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初中英语中考阅读理解


阅读理解的考察方式:

客观阅读和主观阅读

一、中考的阅读会选什么样的文章?
? 体裁

----多样 (多为记叙文、说明文、应 用文, 有时也有议论文) ? 题材 ----丰富 (小故事、日常生活/学习 小窍门、文化习俗、名人轶事等)

二、客观阅读题的题目设置:

/>1. 细节理解题 2. 整体概括题 3. 理解推测题

1、什么是细节理解题?
? 考察该文章中有关事 件发生的具体细节的 题目,如:时间、地 点、人物、事件、方 式等;
?Which statement is true according to the passage?

? ? ? ? ? ?

What When Who Where Why How

让我们看几个例子:
William Shakespeare was a writer of plays and poems. Some of his most famous plays are Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth. He wrote thirty-seven plays in all. They are still popular today. ① Shakespeare wrote many famous plays except _____. A. Hamlet B. Macbeth C. Romeo and Juliet D. Man and Superman. (What)

He was born in 1564 in England. At school he liked watching plays. He decided to be an actor when he finished school at the age of fourteen. In 1582, he married a farmer’s daughter. She was eight years older than he was. ② Shakespeare decided to be an actor in ___. A. 1578 B. 1582 C. 1599 D. 1616 (When)

Their first child was a daughter. Later they had twins. In 1585, Shakespeare left his hometown, Stratford-upon-Avon. His wife and children stayed behind. No one knows why he left or what he did between 1585 and 1592. ③ In 1585, Shakespeare left his hometown Stratford-upon-Avon _____. A. with his wife B. with his daughter C. alone D. with his wife and children (With whom)

A: …and don’t forget the milk, we haven’t got any left. B: So we need milk, bread, chicken and eggs. Anything else? A: No. Wait a minute. We’re having Anne and Tony to dinner on Friday. She doesn’t eat meat. You’d better get some fish. B: OK. See you later.

④ Which shopping list does the speaker take?

① 1 large fish, bread, 4 chicken thighs, 2 kilos pork ② 2 litres milk, 1 kilo fresh beef, 8 chicken wings, 1 doz eggs, 1 fresh fish ③ 1 litre milk, some bread, 4 chicken breasts, 1 doz eggs, 1 kilo fresh fish ④ 2 litres milk, 1 doz eggs, 2 kilos fish, 1 whole chicken ④Which shopping list does the speaker take?

A. ①

B. ②

C. ③

D. ④

(Which)

Accident:

Weather condition: Date of call: June 3, 2006 Time of call: 9:30 p.m.

A car crashed into a tree. Some people were trapped in the car. There was a heavy rain.

⑤What time did Mrs Green call the police?

Accident: Weather condition: Date of call: Time of call:

A car crashed into a tree. Some people were trapped in the car. There was a heavy rain. June 3, 2006 9:30 p.m.

⑤What time did Mrs Green call the police?

A. At 9:00 a.m. C. At 9:40 p.m.

B. At 9: 30 p.m. D. At 9: 45 p.m.
(What time)

In Canada and the United States, people enjoy entertaining(请客) at home. They often invite friends over for a meal, a party, or just for coffee and conversation.
⑥Why do Canadians and Americans often invite friends for meals at home? A. Because they can save time. B. Because they can spend less money. C. Because they enjoy entertaining at home. D. Because they have modern and beautiful houses. (Why)

Here are the kinds of things people say when they invite someone to their home: “Would you like to come over for dinner Saturday night?” … Sometimes, however, people use expressions that sound like invitations but which are not real invitations. For example: “Please come over for a drink sometime.”… They are not real invitations because they don’t mention a specific time or date. ⑦Which of the following is a real invitation?

? Which of the following is a real invitation? A. “If you’re free, let’s go for a drink sometime.” B. “Please go to the cinema with me some day.” C. “Would you like to have a cup of tea with us sometime?” D. “I’ve two tickets here. Can you go to the concert with me?” (Which statement is true according to the passage?)

Dear Sir or Madam, Last Thursday, I travled on the 8:00 train from Glasgow to London King’s Cross and I was quite angry with the service of your company. The train didn’t come on time…We had further delays on the way and had to wait another thirty minutes. As a result, I missed my plane from London to Frankfurt and had to wait for several hours … Your faithfully David Robertson

⑧ How did David go to Frankfurt from London ? (How)

Dear Sir or Madam, Last Thursday, I travled on the 8:00 train from Glasgow to London King’s Cross and I was quite angry with the service of your company. The train didn’t come on time…We had further delays on the way and had to wait another thirty minutes. As a result, I missed my plane from London to Frankfurt and had to wait for several hours … Your faithfully David Robertson ⑧How did David go to Frankfurt from London ? A. By plane. B. By bus. C. By car. D. By train.

