厂。 He as well as I wants to go boating.他和我想去划船。 4. 谓语需用单数的情况 1） 代词 each 以及由 every, some, no, any 等构成的复合代词作主语时， 或主语中含有 each,
every 时, 谓语需用单数。例如： Each of us has a tape-recorder. 我们每人都有录音机。 There is something wrong with my watch. 我的表坏了。 2）当主语是一本书或一条格言时，谓语动词常用单数。例如： The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 《天方夜谭》是英语爱好者熟悉 的一本书。 3） 表示金钱， 时间， 价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时， 通常把这些名词看作一个整体， 谓语一般用单数。例如： Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. 用三个星期来做准备。 Ten yuan is enough. 十元够了。 5.指代意义决定谓语的单复数 1） 代词 what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all 等词的单复数由其指代的词的单 复数决定。例如： All is right. 一切顺利。 All are present. 人都到齐了。 2）集体名词作主语时，谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如 family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee 等词后，谓语动词用复数形式时强调这个集体中的各个成员，用 单数时强调该集体的整体。例如： His family isn't very large. 他家成员不多。 His family are music lovers. 他家个个都是音乐爱好者。 但集合名词 people, police, cattle, poultry 等在任何情况下都用复数形式。例如： Are there any police around? 附近有警察吗？ 3）有些名词，如 variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数，有时看 作复数。例如： A number of +名词复数+复数动词。 The number of +名词复数+单数动词。 A number of books have lent out. The majority of the students like English. 6.与后接名词或代词保持一致的情况 1）用 half of, most of, none of, heaps of, lots of, plenty of 等引起主语时，谓语动词通常与 of 后面的名词/代词保持一致。例如： Most of his money is spent on books. 他大部分的钱化在书上了。 Most of the students are taking an active part in sports. 大部分学生积极参与体育运动。 2） a portion of, a series of, a pile of, a panel of 等引起主语时， 用 谓语动词通常用单数。 例如： A series of accidents has been reported. 媒体报道了一连串的事故。 A pile of lots was set beside the hearth. 炉边有一堆木柴。 3） many a 或 more than one 所修饰的短语作主语时， 如 谓语动词多用单数形式。 但由 more than... of 作主语时，动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。例如： Many a person has read the novel. 许多人读过这本书。 More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生来自这个城 市。 三.巩固练习 （ ） 1. The number of people invited ______ fifty, but a number of them _______ absent for different reasons.
A. were, was C. was, were （
B. was, was D. were, were
） 2. E-mail, as well as telephones, ________ an important part in daily communication. A. is playing B. have played C. are playing D. play ） 3. ______ of the land in that district ______ covered with trees and grass. A. Two fifth, is B. Two fifth, are C. Two fifths, is D. Two fifths, are ） 4. Ten minutes ______ A. seem C. seemed a long time for one who waits. B. seems D. are seemed
） 5. Eric is the only one of the boys who _____ a driving license. A. has B. have C. is having D. are having' ） 6. Joy and Sorrow _____ A. is B. are next-door neighbours. C. were D. be
（ （ （ （
）7. In my opinion, some of the news _____ unbelievable. A. are B. is C. has been D. have been ）8. When ______ the United Nations founded? A. is B. are C. was ）9. Every possible means _____ . A. has tried C. was tried D. were
B. has been tried D. were tried
（ （ （
） 10. What she says and does _____ nothing to do with me. A. was B. were C. has D. have ）11. There _____ a dictionary and several books on the desk. A. are B. must C. have been D. is ）12. Nobody ______ A. but Tom and Jack have C. but my friends has seen the film. It's a pity. B. except Tom and Jack have D. but I have
）13. No teacher and no student ______． A. are admitted B. is admitted C. are admitting D. is admitting （ ）14. All but one ______ here just now. A. is B. was C. has been （
）15. When and where to build the new factory _____ yet. A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided （ ） 16. The writer and singer ______ here. A. is B. are C. were D. do （ ） 17. As I have a meeting at four, ten minutes _____ all that I can spare to talk with you. A. are B. was C. is D. were （ ） 18. In those days John with his classmates _____ kept busy preparing for the exam. A. is B. are
C. was （
） 19. -- ____ your clothes? --No, mine _____ hanging over there. A. Is it, is B. Are these, are C. Is it, are D. Are these, is
（ ） 20. The Smith's family, which ____ rather a large one, ____ very fond of their old houses. A. were, were B. was, was C. were, was D. was, were （ ） 21. What the teacher and the students want to say _____ that either of the countries ____ beautiful. A. are, are B. is, is C. are, is D. is, are （ ） 22. He is the only one of the students who _____ a winner of scholarship for three years. A. is B. are C. have been D. has been （ ） 23. _____ of my brothers are reporters. Covering events, meetings, or sports meetings ______ their duty. A. Each, are B. Both, is C. Neither, are D. None, is （ ） 24. -- What do you think of the ______ of the coat? -- It's rather high. You can buy a cheaper one in that shop. A. value B. cost C. price D. use （ ） 25. -- Are the two answers correct? -- No, ______ correct. A. no one is B. both are not C. neither is D. either is not （ ） 26. The wind, together with rain and fog, _____ making sailing difficult. A. have been B. was C. / D/ are 四.答案 1.C 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. A 6. B 7. B 8. C 9. B 10. C 11. D 12. C 13. B 14. D 15. A 16. A 17. C 18. C 19. B 20. D 21. B 22. D 23. B 24. C 25. C 26. B 第 2 章 动词的时态 一. 概念: 时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式,表示动作发生的时间和所处的状态.英语中的时态是通过动 词形式本身的变化来实现的.英语有 16 种时态,但中学阶段较常用的有十种:一般现在时,一般 过去时,一般将来时,过去将来时,现在进行时,过去进行时,将来进行时,过去完成时,英在完成 时和现在完成进行时. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.一般现在时的用法
1） 经常性或习惯性的动作，常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。时间状语： every..., sometimes, at..., on Sunday。例如： I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。 2） 客观真理，客观存在，科学事实。例如： The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。 Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。 3） 表示格言或警句。例如： Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 注意：此用法如果出现在宾语从句中，即使主句是过去时，从句谓语也要用一般现在 时。 例：Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。 4） 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。例如： I don't want so much. 我不要那么多。 Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错，讲的可不行。 比较：Now I put the sugar in the cup. 把糖放入杯子。 I am doing my homework now. 我正在做功课。 第一句用一般现在时，用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作，表示言行的瞬间动作。 第二句中的 now 是进行时的标志，表示正在进行的动作的客观状况，所以后句用一般现在 时。 2. 一般过去时的用法 1）在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。例如：时间状语有：yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 等。例如： Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了？ 2）表示在过去一段时间内，经常性或习惯性的动作。例如： When I was a child, I often played football in the street. 我是个孩子的时候， 常在马路上踢 足球。 Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome. 那时，布朗一家无论什么时候去，都受到热烈欢迎。 3） 句型： is time for sb. to do sth It "到......时间了" "该......了"。 例如： is time for you It to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。 It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该......了" ，例如 It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。 would （had） rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。 例如： rather you I'd came tomorrow.还是明天来吧。 4） wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时，作试探性的询问、请求、建议等，而一般过去时 表示的动作或状态都已成为过去，现已不复存在。例如：I thought you might have some. 我 以为你想要一些。 比较：Christine was an invalid all her life.（含义：她已不在人间。 ） Christine has been an invalid all her life.（含义：她现在还活着） Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. （含义：达比太太已不再住在肯塔基 州。 ） Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. （含义：现在还住在肯塔基州， 有可能指刚离去） 注意： 用过去时表示现在，表示委婉语气。
1）动词 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。例如： Did you want anything else? 您还要些什么吗？ I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。 2）情态动词 could, would。例如： Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车，能借用一些吗？ 3.一般将来时 1） shall 用于第一人称，常被 will 所代替。will 在陈述句中用于各人称，在征求意见时 常用于第二人称。例如： Which paragraph shall I read first？ 我先读哪一段呢？ Will you be at home at seven this evening? 今晚七点回家好吗？ 2） be going to +不定式，表示将来。 a. 主语的意图，即将做某事。例如：What are you going to do tomorrow? 明天打算作 什么呢？ b. 计划，安排要发生的事。例如：The play is going to be produced next month。这出 戏下月开播。 c. 有迹象要发生的事。 例如：Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm. 看那 乌云，快要下雨了。 3） be +不定式表将来，按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例如： We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。 4） be about to +不定式，意为马上做某事。例如： He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。 注意：be about to do 不能与 tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。 4. 一般现在时表将来 1）下列动词 come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 的一般现在时可以表示将来，主要用 来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如： The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。 When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开？十分钟后。 2）以 here, there 等开始的倒装句，表示动作正在进行。例如： Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。 There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。 3）在时间或条件句中。例如： When Bill comes （不是 will come）, ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后，让他等我。 I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里，就写信给你。 4）在动词 hope, take care that, make sure that 等的宾语从句中。例如： I hope they have a nice time next week. 我希望他们下星期玩得开心。 Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room. 离开房间前，务必 把窗户关了。 5. 用现在进行时表示将来 下列动词 come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 等现在进行时可以表示将来。例如： I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。 Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗？ 6. 现在完成时 现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态， 其结果的影响现在还存在； 也可 表示持续到现在的动作或状态。其构成：have （has） +过去分词。
7. 比较一般过去时与现在完成时 1）一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情，强调动作；现在完成时为 过去发生的，强调过去的事情对现在的影响，强调的是影响。 2）一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用，而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用， 或无时间状语。 一般过去时的时间状语：yesterday, last week，...ago, in1980, in October, just now 等， 皆为具体的时间状语。 现在完成时的时间状语： since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, for, always 等，皆不确定的时间状语。 共同的时间状语：this morning, tonight, this April, now, already, recently, lately 等。 3）现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态，动词一般是延续性的，如 live, teach, learn, work, study, know.。 一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有 come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married 等。例如： I saw this film yesterday. （强调看的动作发生过了） I have seen this film. （强调对现在的影响，电影的内容已经知道了） Why did you get up so early? （强调起床的动作已发生过了） Who hasn't handed in his paper? （强调有卷子未交，疑为不公平竞争） He has been in the League for three years. （在团内的状态可延续） He has been a League member for three years. （是团员的状态可持续） 句子中如有过去时的时间副词（如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960）时，不能使用现在 完成时，要用过去时。 （错）Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. （对）Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night. 8. 用于现在完成时的句型 1）It is the first / second time.... that...结构中的从句部分，用现在完成时。例如： It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。 This is the first time （that） I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。 注意：It was the third time that the boy had been late. 2）This is +形容词最高级+that...结构，that 从句要用现在完成时。例如： This is the best film that I've （ever） seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 9.过去完成时 1） 概念：表示过去的过去 ----|----------|--------|----> 其构成是 had +过去分词构成。 那时以前 那时 现在 2） 用法 a. 在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句。例如： She said （that）she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。 b. 状语从句 在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中，发生在先，用过去完成时；发生在后，用一般 过去时。例如： When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时，小偷们早就跑了。 c. 表示意向的动词，如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等，用过去完 成时表示"原本...，未能..."。例如：
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来，但是你没 有来。 3） 过去完成时的时间状语 before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。例如： He said that he had learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语。 By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. 到了十二岁 那年，爱迪生开始自己谋生。 Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. 汤姆失望了，因为他到达晚会时，大部分客人已经走了。 10. 用一般过去时代替过去完成时 1） 两个动作如按顺序发生，又不强调先后，或用 then，and，but 等连词时，多用一 般过去时。例如： When she saw the mouse，she screamed. 她看到老鼠，就叫了起来。 My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 姑妈给了我一顶帽子，我把它丢了。 2 ） 两个动作相继发生，可用一般过去时；如第一个动作需要若干时间完成，用过去完 成时。例如： When I heard the news, I was very excited. 3） 叙述历史事实，可不用过去完成时，而只用一般过去时。例如： Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492. 11.将来完成时 1） 构成 will have done 2） 概念 a. 状态完成：表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。例如： They will have been married for 20 years by then. 到那时他们结婚将有二十年了。 b. 动作完成：表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前，已经完成的动作或获得的经 验。例如： You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow. 明天此时，你已经到达上海了 12 现在进行时 现在进行时的基本用法： a. 表示现在（指说话人说话时）正在发生的事情。例如： We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你。 b. 习惯进行：表示长期的或重复性的动作，说话时动作未必正在进行。例如： Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。 （说话时并未在写，只处于 写作的状态。 ） c. 表示渐变，这样的动词有：get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin 等。例如： The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。 It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。 d. 与 always, constantly, forever 等词连用，表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态，往 往带有说话人的主观色彩。例如： You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。 13. 过去进行时 1）概念：表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。 2）过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景；一个长动作延续的时候，另一个短 动作发生。 3） 常用的时间状语有 this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten
last evening, when, while 等。例如： My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 我兄弟骑车时摔了下 来，受了伤。 It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时，正下着雨。 When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时，阳光灿烂。 14. 将来进行时 1） 概念：表示将来某时进行的状态或动作，或按预测将来会发生的事情。例如： She'll be coming soon. 她会很快来的。 I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 将来我一定去见他。 注意：将来进行时不用于表示"意志"，不能说 I'll be having a talk with her. 2）常用的时间状语有 soon, tomorrow, this evening，on Sunday, by this time，tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening 等。 例如： this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach. 明天此时， By 我正躺在海滩上呢。 15. 一般现在时代替一般将来时 When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case （that） unless, , even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately 等引导的时间状语从 句，条件句中，用一般现在时代替将来时。例如： He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京，就去看他姨妈。 16. 一般现在时代替一般过去时 1 ） "书上说"，"报纸上说"等。例如： The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow. 报纸上说明天会很冷的。 2） 叙述往事，使其生动。例如： Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.拿破仑的军队正在向前挺进， 大战开始了 17. 一般现在时代替现在完成时 1） 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时， hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, 如 find , say, remember 等。例如： I hear （= have heard） he will go to London. 我听说了他将去伦敦。 I forget （=have forgotten） how old he is. 我忘了他多大了。 2） 用句型 " It is ... since..."代替"It has been ... since ..."。例如： It is （= has been） five years since we last met. 从我们上次见面以来，五年过去了。 18. 一般现在时代替现在进行时。 在 Here comes.../There goes...等句型里，用一般现在时代替现在进行时。例如： There goes the bell. 铃响了。 19. 现在进行时代替将来时 1） 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。例如： Are you staying with us this weekend? 和我们一起度周末好吗? We are leaving soon. 我们马上就走。 2） 渐变动词，如 get, run, grow, become, begin 以及瞬间动词 die 等。例如： He is dying. 他要死了。 20.时态一致 1） 如果从句所叙述的为真理或相对不变的事实，则用现在时。例如： At that time, people did not know that the earth moves. 那时，人们不知道地球是动的。 He told me last week that he is eighteen. 上星期他告诉我他十八岁了。
2） 宾语从句中的，助动词 ought, need, must, dare 的时态是不变的。例如： He thought that I need not tell you the truth. 他认为我不必告诉你真相。 三.巩固练习: 1、I' ll give the book to him as soon as he ________ back. 2、Has the baby ________ crying yet? (stop) 3、I don' t know whether Mother __________ me to Beijing next month.(take) 4、She _______ on her coat and went out. (put) 5、 "What are they doing?" "They __________ ready for the sports meeting." (get) 6、The boy asked his mother ________him go and play basketball.(let) 7、I'm sorry to keep you ____________ for a long time. (wait) 8、It ________ (take) him half an hour _______ (finish) his homework yesterday. 9、If it ________ an interesting film, we'll see it tomorrow. (be) 10、They usually ________ (do) their homework after supper. 11、Listen! Who _____________(sing) in the next room now? 12、__________(be) your parents in Shanghai last year? 13、Mr. Yu _____________(teach) us maths since 1982. 14、They will have a trip to the Great Wall if it _________ (not rain) tomorrow. 15、Li Ming often _________ (listen) to the radio in the morning. 16、A: "Father, may I go out and play football?" B: "_____you ____(do) your homework?" 17、All the people in the town are glad ______(hear) that a famous musician ___ a concert this Saturday evening.( give) 18、Our teacher told us if it _____(not snow) we would visit the Science Museum the next day. 19、They often _______ (play) football in the afternoon. 20、A: What're you doing Dad? B: I _______ (mend) the radio. 21、Let's _______(carry) the boxes to the house. 22、Yesterday she ______ (want) very much to see the film, but she couldn't __(get) a ticket. 23、I _________(write) to you as soon as I get to Shanghai. 24、Mike ___________(visit) several places since he came to Beijing. 25、He ___________ (write) four letters to his wife every month. 26、Don' t make any noise, Grandma ___________ (sleep). 27、His aunt ___________ (do) some cooking when he came in . 28、When they ___________ (reach) the station, the train had already left. 29、There ___________ (be) a meeting next Monday. 30、We ___________ (know) each other since our boyhood.. 31、Sometimes my father ___________ (come) back home late. 32、They ___________ (have) an English evening next week. 33、I'm very glad___________ (hear) that. 34、Wei Fang isn't here. She ___________ (go) to the reading-room. 35、The story ___________ (happen) long ago. 36、They ___________ (visit) the History Museum last week. 37、Zhang Hong ___________ (make) many friends since she came to Paris. 38、She ___________ (go) to the cinema with her classmates tomorrow evening. 39、Stay here, bag. Don't go out. It ___________(rain) now. 40、Li Ping___________ (write) a composition every week.
