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Unit 1 Friendship Grammar


Direct speech & indirect speech
直接引语和间接引语

Direct speech S: My name is Anne Frank and my family is Jewish. T: She said ___________ that her name was ___ Anne Frank and __

_ her family was ___ Jewish. Indirect speech

Direct speech S: My family and I are hiding in Amsterdam. T: She said _______ that __________ she and her family were hiding in Amsterdam. Indirect speech

Direct speech S: My only true friend is Kitty — my diary. T: She said ___________ that her only true friend was Kitty — her ___ ___ diary. Indirect speech

Direct speech S: After hiding here for a long time, I’ve become crazy about nature. T: She said _______ that after hiding there _____for a long time, she had become crazy ______ about nature. Indirect speech

引述别人的话语一般采用两种方式: 一是原封不动地引用原话,把它放在括 号内,这叫直接引语(Direct speech);一 是用自己的话加以转述, 这叫间接引语 (Indirect speech)

直接引语 (变化前)
陈述句 Jane said, “I’m very fond of traveling.”

间接引语(变化后)
that引导的宾语从句 Jane said that she was very fond of traveling.

直接引语 (变化前)
一般疑问句 “Is this your asked John.

间接引语(变化后) whether/if 引导的宾
语从句 that was her

umbrella, Mary?” John asked Mary if umbrella.

直接引语 (变化前) 特殊疑问句 you return me the

间接引语(变化后) wh-词引导的宾语从 John asked Mary return him the book.

“Mary, when will 句 book?” asked John. when she would

直接引语 (变化前)
祈使句

间接引语(变化后) 不定式

The officer said to The officer ordered him, “Don’t leave him not to leave his your post.” post.

直接引语 (变化前) I said to him, “Let’s start at

间接引语(变化后) I suggested to him that we (should) start at once.

Let’s开头的祈使句 that 引导的宾语从句

once.”

直接引语 (变化前)
感叹句 He said: “How happy I am!”

间接引语(变化后) that/what/how引导
的宾语从句 He said that he was very happy. He said how happy he was.

直接引语变见解引语时, 时态要发生变化:

一般现在时 现在完成时 现在进行时 一般将来时 一般过去时

一般过去时 过去完成时 过去进行时 过去将来时 过去完成时

直接引语(变化前) 动词

间接引语(变化后) 动词

主句 引导动词为: 从句 从句动词变为:

为一
般过

一般现在时

“I know it,”
he said.

时态
相应

一般过去时 He said that he knew it.

去时

变化

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后)

主句 动词 为一 般过 去时

引导动词为:

从句 现在进行时 动词 “I’m 时态 making 相应 coffee for 变化 you all,” she said.

从句动词变为: 过去进行时 She said she was making coffee for us all.

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后)

主句 引导动词为: 从句 从句动词变为:
动词 现在完成时 动词 过去完成时 为一 “I have 时态 He said he had 般过 seen her 相应 seen her 去时 before,” said 变化 before. he.

直接引语(变化前)
引导动词为:

间接引语(变化后)
从句动词变为:

主句 动词 为一 般过 去时

现在完成进 行时 He said, “I have been doing it for hours.”

从句 动词 时态 相应 变化

过去完成进行时 He said he had been doing it for hours.

直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 引导动词为: 一般过去时 “I saw her

间接引语(变化后) 从句 动词 时态 相应 从句动词变为: 过去完成时 He said he had seen her the previous Monday.

last
Monday,”

去时

变化

he said.

直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 引导动词为:

间接引语(变化后) 从句 动词 时态 相应 变化 从句动词变为:

过去进行时 “I was waiting for Jim,” she said.

过去完成进行 时 She said she had been waiting for Jim.

直接引语(变化前)
引导动词为: 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 过去完成时 “ Do you know Rick had been ill in bed for many days till he died?” Jack asked.

间接引语(变化后)
从句动词变为: 从句 动词 时态 相应 变化 过去完成时 Jack asked if I knew Rick had been ill in bed for many days till he died.

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后) 从句动词变为: 过去将来时 He said they would start the next day.

主句 动词 为一 般过 去时

从句 一般将来时 动词 He said: 时态 “We shall 相应 start 变化 tomorrow.”

引导动词为:

由直接引语转变为间接引语,下列情况 时态不变: 1. 不变的真理 The teacher said to the students, “Water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.” → The teacher told the students that water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.

2. 经常的习惯: He said to the doctor, “I smoke two packs every day.” → He told the doctor that he smokes two packs every day.

3. 历史事件:
The teacher said, “World War Ⅱ

ended in 1945.”
→ The teacher said that World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.

4. 部分情态动词,如must, ought to, used
to, had better等: She said to me: “You must hurry up.” → She said that I must hurry up.