2、什么是整体概括题?
从文章的整体层 面上设置的主观 概括题,如:为 本文选择一个恰 当的题目、推测 本文作者想要表 达的意图等。 ? What is the main idea of this passage? ? What does the passage want to tell us?/ What does the writer actually want to say? (the writer’s attention) ? Which is the proper title according to the passage?

In Canada and the United States, people enjoy entertaining at home. They often invite ... Here are the kinds of things people say when they invite someone to their home: … So next time when you hear what sounds like an invitation, listen carefully. Is it a real invitation or is the person just being friendly?

① The passage is mainly about _________. A. entertainment at home B. real invitations or not C. expressions of starting a conversation D. ways of ending a conversation

(main idea)

Each year there is an increasing number of cars … Most Americans find it hard to think what life would be without a car. However, some have realized the serious problem of air pollution by cars… One way to get rid of the polluted air is to … Another way is to … To prevent the world … cut down on the number of their cars…go to work by bike…

Although cars have brought us a better life, they have also brought us new problems.


The writer wants to tell us that _____.

② The writer wants to tell us that _____. A. Riding a bike is the only way out. B. The number of cars must be cut down C. Man won’t live without cars D. Cars bring us not only a better life but also serious problems. (the writer’s attention)

③ Which is the best title for the passage? A. A New Way to Get Rid of Polluted Air B. Cars and Polluted Air C. Many Serious Problems in the USA D. Changes in Car Production

(the best title)

3、什么是理解推测题?
? 根据文章的上下文,猜测某个词在该情 境中的具体含义; ? 根据对文章片断的理解,重新排列成正 确的顺序; ? 根据所给的部分文章内容,推测其故事 结尾或其他部分。

... The wolf saw that the dog was fat and comfortable, so he asked, “Cousin dog, do you know where I can find some food?” “Oh, there is always food in my house,” said the dog. “My master gives me plenty of meat.” “Master?” said the wolf. “What’s that?” “The man I work for,” said the dog. “My job is easy. I …” ① In the passage, the word “master” means “____” in Chinese. A. 服务员 B. 邻居 C. 佣人 D. 主人

Coffeehouses and the London Stock Exchange In the 17th century London, coffeehouses were busy and noisy places. Businessmen and bankers went to coffeehouses to their business, as well as to drink coffee. In fact, the London Stock Exchange (股票交易所) is believed to have started from these coffeehouses.

② From the last paragraph (段落)we can see .

Coffeehouses and the London Stock Exchange In the 17th century London, coffeehouses were busy and noisy places. Businessmen and bankers went to coffeehouses to their business, as well as to drink coffee. In fact, the London Stock Exchange (股票交易所) is believed to have started from these coffeehouses. ② From the last paragraph (段落)we can see . A. a new business was started in coffeehouses B. coffeehouses are still used by businessmen and bankers C. businessmen and bankers went to coffeehouses just for coffee D. most people wouldn’t like to go to coffeehouses because of the noise

It is a beautiful day in June. The sun is hot. It’s time to harvest strawberries, and the strawberry fields are full of people. … They are picking fruit for fun. They can buy strawberries in a supermarket, but it is cheaper to pick their own fruit. Strawberries from the farm are also fresher. ③ The story implies(暗示) that strawberries in the supermarket are _______. A. larger B. less fresh C. cheaper D. better for your health

三、解题技巧:
1. 通常老师出题时会考虑一个段落出一题, 因此,同学们做题时可以按照这个思路一 段一段地向下找答案。 2. 答题前可以先通读全文,同时有意识地把 一些关键词句勾画下来,以便答题时能迅 速找到相应的答案。 3. 如果时间紧张,也可以先读题,再根据每 一段开头的主题句,到相应的段落中找答 案。

同学们在练习中要注意:
?
? 有意识地针对自己的薄弱点做一些练习: 如果是细节题经常错,那么每次做类似的题目 时都要在原文中把相应的句子勾画出来; 如果是整体概括题经常错,就要有意识地锻炼 自己找文章的中心句和每一段的主题句(可以 参照语文阅读中的相应做题方法),把这些句 子结合在一起来概括文章的中心大意,切不可 根据刚刚读过的最后一段来做此类题目。

中考链接

My favourite great book is The Adventure of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. Tom lives with his aunt Polly in a quiet street of St Petersburg, Missouri. He’s a lively and clever young boy, and he finds himself in many exciting adventures (冒 险) . He runs away with his two friends, Huck Finn and Joe, to an island in the middle of the Mississippi River for several days. With Huck he goes looking for treasure, with Becky he gets lost in a cave, and finally, they find a box of gold.

My favourite scene in the book is when everyone thinks Tom is dead. He decides to go to his own funeral. He hides and watches for a time, and then suddenly he appears. Everyone is surprised to see him but they’re also pleased to see him alive. Tom is the hero of the story, but there are other important characters. Huck is an outsider and everyone is afraid of him. Becky is pretty with fair hair, Joe is Tom’s best friend, and Injun Joe is the bad man of the story.