41、The scientist ___________ (give) us a talk yesterday. 42、My parents ___________ (live) in Beijing since 1949. 43、Look! The young worker___________ (show) the students around the factory now. 44、They ___________ (build) a new bridge over the river next year. 45、The students___________ (clean) their classroom tomorrow. 46、The windows of our lab ___________ (clean) once a week. 47、Our teacher ___________ (join) the party twenty years ago. 48、The boys___________ (have) a basketball match now. Let's ___(go) and _____(watch). 49、She___________ (work) in this factory for ten years. 50、 "What makes you ___________ (think) I'm a farmer?" the Frenchman asked. 四.答案 1. comes 2. stopped 3. will take 4. put 5. are getting 6. to let 7. waiting 8. took ... to finish 9. is 10. do 11. is singing 12. Was 13. has taught 14. doesn't rain 15. listens 16. Have ... done 17. to hear ... will give 18. didn't snow 19. play 20. am mending 21. carry 22. wanted , get 23. will write 24. has visited 25. writes 26. is sleeping 27. was doing 28. reached 29. will be 30. have known 31. comes 32. will have
33. to hear 34. has gone 35. happened 36. visited 37. has made 38. will go 39. is raining 40. writes 41. gave 42. have lived 43. is showing 44. will build 45. will clean 46. is cleaned 47. joined 48. are having, go ... watch 49. has worked think
第三章 动词的语态 一.概念: 动词的语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语之间语法或语义的关系.英语的语态有两 种:主动语态和被动语态.主动语态用于主动句,表示主语是动作的执行者.被动语态用于被动 句,表示主语是动作的承受者.主动语态的构成方式与动词时态相同,而被动语态由 助动词 be+过去分词 构成,有人称,数,时态的变化. 二. 相关知识点精讲 1. let 的用法 1）当 let 后只有一个单音节动词，变被动语态时，可用不带 to 的不定式。例如： They let the strange go.他们放陌生人走了。 ---> The strange was let go.
2）当 let 后宾补较长时，let 通常不用被动语态，而用 allow 或 permit 代替。例如： The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital. 那护士让我去探望住院的同学。 ----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital. 2.短语动词的被动语态 短语动词是一个整体，不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。例如： My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. 我妹妹由奶奶照顾。 Such a thing has never been heard of before. 这样的事闻所未闻。 3. 表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组，基本上由 believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand 等组成。例如： It is said that... 据说 It is reported that... 据报道 It is believed that... 大家相信 It is hoped that... 大家希望 It is well known that... 众所周知 It is thought that... 大家认为 It is suggested that... 据建议 It is taken granted that... 被视为当然 It has been decided that... 大家决定 It must be remember that... 务必记住的是 4. 不用被动语态的情况 1） 不及物动词或不及物动词短语，如 appear, die disappear, end（vi. 结束）, fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place 等没有无被动语态。例如： After the fire, very little remained of my house. 大火过后，我家烧得所剩无几。 比较：rise, fall, happen 是不及物动词；raise, seat 是及物动词。 要想正确地使用被动语态，就须注意哪些动词是及物的，哪些是不及物的。特别是一词 多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。 2） 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语，如 fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to 等。例如： This key just fits the lock. 这把钥匙只配这把锁。 Your story agrees with what had already been heard. 你说的与我们听说的一致。 3） 系动词无被动语态， appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, 如 smell, sound, stay, taste, turn 等。例如：It sounds good. 听上去不错。 4） 带同源宾语的及物动词如 die/death, dream/dream， live/life 等，以及反身代词，相 互代词，不能用于被动语态。例如： She dreamed a bad dream last night. 她昨晚做了个恶梦。 5） 当宾语是不定式时，很少用于被动语态。例如： （对） She likes to swim. （错） To swim is liked by her. 5. 主动形式表示被动意义 1）wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell 等。例如： The book sells well. 这本书销路好。 This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。
2）blame, let（出租）, remain, keep, rent, build 等。例如： I was to blame for the accident. 事故发生了，我该受指责。 Much work remains. 还有许多活要干。 3） 在 need, require, want, worth （形容词） deserve 后的动名词必须用主动形式。 , 例如： The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired. 门该修了。 This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。 4）特殊结构：make sb. heard / understood （使别人能听见/理解自己）等。例如： Explain it clearly and make yourself understood. 解释清楚些，让别人理解你的话。 6. 被动形式表示主动意义， be determined, be pleased, be graduated （from） be prepared 如 , （for）, be occupied （in）, get married 等。例如： He is graduated from a famous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。 注意：表示同某人结婚，用 marry sb. 或 get married to sb.均可。例如： He married a rich girl. 他与一个富妞结婚了。 He got married to a rich girl. 7.need/want/require/worth 当 need, want, require, be worth 后面接 doing 时，表示的是被动意义。例如： Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。 The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。 三.巩固练习 1. I___________ (teach) here for ten years since I finished school. 2. Would you mind me __________ (use) your bike? 3. The students of Class Two___________ (sweep) their classroom now. 4. The Whites____________ (not listen) to the radio at that time. 5. It's better to give than__________ (receive). 6. How long ______you_______ (live) in this town? 7. You _______ (come) here last year, ______ you? 8. ----When ______ you______ (see) him? ----I______ (see) him last Sunday. 9. She said that the car___________ (use) the next week. 10. I didn't know what __________ (happen) to China in a century. 11. When I got to the station, the train ____ already ______ (leave). 12. The stone bridge______________ (build) in our hometown for ten years. 13. The desk must ______ (clean) once a day. 14. The dog _________ (lie) on the floor when I came in.. 15. It _________(rain) heavily when I got home. 16. Her mother____________ (cook) at this time yesterday. 17. The students _____________ (do) their homework. __________ (not make) any noise! 18. ----______ you ever_______ (be) to Beijing? ----Yes. I________ (go) there last week. 19. He'll telephone us as soon as he _________ (arrive) there. 20. Jiefang trucks____________ (make) in Changchun. 21. A pen is used for__________ (write). 22. All that must ________ (do). 23 .My friend can't decide which pair of trousers____________ (choose). So she asked me to go shopping with her.
24. They find it useful__________ (learn) English. 25. The old man often_________ (tell) the children a story in the evening. This evening he ________ (tell) two stories. 26. The radio__________ (use) once in a week in our class. It____________ (not use) yesterday because there was something wrong with it. 27. Would please tell us how___________ (make) the watch ________ (work)? 28. She doesn't know what_________ (do) and where__________ (go). 四.答案
1. have taught 2. using 3. are sweeping 4. weren't listening 5. to receive 6. have ... lived 7. came ... didn't 8. did ... see, saw 9. would be used 10. would happen 11. had ... left 12. have been built 13. be cleaned 14. was lying 15. was raining 16. was cooking 17. are doing, Don't make 18. have ... beeen, went 19. arrives 20. are made 21. writing 22. be done 23. to choose 24. to learn 25. tells, will tell 第四章 动词的语气 一.概念 语气有三种:陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气.语气表示说话人对劝词所示示的动作或所 处的状态持有的态度或看法. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.辨别 if 引导真实条件句和 if 引导的虚拟条件句的区别 If he has time, he will go with us.= Probably he has time and will go with us. If he had time, he would go with us.=But in fact he has no time. 2.虚拟条件句中主句和从句的谓与动词构成形式如下表
if 条件句中的谓与动词 主句的谓与动词 与现在的事实相反 1. 行为动词用 did 形式 2. be 动词用 were should would could might + 动词原形
与过去的事实相反 had + done should would could + have + done might 与将来的事实相反 1. 行为动词用 did 2. should + 动词原形 3. were to + 动词原形 should would could + 动词原形 might 3.混合时间的虚拟语气 如果条件句中的动作和主句的动作不是同时发生， 主句和从句的谓语动词的形式应分别 根据各自所表示的时间加以调整。 1)0If I had received the passport yesterday, I would start today. 2)If he had telephoned me last night, I would see him now. 3)If he had followed the doctor's advice, he would be all right now. 4)If China had not been liberated, the working people would still be leading a miserable life. 4.should/ could / might/ ought to + have done 表示"过去本应该/可以做而实际上却没做" needn't have done 表示"过去没必要作而实际上做了" 5.虚拟语气中的倒装句 如果虚拟语气的条件从句谓语动词中含有 were, had, could, should，有时可将 if 省去， 而将条件从句的主语置于 were, had, should, could 之后。 Had you invited us, we would have come to your party. Were I you, I would do more practice after class. Could she lend us a helping hand, she would do so. 6.wish 后面的宾语从句的谓语动词应使用虚拟语气， 表示"可惜...；....就好了； 悔不该...； 但愿...。" 主句谓语
从句谓语 wish 时态 谓语动词的形式 现在时 表示与 wish 同时发生 动词用过去时 be 动词用 were 过去时 表示在 wish 之前发生的动作 动词用 had done be 用 had been 将来时 表示在 wish 之后发生的动作 动词用 would do; should do be 用 would be ; should be 1)I wish I knew the key to the answer. 2)I wish I were ten years younger. 3)I wish that I had gone to the football match last week. 4)I wish that you had been here yesterday. 5)He wishes that we would visit the old school. 7.表示命令或建议动词 suggest, insist, propose, desire, demand, request, order, command 后的 宾语从句中应使用虚拟 should +动词原形； should 不可用 would 来替代; 主句所使用的动 词时态不限。 8.suggest 为"建议去做...; 命令..."从句用 should + do 为" 说明； 暗示", 从句用过去时或过去完成时。 1) The doctor suggested that I should take the medicine three times a day. 2) The doctor suggested that my grandmother had caught a bad cold. 9.insist "坚持要去做...， 坚持应该去做"， 从句用 should + do 为"坚持表明， 坚持说/解释"， 从 句用过去时或过去完成时。 10.虚拟语气也用于表语从句和主语从句中，表示间接的命令、要求、请求、建议、决定等， 主句的主语通常是 suggestion, proposal, request, order, idea 等。表语从句中的谓语动词是 should +动词原型，should 可以省略。 11.在主语从句中，当从句用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜等，从句的谓语动词用需拟语气形 式。其谓语动词时 should + 动词原型， 或 should 省略。 三.巩固练习 1. If there were no subjunctive mood, English _________ much easier. A. will be B. would have been C. could have been D. would be 2. If I _____ you, I'd join the army. A. am B. was C. were D. would be
3. If he _______ tomorrow, he would find Mr Wang in the office. A. comes B. will come C. should come D. come 4. If it _______ next week , the crops would be saved. A. rains B. will rains C. would rain D. should rain 5. If I _______ it, I would do it in a different way. A. were to do B. do C. had done D. was to do 6. Supposing the weather ________ bad, where would you go ? A. is B. will be C. were D. be 7. If he had worked harder, he _________. A. would succeed B. had succeeded C. should succeed D. would have succeeded 8. If he ________, he _________ that food. A. was warned; would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken 9. If my lawyer _________ here last Saturday, he _______ me from going. A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented 10. If he ______ it, he _______ it. A. had seen; could have believed B. saw; couldn't believe C. saw; couldn't have believed D. has seen; had believed 11. -Do you think the thief entered through the window? -No, if he had, I don't believe, _______ broken the living-room's window. A. he would have B. he must have C. he had D. should he have 12. -Did you go swimming last Sunday? -No. We would have gone ______ nicer. A. if the weather was B. would the weather have been C. had the weather been D. should the weather be 13. ______ it ______ for your help, I couldn't have made any progress. A. Had; not been B. Should; not been C. Did; not been D. Not; been 14. _______ today, he would get there by Friday. A. Would have left B. Was he leaving C. Were he to leave D. If he leaves 15. It is ordered that a new bridge ______ over the wide river. A. should be built B. would built C. will be built D. built 四.答案