由直接引语转变为间接引语,下列代词、 形容词、副词、动词等可能要变化 直接引语 this these now ago today 间接引语 that/this those/these then before that day/today/yesterday (the) next day

tomorrow

直接引语 the day after tomorrow yesterday last night the day before yesterday go bring here

间接引语 in two days’ time the day before the night before two days before come/go bring/take there/here

Exercises
1. Jack said to me, “You look worried today.” Jack told me that ___ worried ___. A. he looks…today B. you look…today C. we looked…that day D. I looked…that day

2. We said to her, “They’re walking through the street now.” We told her that ___ through the street ___. A. we were walking…then B. you are walking…now C .they were walking…then D. they walking…now

3. Mr Black said, “I have walked a long way this week.” Mr Black said that __ a long way __. A. I had walked…last week B. he had walked…that week

C. I walked…last week
D. he has walked…this week

4. The man thought, “I shall take it back tomorrow.” The man thought that __ take it back ____. A. I shall…tomorrow B. I shall…the next day C. he should…tomorrow D. he would …the next day

5. They said to us, “Are you afraid to leave this house ?” They asked us ____ afraid to leave _____ house. A. that were we…this B. that we were…that C. if were we …this D. if we were…that

6. Jane said, “What did he hear about a
week ago?”

Jane asked ____ about _____.
A. that he heard…a week ago

B. what he had heard…the week before
C. what he had herd… a week ago

D. if he heard…the week ago

7. She asked, “Whose house will he break into next time ?” She asked whose house ____ break into _____. A. will he…next time B. would he…the next time C. he would…the next time D. he will…next time

8. Jack said to her, “Where do you
spend your holidays?”

Jack asked her where ____ holidays.
A. she spent her B. you spend your

C. she spend her

D. you spent your

9. Black asked me, “ Why haven’t you
left here yet?”

Black asked me why ____ yet.
A. I hadn’t left there

B. I haven’t left here
C. hadn’t I left there

D. haven’t I left here

10. The teacher asked her, “|Does the sun rise in the east ?” The teacher asked her ___ the sun ___ in the east. A. if…rise B. if…rises C. whether…rose D. whether did …rise

题组训练

Ⅰ.将下列句子变为间接引语
1.He said,“These books are mine.” →____________________________ He said those books were his. 2.My teacher asked,“Is he coming?” →________________________________________ My teacher asked whether/if he was coming. 3.She said,“My mother took me to an exhibition yesterday.” →_____________________________________________________ She said that her mother had taken her to an exhibition the ________ day before.

答案

4. Mr. Wang said,“I will leave for Shanghai on business next month,children.”

→_____________________________________________________ Mr. Wang told the children that he would leave for Shanghai
________________________ on business the next month. 5.Zhang Hong said to me,“Doctor Wang passed away in 1948.” →_____________________________________________________ Zhang Hong told me that Doctor Wang passed away in 1948. _

答案

Ⅱ.将下列句子变为直接引语 1.Jane told me she was going to invite all her friends to have a

gettogether. “ I’m going to invite all my friends to have a gettogether,” → ___________________________________________________________ Jane told me.
______

2.She myIs father anan engineer. Sheasked askedme meif ,“ your was father engineer?” →___________________________________________
3.IIasked where she was going and and what she are was going to to dodo the asked her her,“ Where are you going what you going next day. ?” tomorrow →___________________________________________________________ ______________________ The stranger asked,“What’s your name?” 4.The stranger asked me what my name was. →___________________________________________ “I’ll finish my work tomorrow,” she said. 5.She said that she would finish her work the next day.

→___________________________________________

答案

高考链接

Ⅰ.填写空白处所需的内容(1个单词)或所提供单词的正确形式
1.You have to know where you’re going if you are to plan the best way of getting there.(2015· 湖南) 2.I truly believe beauty comes from within.(2015· 北京) that 3.If you swim in a river or lake,be sure to investigate is what below the water surface.Often there are rocks or branches hidden in the water. (2015· 浙江) 4.Some people believe has happened before or is whatever happening now will repeat itself in the future.(2014· 北京)
答案

5.James

has

just

arrived , but

coming I was didn ’t know

he

(come) until yesterday.(2014· 重庆) 6.Experts believe people can waste less food by shopping that only when it is necessary.(2013· 北京) 7.“What do you want to be?” asked Mrs.Crawford.“Oh,I will be (be) president,” said the boy,with a smile.(2013· 湖南) 8.The shocking news made me realize would face.(2011· 北京) terrible problems we

how

答案

Ⅱ.单句改错(每小题仅有1处错误) 1.When I was a child,I hoped to live in the city.I think I would be happy there.(2015· 全国Ⅰ,短文改错) thought

2.Hello,boys and girls!Today,I am going to talk about what you should do when a fire alarm go off.(2014· 四川,短文改错) goes

答案

3.He said if I decide to do something,it takes him much time to says stop me.

(2013· 大纲全国,短文改错)
moved 4.Do you want to know why we move last week? (2013· 浙江,短

文改错)

答案

返回

Homework
? 1.Review the rules of direct and indirect speech. ? 2.Finish exercises on P5. ? 3.Do the related exercises in the workbook.


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