1.D 2.C 3.C 4.D 5.A 6.C 7.D 8.B 9.A 10.A 11.D 12.C 13.A 14.C 15.A 第 5 章 助动词 一.概念: 助动词是帮助主要动词构成各种时态,语态,语气以及否定或疑问结构的动词.助动词分为 时态助动词和结构助动词两种. 二.相关知识点精讲: 1. 助动词 be 的用法 1） be +现在分词，构成进行时态。例如： They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。 English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。 2） be + 过去分词，构成被动语态。例如： The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。 English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。 3） be + 动词不定式，可表示下列内容： a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排。例如： He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。 We are to teach the freshmen. 我们要教新生。 说明： 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。 b. 表示命令。例如： You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。 He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。 c. 征求意见。例如： How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他？ Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢？ d. 表示相约、商定。例如： We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨 7 点在校 门口集合。 2. 助动词 have 的用法 1）have +过去分词，构成完成时态。例如： He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。 By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 上月未为止， 他们已经 完成工作的一半。 2）have + been +现在分词，构成完成进行时。例如： I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语，已达十年之久。 3）have +been +过去分词，构成完成式被动语态。例如： English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。 3.助动词 do 的用法 1）构成一般疑问句。例如： Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗？ Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗？ 2）do + not 构成否定句。例如： I do not want to be criticized. 我不想挨批评。 He doesn't like to study. 他不想学习。
In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 过去，好多学生不知道英语的重要性。 3） 构成否定祈使句。例如： Don't go there. 不要去那里。 Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。 说明： 构成否定祈使句只用 do，不用 did 和 does。 4）放在动词原形前，加强该动词的语气。例如： Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。 I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。 I do miss you. 我确实想你。 5）用于倒装句。例如： Never did I hear of such a thing. 我从未听说过这样的事情。 Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 进了大学以 后，我们才认识到英语的重要性。 说明： 引导此类倒装句的副词有 never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well 等。 6）用作代动词。例如： ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗？ ---- Yes, I do. --是的，喜欢。 （do 用作代动词，代替 like Beijing.） He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车，对吧？ 4. 助动词 shall 和 will 的用法 shall 和 will 作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时。例如： I shall study harder at English. 我将更加努力地学习英语。 He will go to Shanghai. 他要去上海。 说明：在过去的语法中，语法学家说 shall 用于第一人称，will 只用于第二、第三人称。现 在，尤其是在口语中，will 常用于第一人称，但 shall 只用于第一人称，如用于第二、第三人 称，就失去助动词的意义，已变为情态动词，试比较: He shall come. 他必须来。 （shall 有命令的意味。 ） He will come. 他要来。 （will 只与动词原形构成一般将来时。 ） 5.助动词 should, would 的用法 1） should 无词义， 只是 shall 的过去形式， 与动词原形构成过去将来时， 只用于第一人称。 例如： I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话，问他 我下周干什么。 比较："What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么？"我问道。 可以说，shall 变成间接引语时，变成了 should。 2） would 也无词义，是 will 的过去形式，与动词原形构成过去将来时，用于第二、第三 人称。例如： He said he would come. 他说他要来。 比较： will go," he said. 他说： "I "我要去那儿。 "变成间接引语， 就成了 He said he would come。 原来的 will 变成 would，go 变成了 come.。 6. 短语动词 动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词。例如： Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。 （turn off 是短语动词） 短语动词的构成基本有下列几种：
1）动词+副词，如：black out； 2）动词+介词，如：look into； 3）动词+副词+介词，如：look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词 三.巩固练习 1.If it is fine tomorrow, we ______ a football match. a. have b. will have c. has d. shall has 2.When he was at school, he ______ early and take a walk before breakfast. a. will rise b. shall rise b. should rise would rise 3.In the past 30 years China ______ great advances in the socialist revolution and socialist construction. a. has made b. have made c. had made d. having made 4.I ______ go to bed until I ______ finished my work. a. don't/had b. didn't/have c. didn't/had d. don't/have 5.______ you think he ______ back by dinner time? a. Do/have come b. Did/will have come c. Does/will come d. Do/will have come 6.He said that he dropped his bag when he ______ for the bus. a. was runing b. was running c. were running d. is running 7.No sooner ______ he arrived home than he ______ to start on another journey. a. has/was asked b. have/were asked c. had/is asked d. had/was asked 8."______ you give me a room for the night?" I asked on arriving at the hotel. a. Should b. Can c. Might d. May 9.There are nine of them, so ______ get into the car at the same time. a. they may not at all b. all they may not c. they can't all d. all they can't 10."We didn't see him at the lecture yesterday." "He ______ it." a. mustn't attend b. cannot have attended c. would have not attended d. needn't have attended 11."You realize that you were driving at 100 mph, don't you?" "No, officer. I ______. This car can't do more than 80." a. didn't need to be b. may not have been c. couldn't have been d. needn't have been 12.he was a good runner so he ______ escape from the police. a. might b. succeeded to c. would d. was able to 13.If they ______, our plan will fall flat. a. are co-operating b. had not co-operated c. won't co-operate d. didn't co-operate 14.I hoped ______ my letter. a. her to answer b. that she would answer c. that she answers d. her answering 15.He ______ live in the country than in the city. a. prefers b. likes to c. had better d. would rather 16.______ to see a film with us today? a. Did you like b. Would you like c. Will you like d. Have you liked 17.I'm sorry, but I had no alternative. I simply ______ what I did. a. must do b. had to do c. ought to have done d. have to do 18."Time is running out,______?" a. hadn't we better got start b. hadn't we better get start c.hadn't we better get started d. hadn't we better not started
19.No one ______ that to his face. a. dares say b. dares saying c. dare say d. dare to say 20.The students in the classroom ______ not to make so much noise. a. need b. ought c. must d. dare 21.You ______ last week if you were really serious about your work. a. ought to come b. ought to be coming c. ought have come d. ought to have come 22.The elephants ought ______ hours ago by the keepers. a. to be fed b. to feed c. to being fed d. to have been fed 23."I wonder why they're late." "They ______ the train." a. can have missed b. could miss c. may have missed d. might miss 24."Tom graduated from college at a very young age." "He ______ have been an outstanding student." a. must b. could c. should d. might 25.You ______ the examination again since you had already passed it. a. needn't have taken b. didn't need to take c. needn't take d. mustn't take 26.He is really incompetent! The letter ______ yesterday. a. should be finished typing b. must be finished typing c.must have finished typing c. should have been finished typing 27.The boy told his father that he would rather ______ an astronaut. a. become b. to become c. becoming d. became 28.When we reached the station, the train had still not arrived; so we ______. a. needed not to hurry b. needn't have hurried c. need not to have hurried d. didn't need to hurry 29.Since your roommate is visiting her family this weekend,_____ you like to have dinner with us tonight? a. will b. won't c. wouldn't d. do 30.He was afraid what he had done ______ a disastrous effect on his career. a. might have b. could be c. have been d. shall be 四.答案 1-10 BDACDBDBCB 11-20 CDCBDBBCCB 21-30 DDCABDABCA 第六章 情态动词 一.概念: 情态动词是表示能力,义务,必须,猜测等说话人的语气或情态的动词. 二.相关知识点精讲: 1．can 1)表能力 can 表能力时意味着凭体力或脑力或技术等可以无甚阻力地去做某事。 I can climb this pole. 我能爬这根杆子。 He is only four , but he can read. 他只有 4 岁，但已认得字了。 Fire can't destroy gold. 火烧不毁金子。 因为 can 不能和其他助动词连用，所以表示将来式时用 will be able to You will be able to skate after you have practiced it two or three times. 你练习两三次后就会溜冰了。
2)表可能性 多用于否定与疑问结构中，但也可用在肯定句中。 Can the news be true? 这消息可能是真的吗？ It can't be true. 它不可能是真的。 What can he possibly mean? 他可能是什么意思？ can 用在肯定句中表示理论上的可能性（一时的可能） 。 A horse in the center of London can cost a lot of money. Attending the ball can be very exciting. The road can be blocked. 这条路可能会不通的。 may 在肯定句中表示现实的可能性。 The road may be blocked. 这条路可能不通了。 3)表示允许（和 may 意思相近）常见于口语。 Can (May) I come in ? 我能进来吗？ Can I smoke here ? 我可以在这里抽烟吗？ 2.could 的用法 1)表过去的可能和许可， （多用于间接引语中） At that time we thought the story could not be true. 那时我们认为所说的事不可能是真的。 Father said I could swim in the river. 爸爸说我可以在河里游泳。 2)表过去的能力 I could swim when I was only six. 我刚六岁就能游泳。 Could 在肯定句中表示过去的能力时，常表抽象的一般的能力。 He could be very naughty when he was a child. 他小时候会是很顽皮的。 3)表"允许"。可表示委婉客气的提出问题或陈述看法 Could I use your bike? Yes, you can. 他会记得那时吗? I'm afraid I couldn't give you an answer today. 恐怕我今天不能回答你。 The teacher said you could go to the store for sweets. 老师说你可以去商店买糖。 3)Could/can+have done 结构表示对过去发生的事情的"怀疑"或"不肯定"。 could 加完成式还 用于肯定句时一般表过去可能完成而却未完成的动作。 Can they have won the basketball match？ 他们赢了那场篮球赛吗？ What you referred to just now can have made her very sad. 你刚刚所谈到的可能令他很伤心。 You could have completed the task a little earlier. 你本来能早点完成任务的。 （但事实上并没有提前完成任务） I could have passed my examination easily but I made too many stupid mistakes. 我本可以轻易通过考试，但我犯了太多不该犯的错误。
如表具体做某一件事的能力时，则须用 be able to . He was able to translate the article without a dictionary. 他可以不用词典翻译那篇文章。 Can 表示一贯的能力 ，be able to 表示客观能力和通过努力可以达到的能力 I can't swim. But I am sure I will be able to swim through more practicing. The fire spread through the hotel, but everyone was able to get out When the boat sank he was able to swim to the bank 3.may 的用法 1)表示请求、可以、允许。 You may drive the tractor. 你可以开那台拖拉机。 2)当回答由 may 引起的问题时，否定答语要用 must not,表示"不许可"、"不应该"、"不行"。 May I come in? Yes, you may. No,you can't No, you may not . No ,you mustn't No ,you'd better not. 3) may /might 推测性用法 可能 He may be right. He may not come today (可能不) He may /might come tomorrow. , 注意: 1 只用于肯定和否定句中,不用于疑问句中。 2 might 比 may 可能性更小 He might get a job. He may get a job. 3 may no 可能不 can not 不可能 He may not come He can't come 3)表建议（可和 as well 连用） You may（might）as well stay where you are. 你还是原地待着好。 （may as well 有"还是......的好"的含义） 4)表祝愿 May you be happy! might 1)表过去的"可能"和"允许"多用于间接引语。 She said that he might take her dictionary. 她说他可以拿她的词典去用。 除在间接引语中外，might 一般不表示过去的"可能"与"许可"。表过去的"可能"可用 could， 表过去的"许可"可用 were (was) allowed to。 2)表现在的"可能"，其可能性要比 may 小。 Electric irons could be dangerous; they might give you a severe shock. 电熨斗会有危险，它可能电着人。 3)may (might) + have +done 表示对过去发生行为的推测，含有"想必"、"也许是"的意思。 It may have been true. 这事也许是真的。
He might not have settled the question. 他可能尚未解决那个问题。 4.must 的主要用法。 1)表示必须、必要 We must do everything step by step .我们必须按部就班地做一切事情。 Why must you always bother me? 为什么你偏要打扰我呢。 2)must be + 表语的结构，通常表示猜测，含有"一定"之意。 （只用在肯定句中） He must be an honest boy. 他一定是个诚实的男孩。 This must be your room. 这一定是你的房间。 3)must 的否定式有两个： 当回答由 must 引起的问题时， 否定答复要用 needn't 或 don't have to 表示"不必"、"无须"、"用不着"、"不一定"的意义。当表示"不应该"、"不许可"、"禁止" 时，就用 must not。 Must I go tomorrow?明天我必须去吗？ Yes, please.是的，请吧！ No , you needn't. 不，你不必去。 4)must +have +过去分词的结构，常用在肯定句中，表示对过去发生行为的推测，含有"一定 "、"准是"的意思。否定和疑问句用 can。 She must have studied English before.她以前一定学过英语。 5.have to 的含义与 must 是很接近的,只是 have to 比较强调客观需要， must 着重说明主观看 法。 I must clean the room.（主观想法） I have to clean the room.（客观需要） 另外，have to 能用于更多时态： We had to be there at ten .我们得在十点钟到那里。 We will have to reconsider the whole thing. 这一切我们将不得不重新加以考虑。 have to 的否定式：don't have to do 表示"不必做......"之意。 6.ought to 的用法 Ought to 后接动词原形，表义务，但不及 must 那样具有信心，如： You don't look well. You ought to go to see the doctor. 你气色不好，应该去看病。 Ought to 用于否定句，其否定形式可缩略为 oughtn't ，如： You oughtn't to smoke so much. 你不应该抽这么多烟。 也可以用于疑问句，如： Ought you to smoke so much?你应该抽这样多烟吗？ Ought to 在间接引语中表过去时形式不变，如： He said you ought to tell the police. 他说你应该去报告警察。 7.shall 的用法 1)用于第一人称征求对方的意见，如： What shall I wear on the journey? 我路上穿什么好呢？ Shall we dance? 我们跳舞好吗？ 2)shall 用于第二、三人称时表允诺，警告，命令，威胁（现已少见） ，如： She shall get her share. 她可以得到她的一份。 You shall have it back tomorrow.你明天可以将它拿回。
情态动词 should 一般不应被认为是情态动词 shall 的过去式，主要用法有： 1)用于第一人称疑问句中询问对方的意愿，但语气较委婉温和，如： What should we do now? 我们现在该怎么办？ 2)表示应该、必须，常与 must 换用。例如： We should (must) master a foreign language at least. 我们应当至少掌握一门外语。 3)"should+be+表语"的结构，表示推测或惊奇。例如： They should be back by now. 他们现在应该回来了吧。 I am sorry that she should be so careless. 我感到遗憾她竟会那样粗心。 4)"should+have+过去分词"的结构，表示过去该做而实际上尚未做的动作或行为；其否定则 表示发生了不应该发生的行为。其同义结构"ought to have +过去分词",表示过去"早应该"、" 本当"之意，语气较强。例如： I should have thought of that. 这一点我是应当想到的。 （但没想到） They should not have left so soon.他们不应当走得这么早。 （但已走了） 5) 在"It is natural (strange, natural, necessary, surprised, impossible, important ) that......"句型 中，主语从句中的谓语动词要用 should +动词原形"表示"理所当然"、"奇怪"、"必要"、"惊异 "等的意思。在 lest（以免） 、for fear (that) (以防)、in case（以备万一）等之后也要用 should+ 动词原形;在 advise, sugest, order, demand, request 等的从句中 should+do"例如： It is necessary that he(should) be sent there at once. 有必要马上派他到那里去。 It is strange that he should say so. 他会说这样的话真是奇怪。 Let us go at once lest we should be late for the train. 我们马上走吧，以免赶不上火车。 8..will 和 would 的用法 1）表示意志，决心或愿望。例如： Surely we will support all the people in the world in their struggle for peace. 我们一定要支持全世界人民争取和平的斗争。 He would not let me try it . 他不肯让我去试。 2）will 表示经常性、习惯性、倾向性，would 表示过去的习惯行为。 He will sit there hour after hour looking at the traffic go by. 他会经常一连几个小时坐在那儿观看来往的车辆。 He would come to see me when he was in Beijing. 他在北京时，常来看望我。 3）用于第二人称作主语的疑问句中，表示对对方的请求，would 的语气比 will 委碗 Would/will you kindly tell me the way to the station? 请问到火车站怎么走？ 4）表可能性 This will be the book you are looking for. 这可能就是你要找的书。 She eould be about 60 when she died. 他死时大概 60 岁。 9. need 和 dare 的用法 情态动词 need 实义动词 need 现 You need (not) do You (don't) need to do 在
时 过 去 时
He need (not) do
He needs (doesn't need) to do You needed (didn't need) to do He needed (didn't need) to do
将 You need (not) do You will (not) need to do 来 时 He need (not) do He will (not) need to do 句型 时态 动词 情态动词 dare 实义动词 dare 肯定句 现在时 dare to 少用 dare/dares to do 过去时 dare to 少用 dared to do 否定句 现在时 daren't/dare not do do/does not dare (to) do 过去时 dared not do did not dare (to) do 疑问句 现在时 Dare he do? Do you/Does he dear (to) do? 过去时 Dared he do? Did he dare (to) do needn't have v-ed 表示过去做了某事，但没有做的必要， 意为"本没必要..."。例如： You needn't have waken me up; I don't have to go to work today 10.表推测的情态动词句子的反意疑问句 He must/may be in the room, isn't he? He can't be in the room, is he？ He must have finished the work, hasn't he? He may have done the work last night, didn't he? ：情态动词+行为动词进行式 情态动词+行为动词进行式（即情态动词+ be + v-ing 形式） ，表示推测或评论某动作现在 是否正在进行。例如： 1）He must be playing basketball in the room. 2）She may be staying at home. 11.情态动词+行为动词完成进行式 情态动词+行为动词完成进行式（即情态动词+ have been + v-ing 形式） ，表示推测或评 论过去某动作是否正在进行或一直在进行。例如： 1）They should have been meeting to discuss the problem. 2）He may / might have been buying stamps in the post office when you saw him. 12.used to +v, be used to +v-ing 和 be used to +v （1）used to +v 意为"过去常常"，"过去一直"；be used to +v-ing / n（名词）意为"习惯于 "；be used to +v 意为"被用来（做某事）"。 （2）used to 只表示过去，而 be used to +v-ing / n 可表示现在、过去或将来。例如： 1）He used to smoke. Now he doesn't. 2）He's quite used to hard work / working hard. 3）The knife is used to cut bread. 13．用作情态动词的其他短语 would rather, would sooner, would (just) as soon, had rather, had better, had sooner, can not
but, may (just) as well 等可用作情态动词。例如： 1）The soldier would sooner die than surrender. 2）The brave soldier would as soon die as yield to such an enemy. 3）I'd rather walk than take a bus. 4）If you don't like to swim, you may just as well stay at home. 注：这些短语后一般直接跟动词原形.would (had) rather, would (had) sooner, would (just) as soon 后可跟 that 引导的从句，that 常省去，从句要用虚拟语气。对现在和将来的假设用 过去时，对过去的假设用过去完成时。例如： 1）I would rather you came on Sunday. 2）I would sooner you hadn't asked me to speak yesterday. 三. 巩固练习: 1. _____ you ready? (A) Are (B) Have (C) Will (D) Can 2. ____ here early? (A) Will he (B) Was he (C) Did he be (D) Were he 3. I ___ happy about the price of eggs. (A) am't (B) am not (C) do not (D) won't 4. Since last year I____ him only once. (A) have seen (B) have been seeing (C) see (D) was seeing 5. Donald ___ sixteen tomorrow. (A) is being (B) going to be (C) shall be (D) will be 6. I ___ the story at all. (A) don't like (B) like (C) am fond of (D) would like 7. I would rather ___ than play now. (A) to study (B)am studying (C) study (D) studied 8. I'd rather you ___ anything about it for the time being. (A) do (B) didn't do (C) don't (D) didn't 9. The car___much money. (A) not cost (B) not have cost (C) isn't cost (D) didn't cost 10. I ___ like to eat fish. (A) am (B) have (C) do (D) be 11. ___ repeat the question? (A) Shall I (B) Will I (C)Would you like that I (D) Do you want that I 12. My teacher knows more than ___. (A) my uncle knows (B) my uncle does (C) they know (D)they don't know 13. He___to meet us at the station, but didn't see us. (A) did go (B) did went (C) goes (D) had 14. Not only ____us light. (A) does the sun give (B) the sun gives (C) gives the sun (D) the sun does give 15. ____ you tell me what has happened? (A) May (B) Must (C) Can (D) Could 16. Anne___tomorrow.
(A) can sing (B) can to sing (C) is going sing (D) going to sing 17. You___hand it in at once, you may hand it in tomorrow. (A) needn't (B) may not (C) can't (D) must not 18. Tell the boy that he ___ in the river. (A) swims (B) swim (C) swimming (D) to swim 19. Joan___play on Saturday. (A) going to (B) can (C) is going (D) can to 20. Susan and I can go to the lecture ___. (A) but neither can Charles (B) and so Charies can (C) but Charles can't (D) and Charles also can 四.答案 1. (A) 2, (B) 3. (B) 4. (A) 5, (D) 6, (A) 7. (C) 8. (B) 9. (9) 10, (C) 11. (A) 12. (B) 13. (A) 14. (A) 15. (D) 16. (A) 17. (A) 18. (B) 19. (B) 20, (C) 第七章 动词不定式 一.相关知识点精讲: 1. 不定式作补语 1） 有些有动词+宾语+不定式的结构。例如： advise allow cause challenge command compel drive 驱使 enable encourage forbid force impel induce instruct invite like/love order permit make let have want get warn persuade request
send tell train urge 例如； Father will not allow us to play on the street. 父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。 The officer ordered his men to fire. 长官命令士兵开火。 注意：有些动词如 make，have，get，want 等可用不定式作做宾补，也可用分词作宾补。现 在分词表达主动，也表达正在进行，过去分词表达被动。 2) 有些有动词+宾语+不定式的结构， 不定式的动词往往是 be， 不定式一般可以省去。 例如： consider find believe think declare（声称） appoint guess fancy（设想） guess judge imagine know 例如： We believe him to be guilty. 我们相信他是有罪的。 We know him to be a fool. 我们知道他是个笨蛋。 （to be 不能省去） 典型例题 Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented 答案：C. 一般没有 consider+宾语+be 以外不定式的结构，也没有 consider+宾语+doing 的结 构，排除 A、B、D。consider 用动词 be 以外的不定式作宾补时，一般要求用不定式的完成 式，故选 C。 3) 有些动词可以跟 there +to be 的结构。例如： believe expect intend like love mean prefer want wish understand
例如： We didn't expect there to be so many people there. 我们没料到会有那么多人在那里。 You wouldn't want there to be another war. 你不至于想让另外一场战争发生吧。 2. 不定式作主语 不定式作主语，往往用 it 作形式主语，真正的主语不定式放至句子的后面。 例如：It's so nice to hear your voice. 听到你的声音真高兴。 It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it. 不用车的时候， 锁车是 有必要的。 It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们，他真好。 It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西，这显得 太自私了。 但是， 用不定式作主语的句子中还有一个不定式作表语时， 不能用 It is... to...的句型。 另外， 这样的句子，不能用动名词作表语。 3. It's for sb.和 It's of sb. 这样的句子中，由于表语形容词性质的不同，导致了不定式逻辑主语标志用 for 或 of 的区别。 1） sb. 句型中的形容词一般为表示事物的特征特点， for 表示客观形式的形容词， easy, hard, 如 difficult, interesting, impossible 等：例如： It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。 2） sb 句型中的形容词一般为表示性格， of 品德， 心智能力， 表示主观感情或态度的形容词， 如 good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。例如： It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我，你真是太好了。 用 for 还是用 of 的另一种辨别方法： 用介词 for 或 of 后面的逻辑主语作句子的主语， 用介词前边的形容词作表语， 造个句子。 如果通顺用 of，不通则用 for。例如： You are nice. （通顺，所以应用 of） 。 He is hard. （非所表达的意思，不通，因此用 for。 ） 4. 不定式作表语 不定式可放在 be 动词后面，形成表语。例如： My work is to clean the room every day. 我的工作是每天清扫房间。 His dream is to be a doctor. 他的梦想是成为一名医生。 5. 不定式作定语 不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后，往往表示未发生的动作。例如： I have a lot of work to do. 我有许多事要做。 There was nothing to bring home that morning. 那天早上（他回家时）两手空空。 6. 不定式作状语 1）目的状语 常用结构为 to do , only to do（仅仅为了）, in order to do, so as to do, so（such）... as to...（如此...以便...） 。例如： He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。 I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。 2）作结果状语，可以表示没有预料到的或事与愿违的结果，不定式要放在句子后面。 I awoke to find my truck gone. 我醒来发现箱子不见了。
He searched the room only to find nothing. 他搜索了房间，没发现什么。 3） 表原因 I'm glad to see you. 见到你很高兴。 She wept to see the sight. 她一看到这情形就哭了。 4）表示理由和条件 He must be a fool to say so. You will do well to speak more carefully. 7.用作介词的 to to 可以用作介词，也可用作不定式的标示。下面的 to 都用作介词： admit to object to be accustomed to be used to stick to turn to 开始 look forward to be devoted to pay attention to contribute to apologize to devote oneself to 8. 省去 to 的动词不定式 1） 情态动词 （ 除 ought 外） 后。 2） 使役动词 let, have, make 后，感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后。 注意：被动语态中不能省去 to。例如： I saw him dance. 我看见他跳舞。 =He was seen to dance. The boss made them work the whole night. 老板让他们整夜干活。 =They were made to work the whole night. would rather，had better 句型后 Why... / why no...句型后 help 后可带 to，也可不带 to, help sb （to） do sth： but 和 except 后。but 前是实义动词 do 时，后面出现的不定式不带 to。 比较：He wants to do nothing but go out. 他只想出去玩。 He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. 除了吃这药，他什么都信。 7） 由 and, or 和 than 连接的两个不定式，第二个 to 可以省去： 8） 通常在 discover, imagine, suppose, think 等词后作宾补时，可以省去 to be。例如： He is supposed （to be） nice. 他应该是个好人。 9.动词不定式的否定式 在不定式标志 to 前加上 not。例如： Tell him not to shut the window。让他别关窗。 She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候，她假装没看见。 10.不定式的特殊句型 too...to... 3） 4） 5） 6）
1）too...to 太...以至于...。例如： He is too excited to speak. 他太激动了，说不出话来。 ---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗? ---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重，恐怕你搬不动。谢谢。 2） 如在 too 前有否定词，则整个句子用否定词表达肯定，too 后那个词表达一种委婉含 义，意 为"不太"。例如： It's never too late to mend. 改过不嫌晚。 （谚语） 3） 当 too 前面有 only, all, but 时，意思是：非常... 等于 very。例如： I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 能帮助你我非常高兴。 He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。 11. 不定式的特殊句型 so as to 1） 表示目的；它的否定式是 so as not to do。例如： Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job.汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了 不丢掉他的工作。 Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby.轻点进去，别惊醒了婴儿。 2） 表示结果。例如： Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? 劳驾，现在几点了。 12. 不定式的特殊句型 Why not "Why not +动词原形"表达向某人提出建议，翻译为："为什么不......?" "干吗不......?"。例 如： Why not take a holiday? 干吗不去度假? 13.不定式的时态和语态 1） 一般式表示的动词，有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生，有时发生在谓语动词的动 作之后，例如 He seems to know this. 他似乎知道这事。 I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再见到你。 2） 完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。例如： I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble. 很抱歉，给你添了那么多的麻烦。 He seems to have caught a cold. 他好像已经得了感冒。 3） 进行式表示动作正在进行，与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。例如： He seems to be eating something. 他好像正在吃什么东西。 4） 完成进行式表示动作从过去开始并延续至说话的时候。例如： She is known to have been working on the problem for many years. 我们知道她研究这问 题有好几年了。 14. 动名词与不定式 1）动名词与不定式的区别： 动名词表达的是： 状态，性质，心境，抽象，经常性，已发生的 不定式表达的是： 目的，结果，原因，具体，一次性，将发生的 2）有些动词如 continue 接不定式或动名词作宾语，意义基本相同。 3）有些动词如 continue 接不定式或动名词作宾语，意义大相径庭。常见的，下一节有专 门讨论 第八章 分词
一.概念: 分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种,是一种非谓语动词形式 二.相关知识点精讲: 1.现在分词的用法： 1) 做表语： He was very amusing. That book was rather boring. 很多动词的现在分词都可以作表语： exciting, interesting, encouraging, disappointing, confusing, touching, puzzling. 2) 作定语： 上面所出现的现在分词都可以用作定语, 修饰一个名词： That must have been a terrifying experience. I found him a charming person. 现在分词短语还可以放在名词的后面修饰名词, 相当于一个定语从句： There are a few boys swimming in the river. There is a car waiting outside. 3) 作状语： 现在分词短语可以表示一个同时发生的次要的或伴随的动作： Following Tom, we started to climb the mountain. Opening the drawer, he took out a box. Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door. 现在分词短语还可以表示原因, 相当于一个原因状语从句： Not knowing her address, we couldn't get in touch with her. Being unemployed, he hasn't got much money. 现在分词短语还可以表示时间, 相当于一个时间状语从句： Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. Returning home, he began to do his homework. Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis. Be careful when crossing the road. Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner. Having finished her work, she went home. 4)作宾补： 现在分词在一些动词之后可以做宾语的补语： 例如, see, hear, catch, find, keep , have 等. I see him passing my house every day. I caught him stealing things in that shop. I smelt something burning. She kept him working all day. 2.过去分词的用法： 1) 作表语： We were so bored that we couldn't help yawning. She felt confused, and even frightened. They were very pleased with the girl. I'm satisfied with your answer.
He is not interested in research. 2) 作定语： She has a pleased look on her face. The teacher gave us a satisfied smile. cooked food a written report fried eggs boiled water frozen food armed forces required courses fallen leaves finished products a forced smile the risen sun new arrived visitors What's the language spoken in that country? They're problem left over by history. The play put on by the teachers was a big success. Is there anybody injured? Do you know the number of books ordered? 3)作状语： Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent. Given good health, I hope to finish the work this year. They came in, followed by some children. Depressed, he went to see his elder sister. When treated with kindness, he was very amiable. 4)作宾补： 过去分词也同样可以作宾语的补语， 接在某些动词后面 I will have the clothes washed tomorrow. When they get back home, they found the room robbed. 三.巩固练习 1. __________ with the best students, I still have a long way to go. A. Having compared B. To compare C. Compared D. Compare （ ） 2. The music of the film _________ by him sounds so ___________ . A. playing, exciting B. played, excited C. playing, excited D. played, exciting （ ） 3. __________ against the coming hurricane, they dared not leave home. A. Warned B. Having warned C. To warn D. Warn （ ） 4. In __________ countries, you can't always make yourself _______ by speaking English. A. English-speaking, understand B. English-spoken, understand C. English-speaking, understood D. English-speaking, understood （ ）5. After _____________ the old man, the doctor suggested that he ___________ a bad cold. A. examining, should catch B. examined, had caught C. examining, had caught D. examined, catch （ ） 6. _____________ , Tom jumped into the river and had a good time in it.
A. Be a good swimmer C. Having been good swimmer （
B. Being a good swimmer D. To be a good swimmer
） 7. ________ how to read the new words, I often look them up in the dictionary. A. Having not known B. Not to know C. Don't know D. Not knowing ） 8. As his parent, you shouldn't have your child ___________ such a book. A. read B. to read C. reading D. be reading ） 9. He returned from abroad ______________ that his mother had been badly ill. A. heard B. having been heard C. having phoned D. having been phoned 3. A 4. C 5. C 6. B 7. D 8. C 9. D
四.答案: 1. C 2. D
第九章 动名词 一. 概念 动名词由动词原形+ING 构成,是一种非谓语动词形式 二. 相关知识点精讲: 1.作主语。例如： Fighting broke out between the South and the North. 南方与北方开战了。 2.作宾语 a. 有些动词可以用动名词作宾语。例如： admit 承认 appreciate 感激 avoid 避免 complete 完成 consider 认为 delay 耽误 deny 否认 detest 讨厌 endure 忍受 enjoy 喜欢 escape 逃脱 fancy 想象 finish 完成 imagine 想象 mind 介意 miss 想念 postpone 推迟 practice 训练 recall 回忆 resent 讨厌 resume 继续 resist 抵抗
risk 冒险 suggest 建议 face 面对 include 包括 stand 忍受 understand 理解 forgive 宽恕 keep 继续 例如：Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please? 你把收音机音量调小一点， 好吗 The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught. 这松鼠幸运得很，刚逃避了被 逮住的厄运。 b. 有些结构后面可以用动名词作宾语或其他成分。例如： admit to prefer...to be used to lead to devote oneself to object to stick to no good no use be fond of look forward to be proud of be busy can't help be tired of be capable of be afraid of think of burst out keep on insist on count on set about put off be good at take up give up be successful in 3.作表语，对主语说明、解释。例如：
Her job is washing, cleaning and taking care of the children. 她的工作是洗刷、清扫和照 顾孩子。 比较：She is washing, cleaning and taking care of the children. 4.作定语，一般表示所修饰名词事物的用途。例如： a writing desk=a desk for writing 写字台 a swimming pool=a pool swimming 游泳池 有些动名词作定语，与所修饰的名词关系比较复杂。例如： boiling point=a temperature point at which something begins to boil 沸点 a walking tractor=a tractor which a driver can operate while he or she is walking behind it 手扶拖拉机 三.巩固练习 1. I was ______ work last week, but I changed my mind. a. to start b. to have started c. to be starting d. to have been starting 2. I intended ______ the matter with you, but I had some guests hen. a. discuss b. discussing c. having discussed d. to have discussed 3. Don't let me catch you ______. a. do that again b. to do that again c. doing that again d. done that again 4. There are many kinds of metals ______. a. each has its special properties b. one has its special properties c.each having its special properties d. having its special properties 5. It's pay-day, and they're waiting ______. a. for paying b. to be paid c. to be paying d. to have paid 6. _______ trouble, I'm going to forget the whole affair. a. Then rather cause b. Rather causing c. Rather than cause d. Rather than caused 7. The brilliance of his satires was ______ make even his victims laugh. a. so as to b. such as to c. so that d. such that 8. Children with parents whose guidance is firm, consistent, and rational are inclined ______ high levels of self-confidence. a. possess b. have possessed c. to possess d. possessing 9. The worker is ______ in repairing the machine to notice my coming. a. too busy b. enough busy c. busy too d. busy enough 10. "What did you do in the garden?" "I watched my father ______ his motorbike." a. to repair b. repaired c. repairing d. repairs 四.答案 BDCCBCBCAC 第 10 章 形容词和副词 一. 概念 形容词是用来修饰,描述名词或代词的词,主要用作定语,表语和补足语等. 副词是用来修饰动词,形容词,其化副词,介词短语或全句的词. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.形容词及其用法
1）直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词，它有级的变化，可以用程度副词修 饰，在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如：hot。 2）叙述形容词只能作表语，所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化，也不可用 程度副词修饰。大多数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如：afraid 害怕的。 这类词还有： well，unwell，ill，faint，afraid，alike，alive，alone，asleep，awake 等。 3）形容词作定语修饰名词时，要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字尾的 词语时，要放在这些词之后。例如：something nice. 2.以-ly 结尾的形容词 1） 大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。但 friendly，deadly，lovely，lonely，likely，lively， ugly，brotherly，仍为形容词。 改错： （错） She sang lovely. （错） He spoke to me very friendly. （对） Her singing was lovely. （对） He spoke to me in a very friendly way. 2）有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词，也为副词，如 daily，weekly，monthly，yearly，early 等。 例如： The Times is a weekly paper. 《时代周刊》为周刊。 The Times is published weekly. 《时代周刊》每周发行一期。 3.用形容词表示类别和整体 1）某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人， 与谓语动词的复数连接， the dead， living， 如 the the rich，the poor，the blind，the hungry 等。例如： The poor are losing hope. 穷人行将失去希望。 2） 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体，与动词的复数连用，如 the British，the English，the French，the Chinese 等。例如： The English have wonderful sense of humor. 英国人颇有幽默感。 4. 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时，其顺序为：限定词--数词--描绘词--（大小，长短，形状，新旧， 颜色）--出处--材料性质--类别--名词。例如： a small round table/ a tall gray building/ a dirty old brown shirt/ a famous German medical school/ an expensive Japanese sports car 2） One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace. A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old 答案 A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词，他们的排列顺序是：年龄，形状，大小+颜色+来 源+质地+用途+国家+名词。 3） ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao? ---- It was great. We visited some friends，and spent the ___days at the seaside. A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last 5.副词的位置 1） 在动词之前。 2） 在 be 动词、助动词之后。 3） 多个助动词时，副词一般放在第一个助动词后。 注意： a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾，但宾语过长，副词可以提前，以使句子平衡。例如： We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.我们清楚地看到前面有奇怪的光。
b. 方式副词 well，badly，hard 等只放在句尾。例如： He speaks English well. 他英语说得好。 6.副词的排列顺序： 1） 时间，地点副词，小单位的在前，大单位在后。 2） 方式副词，短的在前，长的在后，并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。例如： Please write slowly and carefully. 请写得慢一些，仔细一些 3） 多个不同副词排列：程度+地点+方式+时间副词。 注意：副词 very 可以修饰形容词，但不能修饰动词。 改错： （错） I very like English. （对） I like English very much. 注意： 副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面， 形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。例如： I don't know him well enough. 他我不熟悉。 There is enough food for everyone to eat.有足够的食物供每个人吃。 There is food enough for everyone to eat. 7.兼有两种形式的副词 1） close 与 closely close 意思是"近"；closely 意思是"仔细地"。例如： He is sitting close to me. 他就坐在我边上。 Watch him closely. 盯着他。 2） late 与 lately late 意思是"晚"；lately 意思是"最近"。例如： You have come too late. 你来得太晚了。 What have you been doing lately? 近来好吗？ 3） deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深"，表示空间深度；deeply 时常表示感情上的深度，"深深地"。例如： He pushed the stick deep into the mud.他把棍子深深插进泥里。 Even father was deeply moved by the film.老爸也被电影深深打动了。 4） high 与 highly high 表示空间高度；highly 表示程度，相当于 much。例如： The plane was flying high. 这架飞机飞得很高。 I think highly of your opinion. 你的看法很有道理。 5） wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度；widely 意思是"广泛地"，"在许多地方"。例如： He opened the door wide. 他把门开得大大的。 English is widely used in the world.英语在世界范围内广泛使用。 6） free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费"；freely 的意思是"无限制地"。例如： You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.无论什么时候，我这饭铺免费对你 开放。 You may speak freely; say what you like.你可以畅所欲言，想说什么就说什么。 8. 形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词（性质形容词）和副词有比较级和最高级的变化，即原级、比较级和最高 级，用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形，比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则 变化两种。
1） 规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词，加词尾-er，-est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 原级 比较级 最高级 一般单音节词未尾加-er,-est tall taller tallest 以不发音的 e 结尾的单音词和少数以- le 结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st nice nicer nicest 以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词，双写结尾的辅音字母，再加-er,-est big bigger biggest "以辅音字母+y"结尾的双音节词，改 y 为 i，再加-er，-est busy busier busiest 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的双音节词未尾加-er,-est clever/narrow cleverer/ narrower cleverest/ narrowest 其他双音节词和多音节词，在前面加 more，most 来构成比较级和最高级 important/ easily more important/ more easily most important/ most easily 2） 不规则变化 原级 比较级 最高级 good better best well（健康的） worse worst bad
old older/elder oldest/eldest much/many more most little less least far farther/further farthest/furthest 9.as + 形容词或副词原级 + as 1）在否定句或疑问句中可用 so... as。例如： He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。 2）当 as... as 中间有名词时采用以下格式：as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名 词。例如： This is as good an example as the other is. 这个例子和另外一个一样好。 I can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸，我也能。 3）用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时，放在 as 的前面。例如： This room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。 Your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的一样大。 4）倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the ... + of。例如： This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。 This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。 Your room is twice the size of mine. 10. 比较级形容词或副词 + than 。例如： You are taller than I. 你比我高。 They lights in your room are brighter than those in mine.你房间的那些灯比我房间里的 亮。 注意： 1）要避免重复使用比较级。 （错） He is more cleverer than his brother. （对） He is more clever than his brother. （对） He is clever than his brother. 2）要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 （错） China is larger than any country in Asia. （对） China is larger than any other countries in Asia. 3）要注意对应句型，遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.
4）要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。 比较：Which is larger, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters. 11.可修饰比较级的词 1）a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等。 2）还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。 3）以上词（除 by far）外，必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。 12. many, old 和 far 1） 如果后接名词时，much more +不可数名词，many more +可数名词复数。 2） old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。elder，eldest 只用于兄 弟姐妹的长幼关系。例如： My elder brother is an engineer. 我哥哥是个工程师。 Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 玛丽是三姐妹中最大的。 3） far 有两种比较级，farther，further。一般 father 表示距离，further 表示进一步。例 如： I have nothing further to say. 我没什么要说了。 13. the + 最高级 + 比较范围 1）形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the，副词最高级前可不用。例如： The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 撒哈拉沙漠是世界上最大的沙漠。 形容词 most 前面没有 the，不表示最高级的含义，只表示"非常"。例如： It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 这是个很重要的问题。 注意：使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 （错） Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. （对） Tom is the tallest of the three brothers. 2） 下列词可修饰最高级，by far, far, much, mostly, almost。例如： This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 这帽子差不多是最大的了。 注意： a. very 可修饰最高级，但位置与 much 不同。 This is the very best. This is much the best. b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。例如： Africa is the second largest continent.非洲是第二大洲。 3） 最高级的意义有时可以用比较级表示出来。例如： Mike is the most intelligent in his class. 马克是班上最聪明的。 Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class. 4） "否定词语+比较级"，"否定词语+ so... as"结构也可以表示最高级含义。例如： Nothing is so easy as this. 没比这更简单的了。 =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing. 14. 和 more 有关的词组， 1） the more...the more... 越......就越......。例如： The harder you work，the greater progress you'll make. 越努力，进步越大。
2） more B than A=less A than B 与其说 A 不如说 B。例如： He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 他工作时， 与其说是反应慢不如说是懒。 3） no more... than... 与......一样......，不比......多。例如： The officials could see no more than the Emperor. 官员们看到的和皇帝一样多。 no less... than... 与......一样......。例如： He is no less diligent than you. 他和你一样勤勉。 4） more than 不只是，非常。例如： She is more than kind to us all. 她对我们非常热心。 三.巩固练习 1. The modern machine proved ______ in heart surgery. a. high valuable b. highly valuable c. valuable high d. valuable highly 2. Mr. Johnson and his ______ daughter do not always understand each other. a. older b. the oldest c. eldest d. the eldest 3. They ______ thought that the truth would be finally discovered. a. little b. not c. small d. bit 4. They hardly believe that the apartment which costs them $ 4,000 is ______. a. so small b. such little c. so little d. such small 5. If a claim is kept ______, it is more likely to be recognized. a. live b. lived c. alive d. living 6. On his way to school he met ______, so he sent him to hospital. a. very ill man b. much sick man c. serious ill man d. very sick man 7. She was operated a month ago but now she was ______. a. very good b. very well c. healthy d. good conditioned 8. What I would do is to go ______. a. really quietly somewhere b. somewhere quietly really c. really quiet somewhere d. somewhere really quiet 9. The chairman asked ______ to write their questions on a piece of paper and send them to the front. a. the present members b. the members presently c. the members present d. the presently members 10. The price was very reasonable; I would gladly have paid ______ he asked. a. three times much as b. three times as many as c. as three times much as d. three times as much as 11. The trousers are ______, but Tom does not care a bit. a. too a little small b. a little too small c. a too little small d. a small too little 12. She wore a dress to the party that was far more attractive than ______. a. other girls b. that of other girls c. the other girls d. those of other girls 13. he can play tennis better than ______ in the class. a. any boys b. any other boy c. any boy d. any other 14. Kasia is taking her ______ tour of the shops in search of bargains. a. daily b. day c. day time d. night 15. ______ the child expresses his interest in an activity, the stronger it will become. a. The more frequent b. The frequenter c. The more frequently d. the frequentlier
16. We'd better wait _______ , Peter and Tom will come very soon. a. a little longer b. more longer c. long d. as longer 17. although the medicine tastes ______, it seems to help my condition. a. bad b. badly c. too much bad d. too badly 18. When she got her first month salary, Diana bought herself ______ dress. a. a cotton , blue ...expensive b. an expensive ... blue, cotton c. a blue, expensive ... cotton d. a cotton, expensive... blue 19. The doctors have tried ______ to save the life of the wounded soldier. a. everything possible humanly b. humanly everything possible c. everything humanly possible d. humanly possible everything 20. I was worried very much because I'll miss my flight if the bus arrives ______. a. lately b. late c. latter d. more later 四.答案 BCAACDBDCDBDBACAACCB 第 11 章 代词 一.概念: 代词是代替名词的词, 按其意义、特征及其在句中的作用分为：人称代词、物主代词、 指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、疑问代词、不定代词和关系代词等。 二.相关知识点精讲 1.人称代词 1)人称代词的人称、数和格，如下表所示。 2)人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作主语，宾格作宾语。如： I like table tennis. （作主语） Do you know him?（作宾语） 3)人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。如： ---Whos is knocking at the door? ---It's me. 4)人称代词在 than 之后与其他人或事物进行比较时，用主格和宾格都可以。如： He is older than me. He is older than I am. 2. 物主代词 1)表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性 物主代词，如下表所示。 2)形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词，可在句中作定语。例如： Our teacher is coming to see us. This is her pencil-box. 3)名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词，在句中可用作主语、宾语和表语。 Our school is here, and theirs is there.（作主语） --- Is this English-book yours? （作表语） --- No. Mine is in my bag. I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? （作宾语）
3. 指示代词 指示代词包括：this，that，these，those。 1) this 和 these 一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人，that 和 those 则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人，例如： This is a pen and that is a pencil． We are busy these days． In those days the workers had a hard time． 2)有时 that 和 those 指前面讲到过的事物，this 和 these 则是指下面将要讲 到的事物，例如： I had a cold. That's why I didn't come. What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English． 3)有时为了避免重复提到的名词，常可用 that 或 those 代替，例如： Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai． 4)this 在电话用语中代表自己，that 则代表对方。例如： Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking? 4. 反身代词 英语中用来表示"我自己"，"你自己"，"他自己"，"我们自己"，"你们自己" 等意义的代词称为反身代词，也有人称之为自身代名词，其形式如表所示。
反身代词可以在句中作宾语，表语，同位语。 1)作宾语，表示动作的承受者就是动作的发出者，主语和宾语指同一个人 或一些人。 He called himself a writer． Would you please express yourself in English? 2)作表语。 It doesn't matter．I'll be myself soon． The girl in the news is myself． 3)作主语或宾语的同位语，表示亲自或本人。 I myself washed the clothes． washed the clothes myself.） （=I （作主语同位语） You should ask the teacher himself． （作宾语同位语） 5. 不定代词 不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词，在句中可作主语、表 语、宾语和定语。现将几个常用的不定代词举例说明如下： 1)some 与 any 的区别 ①some 多用于肯定句， 表示"一些， 几个"作形容词时， 后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词； ②可数名词+复数动词。 Look! Some of the students are cleaning the library. . Some rice in the bag has been sold out. ②any 多用于疑问句、条件句和否定句中，表示"一些，任何"用作形容词时，后面可以 接①不可数名词+单数动词；②可数名词+复数动词。 If you have any questions, please ask me. There isn't any orange in the bottle. Have you got any tea?
③any 和 some 也可以作代词用，表示"一些"。any 多用于疑问句或否定句中，some 多 用于肯定句中。 How many people can you see in the picture? I can't see any. If you have no money, I'll lend you some. 注意：与 some, any 结合的词如 something, somebody, someone, anything, anyone, anybody 在肯定句、否定句、疑问句、条件句中的用法，大致和 some, any 的用法相同。 2) few, a few, little, a little 在用法上的区别 ①用作形容词： 含义 用法 表示肯定 表示否定 用于可数名词 a few 虽少，但有几个 few 不多，几乎没有 用于不可数名词 a little，虽少，但有一点 little 不多，没有什么 I'm going to buy a few apples. He can speak only a little Chinese. There is only a little milk in the glass. He has few friends. They had little money with them. ②a little 和 little 也可以用作副词，a little 表示"有点，稍微"，little 表示"很少"。 I'm a little hungry. (修饰形容词 hungry) Let him sleep a little. (修饰动词 sleep) Mary, go a little faster, please. (修饰副词比较级) She slept very little last night. 3)other, the other, another, others, the others 的区别。 用 法 代名词 形容词 单数 复数 单数 复数 不定 another 另一个 others 别人，其他人
another (boy) 另一个（男孩） other (boys) 其他男孩 特定 the other 另一个 the others 其余那些人、物 the other (boy) 另一个男孩 the other (boys) 其余那些男孩 ①other 可以作形容词用，后面可以跟单数或复数名词，意思是"其他的、别 的"。 Where are his other books? I haven't any other books except this one. ②other 也可以用作代词，与冠词 the 连用构成"the other"，表示两个人或物中的"另一个"。 常与 one 搭配构成"one ..., the other ..."句型。 He has two brothers. One is 10 years old , the other is 5 years old. She held a ruler in one hand and an exercise-book in the other. ③other 作代词用时， 可以有复数"others"， 泛指"另外的人或物"。 常与 some 搭配构成"some ...., others ..."句型。 Some went to the cinema, others went swimming. This coat is too large. Show me some others, please. ④"the others"表示特指某范围内的"其他的人或物"。 We got home by 4 o'clock, but the others didn't get back until 8 o'clock. In our class only Tom is English, the others are Chinese. ⑤another 可以作形容词用，修饰后面的名词，意为"另一个"，还可以跟代词 one. You can see another ship in the sea, can't you? Mary doesn't want to buy this skirt. Would you please show her another one? ⑥another 也可以作代词用，表示"另一个"。 I'm still hungry after I've had this cake. Please give me another. 4)every 与 each 的区别。 each every 1)可单独使用 1)不可单独使用 2)可做代名词、形容词 2)仅作形容词 3)着重"个别" 3)着重"全体"，毫无例外 4)用于两者或两者以上中的每一个人或物 4)用于三者或三者以上每一个人或物
The teacher gave a toy to each child. Each ball has a different colour. 当我们说 each child, each student 或 each teacher 时，我们想到的是一个人的情况。而 当我们说 every child 和 every student 时， 我们想到的是全体的情况， every 的意思与 all 接近， 表示他们都如此。 Every student loves the English teacher. = All students love the English teacher. Every child likes playing. = All children like playing. 5)all 和 both 的用法。 ①all 指三者以上，或不可数的东西。谓语动词既可以用单数，也可以用作复数。在句中作 主语、表语、宾语、同位语和定语。 All of us like Mr Pope. 我们都喜欢 Pope 先生。 （作主语） = We all like Mr Pope. (作同位语) All the water has been used up. (作主语) That's all for today. (作表语) Why not eat all (of) the fish? (作宾语) All the leaders are here. (作定语) ②both 作代词。 a.与其他名词或代词并列出现，表示"两个都"。 Lucy and Lily both agree with us. They both passed on their sticks at the same time. How are your parents? They're both fine. b.与"of +代词（或名词）"连用，表示"两者都"。 Both of them came to see Mary. Both of the books are very interesting. c.单独使用，表示"两者（都）"。 Michael has two sons. Both are clever. I don't know which book is the better, I shall read both. ③both 用作形容词，放在名词之前，修饰该名词，表示"两者都"。 Both his younger sisters are our classmates. . There are tall trees on both sides of the street. 6. 相互代词 表示相互关系的代词叫做相互代词。 相互代词有 each other 和 one another 两种形 式。 在当代英语中，each other 和 one another 没有什么区别。 相互代词可在句中作宾语，定语。 作定语用时，相互代词用所有格形式。 We should learn from each other / one another. （作宾语） Do you often write to each other / one another? （作宾语） We often borrow each other's / one another's books. （作定语） The students corrected each other's / one another's mistakes in their homework. （作定语） 7. 疑问代词 疑问代词有 who，whom，whose，what 和 which 等。疑问代词用于特殊疑 问句中，一般都放在句首，并在句子中作为某一句子成分。例如： Who is going to come here tomorrow? （作主语） What is that? (作表语)
Whose umbrella is this? (作定语) Whom are you waiting for? (作宾语) 8.关系代词 关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词。关系代词有 who, whose, whom, that, which. 它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语. 在主句中,它们还代表着从句所 修饰的那个名词或代词。例如： I hate people who talk much but do little. I'm looking at the photograph which you sent me with your letter. With the money that he had saved, he went on with his studies. Do you know the lady who is interviewing our headmaster? 三.巩固练习 1. Tom, Please pass ________ the glasses. I want to read the newspapers. A. you B. me C. him D. her 2. The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it. A. a little B. little C. a few D. few 3. ---You want ________ sandwich? ---Yes, I usually eat a lot when I'm hungry. A. other B. another C. others D. the other 4. The doctors and nurses are doing their best to fight SARS. They think more of others than _______. A. they B. them C. themselves D. theirs 5. ---Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk? ---______________, thanks. I'd like a cup of tea. A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None 6. ---Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food. ---Never mind. You can have ________. A. us B. ours C. you D. yours 7. ---Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning? ---_______ is OK. I'm free today and tomorrow. A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None 8. ---How are you going to improve _______ this term? ---Work harder than last term. A. ourselves B. myself C. himself D. yourself 9. ---Could you tell me _______ she is looking for? ---Her cousin, Susan. A. that B. whose C. who D. which 10. ---Is _______ here? ---No. Li Lei and Han Mei have asked for leave. A. everybody B. somebody C. anybody D. nobody 11. Paul has _______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely. A. many B. some C. few D. more 12. If you want to book a round-trip ticket, you'll have to pay ______ $ 30. A. more B. other C. the other D. another 13. ---Do you live by yourself, Mr Wang?
---Yes. I have two sons. But ______ of them lives with me. They are now studying in America? A. neither B. both C. none D. either 14. ---Have you sent your parents an E-mail telling them you arrived safe? ---No. _______ of them can use a computer. A. None B. Both C. Neither D. All 15. Who taught _______ English last term? Was _____ Mr. Smith? A. you; it B. you; he C. your; it D. your; that 16. ---That woman has a bag in her right hand. What's in her _____ hand? A. another B. other C. one D. the other 17. We decided to go for a field trip with some friends of _______. A. us B. our C. ours D. ourselves 18. ---Is there a bus to the zoo? ---I'm afraid there's _______ bus to the zoo. A. no B. any C. some D. none 19. You forgot your dictionary? You may have _______. A. me B. my C. mine D. myself 20. This is ______ classroom. Where is _______? A. our; them B. us; they C. our; theirs D. ours; theirs 四.答案 1.B 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.A 11.C 12.D 13.A 14.C 15.A 16.B 17.C 18.A 19.C 20.C 第 12 章 名词 一.概念 名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词,有专有名词和普通名词之分,还有可数名 词与不可数名词之分. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.名词复数的规则变化 情况 构成方法 读音 例词 一般情况 加 -s 清辅音后读/s/ map-maps
浊辅音和元音后读 /z/ bag-bags /car-cars 以 s, sh, ch, x 等结尾 加 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses/ watch-watches 以 ce, se, ze,等结尾
加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses 以辅音字母+y 结尾 变 y 为 i 再加 es 读 /z/ baby---babies 2.其它名词复数的规则变化 1） 以 y 结尾的专有名词，或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时，直接加 s 变复数。例如： two Marys the Henrys monkey---monkeys holiday---holidays 2） 以 o 结尾的名词，变复数时： a. 加 s，如： photo---photos piano---pianos radio---radios zoo---zoos； b. 加 es，如：potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes c. 上述 a 和 b 两种方法均可，如 zero---zeros / zeroes。 3） 以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词变复数时： a. 加 s，如： belief---beliefs roof---roofs safe---safes gulf---gulfs； b. 去 f,fe 加 ves，如：half---halves knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves； c. 上述 a 和 b 两种方法均可，如 handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。 3.名词复数的不规则变化 1） child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth mouse---mice man---men woman---women 注意：由一个词加 man 或 woman 构成的合成词，其复数形式也是 -men 和-women，如 an Englishman，two Englishmen。但 German 不是合成词，故复数形式为 Germans；Bowman 是姓，其复数是 the Bowmans。 2） 单复同形，如 deer，sheep，fish，Chinese，Japanese ，li，jin，yuan，two li，three mu， four jin 等。 但除人民币的元、 角、 分外， 美元、 英镑、 法郎等都有复数形式。 如：a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。 3）集体名词，以单数形式出现，但实为复数。例如： people police cattle 等本身就是复数，不能说 a people，a police，a cattle，但可以说 a person，a policeman，a head of cattle, the English，the British，the French，the Chinese，the Japanese，the Swiss 等名词，表示国民总称时，作复数用，如 The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。 4） 以 s 结尾，仍为单数的名词，如： a. maths，politics，physics 等学科名词，一般是不可数名词，为单数。 b. news 为不可数名词。 c. the United States，the United Nations 应视为单数。 The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是 1945 年组建起来的。 d. 以复数形式出现的书名，剧名，报纸，杂志名，也可视为单数。例如： "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的
故事书。 5） 表示由两部分构成的东西，如：glasses （眼镜） trousers, clothes 等，若表达具体 数目，要借助数量词 pair（对，双）; suit（套）; a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 等。 6） 另外还有一些名词，其复数形式有时可表示特别意思，如：goods 货物，waters 水域， fishes（各种）鱼。 4. 不可数名词量的表示 1）物质名词 a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。 比较：Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 （不可数） These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 （可数） b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时，可数。例如： This factory produces steel. （不可数） We need various steels. （可数） c. 当物质名词表示份数时，可数。例如： Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。 Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。 2） 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如： four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations 四个现代化 物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量，如 a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。 5. 定语名词的复数 名词作定语一般用单数，但也有以下例外。 1) 用复数作定语。例如： sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室 talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系 2） man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时， 其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。 例如： men workers women teachers gentlemen officials 3） 有些原有 s 结尾的名词，作定语时，s 保留。例如： goods train （货车） arms produce 武器生产 customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷 4） 数词+名词作定语时，这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如： two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋 a ten-mile walk 十英里路 two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划 6. 不同国籍人的单复数 国籍 总称（谓语用复数） 单数 复数 中国人 the Chinese a Chinese two Chinese 瑞士人 the Swiss
a Swiss two Swiss 澳大利亚人 the Australians an Australian two Australians 俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians 意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians 希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks 法国人 the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen 日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese 美国人 the Americans an American two Americans 印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians 加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians 德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans 英国人 the English
an Englishman two Englishmen 瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes 7. 名词的格 英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系，带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有 格，如：a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下： 1） 单数名词词尾加"'s"， 复数名词词尾没有 s， 也要加"'s"， the boy's bag 男孩的书包， 如 men's room 男厕所。 2） 若名词已有复数词尾-s ，只加" ' "，如：the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。 3） 凡不能加"'s"的名词， 都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系， the title of 如： the song 歌的名字。 4） 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时， 名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名 词，如：the barber's 理发店。 5） 如果两个名词并列，并且分别有's，则表示"分别有"；只有一个's，则表示'共有'。例 如： John's and Mary's rooms（两间） John and Mary's room（一间） 6） 复合名词或短语，'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如：a month or two's absence 三.巩固练习 1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______. a． little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages 2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war. a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes 3.The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year. a. many preparations b. much preparation c. preparations d. preparation 4.Paiting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities. a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil 5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn't ____ oil here. a. much b. lots of c. a great deal of d. many 6.The large houses are being painted, but ______. a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense 7.The room was small and contained far too ______. a.much new furniture c. much new furnitures b.many new furniture d. many new furnitures 8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______. a. rooms number b. room number c. room's numbers d. room numbers 9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself. a great many...many c. much...a great deal b.great deal of...much d. many...a great many 10.She didn't know _____ he had been given. a. how many information c. how many informations
b. the number of information d. how much information 11.He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party. a. comrade-in-arms c. comrades-in-arm b. comrades-in-arms d. comrade-in-arm 12.All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month. a. women doctors c. woman doctors b. women doctor d. woman doctor 13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____. a. growns-ups c. growns-up b. grown-up d. grown-ups 14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident. a. stander-by c. standers-by b. stander-bys d. standers-bys 15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp. a.prisoner-of-wars c. prisoners-of-war b.prisoners-of-wars d. prisoner-of-war 16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately. a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels 17.Mary's dress is similar in appearance to her ______. a. elder sister b. elder sister's c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress 18.All the people at the conference are ______. a. mathematic teachers c. mathematics teacher b.mathematics teachers d. mathematic's teachers 19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance. a. some property c. properties b. some properties d. property 20.Physics _____ with matter and motion. a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are 四.答案 DDCCACADCDCADBBBBCCB 第 13 章 数词 一.概念: 数词分两类:基数词和序数词.表示数目的词叫基数词,表示须序的词叫序数词. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.基数词 1）基数词一般可写成如 345 或 three hundred and forty-five。 2）基数词一般是单数形式，但遇下列情况，常用复数： a. 与 of 短语连用，表示概数，不能与具体数目连用，如 scores of people 指许多人； b. 在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里。例如： They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到了。 c. 表示"几十岁"。 d. 表示"年代"，用 in +the +数词复数。 e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里，如 Three fives is（are）fifteen。
2.序数词 序数词的缩写形式如 first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st 等。 3.数词的用法 1）倍数表示法 a. 主语+谓语+倍数（或分数）+ as + adj. + as。例如 I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。 b. 主语+谓语+倍数（分数）+ the size （amount，length...） of...。例如： The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的 49 倍。 c. 主语+谓语+倍数（分数）+ 形容词（副词）比较级+ than...。例如： The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去年粮食产 量增加 8%。 d. 还可以用 by+倍数，表示增加多少倍。例如： The production of grain has been increased by four times this year. 今年粮食产量增加了 4 倍。 2）分数表示法的构成：基数词代表分子，序数词代表分母。分子大于 1 时，分子的序 数词用单数，分母序数词用复数。例如： 1/3 one-third； 3/37 three and three-sevenths. 三.巩固练习 1.______ martyrs have heroically laid down their lives for the people. a. Thousand upon thousand of b. Thousand and thousands of c. Thousands upon thousands of d. Thousand and thousand of 2.They received ______ of letters about their TV programs. a. dozen b. dozen and dozen c score d. dozens 3.Who is that man,______ in the front row? a. one b. the one c. first d. the first 4.We have produced ______ this year as we did in 1993. a. as much cotton twice b. as twice much cotton c. much as twice cotton d. twice as much cotton 5.The earth is about ______ as the moon. a. as fifty time big b. fifty times as big c. as big fifty time d. fifty as times big 6.The population of many Alaskan cities has ______ in the past three years. a. more than doubled b. more doubled than c. much than doubled d. much doubled than 7.The moon is about _____ in diameter as diameter as the earth. a. one-three as large b. one three as large c. one-third as large d. one third as large 8.Five hundred yuan a month _____ enough to live on. a. is b. are c. is being d. has been 9.______ of the buildings were ruined. a. Three fourth b. Three four c. Three-fourths d. Three-four 10.Consult _____ for questions about earthquakes. a. the six index b. index six c. sixth index d. index numbering six 四.答案 CDDDBACACB 第 14 章 冠词
一.概念 冠词是一个虚词,它置于名词之前,限定名词的意义.冠词可分为定冠词,不定冠词和零冠词 三类. 二.相关知识点精讲 1. a 用于辅音发音开头的词前, 如：a book; an 用于元音发音开头的词前，如：an apple, an hour. 请区别：a useful machine, an umbrella, a "u", an "h"。 2.指上文提到过的人或物，用定冠词 the。 3.在世界上独一无二的事物前用定冠词 the. 如：the sun, the moon, the earth。 4.the 用于序数词，表方位的名词和形容词最高级前。the first, the best , in the south。 5.在复数姓氏前加 the，表示××一家人，常看成复数。如：the Browns。 6.在介词短语中常用定冠词 the，如：in the box ,behind the chair。 7.不能用定冠词 the 的几个方面： (1)在节日、星期、月份、季节、年等词前不用冠词。如： in summer, in August 请区别：in the spring of 1945. (这里表示特指，故加 the)(2)一日三餐和 球类运动名不用冠词。如：have breakfast ,play football (3)一些固定词组中，如：go to bed ,go to school, by bus ,at night. 8.在有些词组中，有冠词和无冠词意思不同，请注意区别： in front of 在...前面, in the front of 在...范围内的前部 in hospital (生病)住院, in the hospital 在医院里。 三.巩固练习 1.When Linda was a child, her mother always let her have ______ bed. a. the breakfast in b. the breakfast in the c. breakfast in d. breakfast in the 2.He has promised to give up ______ hundreds of times. a. tobacco b. tobacco c. the tobacco d. tobaccos 3.______ usually go to church every Sunday. a. The Brown b. A Brown c. Browns d. The Browns 4.The train is running fifty miles ______. a. an hour b. one hour c. the hour d. a hour 5.He can play almost every kind of music instrument but he is good ______. a.at the flute b. at flute c. at a flute d. at that flute 6.The investigators found that more should be done for ______ in India. a.those poor b. a poor c. poor d. the poor 7.You look in high spirit. You must have ______ during your holiday. a. wonderful time b. a wonderful time c. the wonderful time d. some wonderful time 8.The city assigned a policeman to the school crossing because ______ traffic there was so heavy. a .a b. an c. the d. one 9.A new teacher was sent to the village in place of ______ one who had retired. a. a b. the c. an d. its 10.Virtue and vice are before you;______ leads you to happiness,______ to misery. a. the former...latter b. a former...a latter c. the former...the latter d. former...latter 四.答案 CBDAADBCBC 第 15 章 介词
一.概念: 介词表示它后面的名词或相当于名词的其他结构与句中其他成分的关系. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.表示地点位置的介词 1)at ,in, on, to at (1)表示在小地方; (2)表示"在......附近，旁边" in (1)表示 在大地方; (2)表示"在...范围之内"。 on 表示毗邻，接壤 to 表示在......范围外，不强调是否接壤 He arrived at the station at ten. He is sitting at the desk. He arrived in Shanghai yesterday. Jiangsu lies in the east of China. Russia lies on the north of China. Fujian is to the south of Jiangsu Province. 2)above, over, on 在......上 above 指在......上方,不强调是否垂直，与 below 相对； over 指垂直的上方,与 under 相对,但 over 与物体有一定的空间，不直接接触。 on 表示某物体上面并与之接触。 The bird is flying above my head. There is a bridge over the river. He put his watch on the desk. 3)below, under 在......下面 under 表示在...正下方 below 表示在......下，不一定在正下方 There is a cat under the table. Please write your name below the line. 2.表示时间的介词 1)in , on，at 在......时 in 表示较长时间，如世纪、朝代、时代、年、季节、月及一般（非特指）的早、中、晚等。 如 in the 20th century, in the 1950s, in 1989, in summer, in January, in the morning, in the night, in one's life , in one's thirties 等。 on 表示具体某一天及其早、中、晚。 如 on May 1st, on Monday, on New Year's Day, on a cold night in January, on a fine morning, on Sunday afternoon 等。 at 表示某一时刻或较短暂的时间，或泛指圣诞节，复活节等。 如 at 3:20, at this time of year, at the beginning of, at the end of ..., at the age of ..., at Christmas， at night, at noon, at this moment 等。 注意：在 last, next, this, that, some, every 等词之前一律不用介词。如：We meet every day. 2)in, after 在......之后 "in +段时间"表示将来的一段时间以后； "after+段时间"表示过去的一段时间以后； "after+将来点时间"表示将来的某一时刻以后。 My mother will come back in three or four days.
He arrived after five months. She will appear after five o'clock this afternoon. 3)from, since 自从...... from 仅说明什么时候开始，不说明某动作或情况持续多久； since 表示某动作或情况持续至说话时刻，通常与完成时连用。 He studied the piano from the age of three. They have lived here since 1978. 4)after, behind 在......之后 after 主要用于表示时间； behind 主要用于表示位置。 We shall leave after lunch. Lucy is hiding behind an old house. 3.表运动方向的介词：across, through 通过，穿过 across 表示横过,即从物体表面通过，与 on 有关； through 穿过,即从物体内部穿过，与 in 有关。 She swam across the river. He walked through the forest. 4.表示"在......之间"的介词：between, among between 指在两个人或两个事物之间； among 指在三个或三个以上的人或事物之间。 There is a football match between Class One and Class Two on the playground. The teacher is standing among the students. 5.表示其他意义的介词 1)on ,about 关于 on 表示这本书， 这篇文章或演说是严肃的， 或学术性的， 可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读； about 表示内容较为普通，不那么正式。 There will be a lecture on economics this afternoon. He is writing a book on cooking. He told me a lot about his life in the summer vocation. 2)by, with, in 表示方法、手段、工具 by 以......方法、手段或泛指某种交通工具； with 表示用 ...工具、手段，一般接具体的工具和手段； in 表示用...方式，用...语言(语调、笔墨、颜色)等； He makes a living by selling newspapers. He broke the window with a stone. The foreigner spoke to us in English. 3)except, besides 除了 except 除......之外，不包括在内； besides 除......之外，包括在内。 Except Mr. Wang, we went to see the film.(王先生没去) Besides Mr. Wang, we also went to see the film.(王先生也去了) 三.巩固练习 1. Taiwan is ________ the southeast of China.（in, on, to） 2. Go _________ the bridge _________ the river, you'll find the shop.（across, through; over,
above） 3. I go to school __________7:30 every morning.（in, on, at） 4. He would like to meet her __________8:00 and 9:00 tomorrow morning.（between, among ） 5. The Greens have lived in China ________ three years.（in, for, after） 6. We go to school every day ________ Saturday and Sunday.（except, besides） 7. He wrote the letter _________ ink.（by, with ,in） 8. She returned to her country _________five years.（in, after, for） 9. There is a big tree _________ our classroom.（after, behind） 10. I usually go to work _________ bike.（by, on, with） 四.答案 1.in 2.across, over 3.at, 4.between 5.for 6.except 7.in 8.after 9.behind 10.by 第 16 章 连词 一.概念 连词是用来连接词,短语,从句或句子的词.连词不作成分. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.表示并列关系的连词有：and, both...and..., not only... but also...和 neither...nor...等 1)and：和，并且 A：基本用法： "and"表示 "和"、"并且"的意思，用来连接对等关系的字和字，片语和片语，句子和句子。 I enjoy basketball , football and table tennis. The weather becomes colder and colder. B:特别用法： 祁使句后连接 and，有条件句作用，此时 and=if you...,you'll... Go straight on, and you'll see the library.==If you go straight on, you will see the library. 2)both...and...既...也...,(两者)都... A、both...and...构成的词组作主语时,谓语动词用复数。 Both Jim and Kate are from England. B、both...and...否定句表示部分否定。 You can't speak both German and English. Both my father and my mother aren't doctors. 3)neither...nor...:既不...也不... neither...nor...连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词靠近哪个主语就与哪个主语保持 "人称"和 "数" 的一致，即采取就近原则。 Neither I nor he has seen the play before. 4)not only...but also...:不但...而且... not only...but also...连接两个主语后的谓语动词也遵循就近原则。 Not only the mother but also the children are ill. 2.表示转折关系的连词有：but, however, yet, still，while 等。 Mary was a nice girl, but she had one shortcoming. Tom got up early, yet he failed to catch the train. He was very tired, still he kept on walking. Your composition is fairly good, however, there is still some room for improvement.
Jane is hard working ,while her sister is quite lazy. 3.表示选择关系的并列连词有：or, either...or...,whether... or...等。 1)or：或、否则 A:基本用法 or 表示 "或" 的意思，使用于两者之中选择一个的时候。 ----Is your friend English or American? ----American. He doesn't like dumplings or noodles. B:特别用法 祁使句后连接 or ，表 "如果...,否则...",有转折的意思，此时 or =if you don't ...,you'll ... Hurry up, or you'll be late.=If you don't hurry up, you'll be late. 2)either...or...:或者...或者...; 不是...就是...；要么...要么... A. either...or...连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词靠近哪个主语就与哪个主语保持 "人称"和 "数" 的一致，即就近原则。 Either you or I am right. Does either she or they like English? B. 由 either...or...引导的否定句是完全否定。 She isn't either a student or a teacher. 3)whether...or...不管...还是... She is always cheerful, whether at home or at school. 4.表示因果关系的并列连词有：for(因为)，so(所以)。 He is not at school today, for he has a bad cold. It was late, so I went home. 5.引导时间状语从句的从属连词有： before, after, when, while, as, till, until, since, as soon as 等。 After they had planted their crops, they took a rest. We have learned six lessons since he began to teach us. As soon as he gets to Beijing, he'll call me. 1) when, while, as 都表示"当......时"，when 从句谓语动词既可以是瞬间动词也可以是延续性 动词，可用于主从句动作同时发生或从句动作先于主句动作发生。while 从句谓语动词只能 是延续性动词，侧重主从句动作同时发生。as 引导一个持续性动作，多用于主从句动作同 时发生，强调"一边......一边"。 When I came in, my father was cooking. I came in when/while my father was cooking. He sang as he walked. 2)until 用法：当主句谓语动词是延续性动词时，主从句都用肯定式，译为"直到......为止"； 当主句谓语动词是瞬间动词时， 主句用否定式， 从句用肯定式， not.....until, 译为"直到...... 即 才"。 Mr. Green waited until his children came back.(格林先生一直等到他的孩子们回来) Mr. Green didn't go to bed until his children came back. (格林先生直到他的孩子们回来才睡觉) 6. 引导条件状语从句的从属连词有：if(如果), unless(除非，如果......不)等。 If you don't go soon, you'll be late.=Unless you go soon, you'll be late. 7.引导原因状语从句的从属连词有 because, as, since 等。 because"因为"语气最强,回答 why 提问时只能用 because， 其引导的从句可放在句首或句末； as"由于"、since"既然"语气不如 because 强，引导的从句常置于句首；for 是并列连词，语气 最弱，对前面分句加以解释或补充说明，其引导的分句常置于句末且用逗号隔开。
He didn't go to school because he was ill. As it was raining, we went there by bus. Since everybody is here, let's begin. It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 注意： because 与 so 不能同时使用。 8.引导让步状语从句的从属连词有：although/though(虽然，尽管), even though/if (即使) Although/ Though it is a very young country, it is very rich. Even if/ though you were here yesterday, you couldn't help him. 注意：although/though 引导的从句不能与 but 连用，但可与 yet, still 连用。 9.引导目的状语从句的从属连词有 so that 和 in order that(以便，为了)等。 The teacher spoke loudly so that /in order that we could hear him clearly. 10.引导结果状语从句的从属连词有：so that(结果是)和 so/such...that...(如此...以至于)等。 It was very cold, so that the water in the bowl froze. He got there so early that he got a good seat. It is such a heavy box that nobody can move it. 11.引导比较状语从句的从属连词有： as...as...(与......一样),not as/so... as...(不及，赶不上),和 than(比)等。 I know you better than she does. He works as carefully as she. I can't run as/so fast as you. 12.引导名词性从句的从属连词有：that 和 if/whether(是否)等。 We know that the earth goes around the sun.(宾语从句) I wonder if he has received my e-mail. (宾语从句) Whether he'll go there hasn't been decided.(主语从句) 注意：在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中，如果主句是将来时，从句要用一般现在时。 I'll go on with the work when I come back tomorrow. He won't come unless he is invited. 三.巩固练习 1、I don't like reading like watching TV plays." watching TV. What about you? "I don't like reading all day, D．or, but I
A．and, but B．and, and C．or, and 2、You won't know the value(价值) of the health you lose it. A．until B．after C．when D．because 3、We bought Granny a present, she didn't like it. A．but B．and C．or 4、Study hard, you will pass the exam. A．so B．for C．but 5、Put on more clothes, you'll catch cold. A．and B．for C．or 6、My shoes are worn out, I need new ones. A．so B．if C．because 7、He ran fast he won the race. A．enough ...to B．so ...that C．too...to D．both...and 8、He is only ten months. He can read write.
D．so D．and D．but D．and
A．either...or B．neither...nor C．both...and D．so...that 9、She said she might come Saturday Sunday . A．neither...nor B．nither...or C．too...to D．so...that 10、If Tom Mike asks for their car, tell him to come tomorrow. A．or B．and C．with D．but 11、It was already ten o'clock we got to the museum this morning. A．that B．when C．if D．for 12、It's a long time we met last. A．so B．after C．since D．before 13、That maths problem is difficult nobody can do it. A．too...to B．very...that C．so...that D．very ...but 14、I'll give her the message she comes back. A．since B．before C．until D．as soon as 15、 the teacher came into the classroom, many students were talking to each other. A．While B．If C．Since D．When 16、People often mistake us for each other we are twins. A．if B．when C．because D．after 17、Could you tell me in your home town in winter? A．if it often snowed B．whether does it often snow C．if it often snow D．whether it often snows 18、Are you sure Mr. Li will come to your birthday party? A．if B．that C．for D．when 19、 Lily Lucy like singing. A．Either...or B．Beither...nor ... C．Both...and D．So...that 20、Read the sentences slowly we can understand what you read. A．so that B．before C．until D．because 四.答案 1、D 2、A 3、A 4、D 5、C 6、A 7、B 8、B 9、B 10、A 11、B 12、C 13、C 14、D 15、D 16、C 17、D 18、B 19、C 20、A 第 17 章 构词法 一.概念 英语的构词法主要有:合成法,转化法,派生法,混成法,截短法和词首字母缩略法. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.转化法
英语中，有的名词可作动词，有的形容词可作副词或动词，这种把一种词性用作另一种 词性而词形不变的方法叫作转化法。 1)动词转化为名词 很多动词可以转化为名词，大多意思没有多大的变化(如下①)；有时意思有一定变化(如 下②)；有的与一个动词和不定冠词构成短语，表示一个动作(如下③)。例如： ①Let's go out for a walk.我们到外面去散散步吧。 ②He is a man of strong build.他是一个体格健壮的汉子。 ③Let's have a swim.咱们游泳吧。 2)名词转化为动词 很多表示物件(如下①)、身体部位(如下②)、某类人(如下③)的名词可以用作动词来表示 动作，某些抽象名词(如下④)也可作动词。例如： ①Did you book a seat on the plane?你订好飞机座位了吗? ②Please hand me the book.请把那本书递给我。 ③She nursed her husband back to health.她看护丈夫，使他恢复了健康。 ④We lunched together.我们在一起吃了午餐。 3)形容词转化为动词 有少数形容词可以转化为动词。例如： We will try our best to better our living conditions.我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况。 4)副词转化为动词 有少数副词可以转化为动词。例如： Murder will out.(谚语)恶事终必将败露。 5)形容词转化为名词 表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词(如下①)；某些形容词如 old, young, poor, rich, wounded, injured 等与 the 连用，表示一类人，作主语时，谓语用复数(如下②)。例如： You should be dressed in black at the funeral.你在葬礼中该穿黑色衣服。 The old in our village are living a happy life.我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活。 2.派生法 在词根前面加前缀或在词根后面加后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词 叫作派生法。 1)前缀 除少数前缀外，前缀一般改变单词的意义，不改变词性；后缀一般改变词类，而不引起 词义的变化。 (1)表示否定意义的前缀常用的有 dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, non-, un-等，在单词的前面加 这类前缀常构成与该词意义相反的新词。例如： appear 出现→disappear 消失 correct 正确的→incorrect 不正确的 lead 带领→mislead 领错 stop 停下→non-stop 不停 (2)表示其他意义的前缀常用的有 a-(多构成表语形容词), anti- (反对；抵抗), auto- (自动), co- (共同), en- (使), inter- (互相), re- (再； sub- (下面的； 小), tele- (强调距离)等。 又), 次； 例如： alone 单独的 antigas 防毒气的 autochart 自动图表 cooperate 合作 enjoy 使高兴 internet 互联网 reuse 再用
subway 地铁 telephone 电话 2)后缀 英语单词不仅可以通过加前缀构成新词， 也可加后缀构成新词。 后缀通常会改变单词的 词性，构成意义相近的其他词性；少数后缀还会改变词义，变为与原来词义相反的新词。 (1)构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence，-(e)r/ -or (从事某事的人),-ese (某地人)，-ess (雌性)， -ful (一......)，-ian (精通......的人)，-ist (专业人员)，-ment (性质；状态)，-ness (性质；状态)， -tion(动作；过程)等。例如： differ 不同于→difference 区别 write 写→writer 作家 Japan 日本→Japanese 日本人 act 表演→actress 女演员 mouth 口→mouthful 一口 music 音乐→musician 音乐家 (2)构成动词的后缀常用的有-(e)n (多用于形容词之后)，-fy (使......化)，-ize (使......成为)。 例如： wide→widen 加宽 beauty→beautify 美化 pure→purify 提纯 real→realize 意识到 organ→organize 组织 (3)构成形容词的后缀常用的有-al， -able (有能力的)， -(a)n(某国人的)， (多用于表示材料的名词后)， -en -ern (方向的)， -ese(某 国人的)，-ful，-(ic)al，-ish，-ive，-less (表示否定)，-like (像......的)，-ly，-ous，-some，-y (表 示天气)等。例如： nature 自然→natural 自然的 reason 道理→reasonable 有道理的 America 美国→American 美国的 China 中国→Chinese 中国人的 gold 金子→golden 金的 east 东→eastern 东方的 child 孩子→childish 孩子气的 snow 雪→snowy 雪的 (4)构成副词的常用后缀有-ly (主要用于形容词之后表示方式或程度)， -ward(s) (主要用于 表示方位的词之后表示方向)。例如： angry 生气的→angrily 生气地 to 到→towards 朝......，向...... east 东方→eastward 向东 (5)构成数词的后缀有-teen (十几)，-ty (几十)，-th (构成序数词)。例如： six 六→sixteen 十六→sixteenth 第十六 four 四→forty 四十→fortieth 第四十 3.合成法 1)合成名词 构成方式例词 名词＋名词 weekend 周末
名词＋动词 daybreak 黎明 名词＋动名词 handwriting 书法 名词＋及物动词＋er／or pain-killer 止痛药 名词＋介词＋名词 editor-in-chief 总编辑 代词＋名词 she-wolf 母狼 动词＋名词 typewriter 打字机 动名词＋名词 reading-room 阅览室 现在分词＋名词 flying-fish 飞鱼 形容词＋名词 gentleman 绅士 副词＋动词 outbreak 爆发 介词＋名词 afternoon 下午 2)合成形容词 名词＋形容词 snow-white 雪白的 名词＋现在分词 English-speaking 讲英语的 名词＋to＋名词 face-to-face 面对面的 名词＋过去分词 man-made 人造的 数词＋名词 one-way 单行的 数词＋名词＋形容词 two-year-old 两岁的 数词＋名词＋ed five-storeyed 五层的 动词＋副词 see-through 透明的 形容词＋名词 high-class 高级的 形容词＋名词＋ed noble-minded 高尚的 形容词＋形容词 light-blue 浅蓝色的 形容词＋现在分词 good-looking 相貌好看的 副词＋形容词 ever-green 常青的 副词＋现在分词 hard-working 勤劳的 副词＋过去分词 well-known 著名的 副词＋名词 fast-food 专门提供快餐服务的 介词＋名词 downhill 下坡的 3)合成动词 名词＋动词 sleep-walk 梦游 形容词＋动词 white-wash 粉刷 副词＋动词 overthrow 推翻 4)合成副词 形容词＋名词 hotfoot 匆忙地 形容词＋副词 everywhere 到处 副词＋副词 however 尽管如此 介词＋名词 beforehand 事先 介词＋副词 forever 永远 5)合成代词 代词宾格＋self herself 她自己 物主代词＋self myself 我自己 形容词＋名词 anything 任何东西 6)合成介词
副词＋名词 inside 在......里面 介词＋副词 within 在......之内 副词＋介词 into 进入 4.截短法(缩略法) 截短法，即将单词缩写，词义和词性保持不变，主要有截头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。 1)截头 telephone→phone aeroplane→plane omnibus→bus 2)去尾 mathematics→maths co-operate→co-op examination→exam kilogram→kilo laboratory→lab taxicab→taxi 3)截头去尾 influenza→flu refrigerator→fridge prescription→script 5.混合法(混成法) 混合法，即将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词。后半部分表示主体；前半部 分表示属性。 news broadcast→newscast 新闻广播 television broadcast→telecast 电视播送 smoke and fog→smog 烟雾 helicopter airport→heliport 直升飞机场 6.首尾字母缩略法 首尾字母缩略法，即用单词首尾字母组成一个新词。读音主要有两种形式，即各字母分 别读音；作为一个单词读音。 very important person→VIP (读字母音)要人；大人物 television→TV (读字母音)电视 Testing of English as a Foreign Language→TOEFL 托福 Nato 三.巩固练习 1.That man was________enough not to tell the manager that he would not do the job. A.care B.careful C.careless D.carelessness 2.The soldier died for saving the child，so his________ is heavier than Mount Tai. A.die B.dead C.died D.death 3.The child looked________at his brother who was badly wounded. A.sadly B.sadness C.sadly D.sad
4.He is an expert at chemistry.We all call him a ________. A.chemistry B.chemical C.chemist D.physician 5.The three- ________chair isn't suitable for a young child.He may fall off. A.legging B.legged C.legs D.leged 6.Stephenson became the________railway engineer in the world. A.lead B.leader C.leading D.leadership 7.When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem ， Jack looked________about at his classmates. A.proud B.proudly C.pride D.pridely 8.To everyone's ________，the girl finished the job quite well. A.satisfied B.satisfactory C.satisfying D.satisfaction 9.-What are you doing here? -Oh，my teacher asked me to write a passage about ________in English. -You can write________passage in English? A.600 words；a 600-words B.600-word；a 600-words C.600 words；a 600-word D.600 words；a 600-words 10.No one should enter the spot without the________of the police. A.permit B.permission C.permitting D.permittence 11.You must come with us to the police ________.Our head is waiting for you. A.headquarters B.headline C.headmaster D.headache 12.Letting that animal escape was no accident；you did it ________. A.intend B.intention C.intentionally D.intentional 13.The shop owner welcomed all the guests with a________smile. A.practice B.practise C.practical D.practiced 14.The________ordered him to pay a $100 fine. A.judger B.judgment C.judge D.judgement 15.My TV is out of order.Can you tell me what is the________news about Iraq War? A.lately B.latest C.later D.latter 16.The Great Wall is more than 6000 li in ________. A.longer B.length C.long D.longing 17.To my ________，I passed the exam easily.
A.joy B.joyful C.joyless D.joyness 18.Canada is mainly an________country. A.English-speaking B.speak-English C.spoken-English D.English-spoken 19.How________ he is! He is always acting________.He is really a ________. A.foolish；foolishly；fool B.fool；foolish；fool C.foolish；fool；fool D.foolishly；foolish；fool 20.The necklace that she lost is very expensive.It's of great ________. A.valuable B.value C.valueless D.unvaluable 21.There were________fish in the river in South America. A.in danger B.danger C.dangerous D.dangerless 22.The letter "b" in the word "doubt" is________. A.sound B.silent C.silence D.sounded 23.The child looked at me________. A.stranger B.strangely C.strange D.strangeless 24.The black people were against slavery and fought for their________bravely. A.free B.freely C.freedom D.frees 25.What you said sounded________ but in fact it was untrue. A.reasonable B.reasonful C.reasonless D.unreason 26.We have to learn________technology from other countries. A.advance B.advancing C.advantage D.advanced 27.The children live in a village ________.They come here almost every day. A.nearby B.near C.nearly D.near by 28.Mr Black is an ________in the army，not an________in the government.You can not easily find him in his________. A.official；officer；office B.officer；office；official C.official；official；official D.officer；official；office 29.You'd better give up smoking if you want to keep ________. A.health B.healthy C.healthily D.healthier 30.________ speaking，I didn't do it on purpose.
四.答案 1-5 BDACB 6-10 CBDCB 11-15 ACDCB 16-20 BAAAB 21-25 CBBCA 26-30 DADBA