The theme of the story is about children growing up. It describes how strangers are seen in small towns of America. Finally, it talks about freedom, social rules and how people are punished (惩罚) for bad behavior. Why do I think The Adventure of Tom Sawyer is a great book? Mark Twain wrote the story in 1876, but it’s still read and loved by people all over the world today. And although it’s only a story, Twain wrote it in the everyday English of the southern states of America in the 19th century, so it sounds very real. Today it’s thought to be one of the greatest books in American literature. Go on — read it! I know you’ll enjoy it, too.

1. Where does Tom run away with his two friends? A. To a quiet street. B. To a small town. C. To an island. D. To a forest. He’s a lively and clever young boy, and he finds himself in many exciting adventures (冒 险) . He runs away with his two friends, Huck Finn and Joe, to an island in the middle of the Mississippi River for several days.

2. Who is the bad man in the story? A. Huck Finn. B. Injun Joe. C. Becky. D. Polly.
Huck is an outsider and everyone is afraid of him. Becky is pretty with fair hair, Joe is Tom’s best friend, and Injun Joe is the bad man of the story.

3. How did people feel when Tom appeared at his own funeral? A. They were surprised and pleased. B. They were surprised and sad. C. They were worried and excited. D. They were frightened and happy. He decides to go to his own funeral. He hides and watches for a time, and then suddenly he appears. Everyone is surprised to see him but they’re also pleased to see him alive.

4. The whole book is mainly about A. freedom and social rules B. children’s bad behaviour C. the growth of young children D. strangers in American small towns.

.

The theme of the story is about children growing up. It describes how strangers are seen in small towns of America. Finally, it takes about freedom, social rules and how people are punished (惩罚) for bad behaviour.

5. The writer writes the article to . A. ask us to read the book B. tell us how popular the book is today C. tell us when Mark Twain wrote the story D. tell us why the story sounds very real Today it’s thought to be one of the greatest books in American literature. Go on — read it! I know you’ll enjoy it, too.

我们怎样做才能提 高阅读成绩呢?

? ? ? ?

坚持以下原则: 定量---坚持定时做一定量的练习; 耐心---对于每篇文章都要耐心地看下去; 忽略---要学会忽略遇到的生词,不要逐字读 文章,遇到不影响理解的生词跳过去; 学习方法---在老师讲解的过程中注意老师所 讲的解题方法,学会如何有针对性地在文章 中找答案,有意识地分析为什么有些题型总 是会错,并试着找些类似的题目多加练习。

主观阅读题考什么?

理解文章后找出相应答案,并用英 语表述出来; 2. 我们所要完成的任务包括回答问题、 填写表格、将一句英文翻译成中文、 偶尔会要求把一句英文排列成正确 的语序、猜测某个词在句中的意思。 1.

如何解答这些题目:
1. 有的问题的答案可以直接在文章中找到,但 是我们需要付出足够的耐心; 2. 有的问题的答案需要我们将有关信息重新组 合一下,因此我们必须细心思考; 3. 有的问题要我们表达自己的观点,需要我们 简单明了地表述出来。 4. 将英文译成中文时要注意符合中文的语言习 惯,不能简单地按照英文的顺序翻译。

In a country such as the United States, people with different history, culture and language join together and they pay much attention to personal ideas. Teachers try to make each student special. Students do not have to remember a lot of information. Instead, they work and find answers by themselves. ① Do students in the United States have to remember a lot of information? No.

There is often discussion in the classroom. At an early age students learn to have their own ideas. Their education encourages personal thought. The importance is placed on how to arrive at an answer and not only to get the correct answer. ②There is often discussion in the classroom in America, isn’t there? Yes. ③ What does the education in the United States encourage? Personal thought.

In most Asian countries, people have the same language, history and culture. Perhaps for this reason, the education there pays more attention to group goals than personal ideas. Children in China and Japan often work together and help each other on homework. ④ Which does the education in some Asian countries pay more attention to, group goals or personal ideas? Group goals.

⑤Put the sentence “In some Asian countries, however, teachers often feel that their job is to pass knowledge to students. ” into Chinese.
然而,在一些亚洲国家,老师们觉得他们的 工作就是把知识传递给学生。

中考链接

Our local community (社区)Youth Club is a very popular organization with young people in my town. I have been a member for four years now and I've taken part in a lot of interesting projects. These include fun activities such as holiday camps and discos. We have even made a video. But it isn’t all just enjoyment. We have also started doing social work to help people in our neighborhood. We have organized activities or small children during the holidays. We have also formed a special support group to help young people stop smoking .

We are particularly proud of the most recent group we have created. It organizes regular visits to the local home for the elderly. This idea came from a school visit to a home for the elderly. My class spent an afternoon at the home and everyone found the visit very rewarding (有意义的). The old people at the home were excited by our visits. They were very talkative (健谈的) and they told us their personal stories. During our visit, the home was full of the sound of laughter. We sang songs and played games with the old people and had tea together. But we realized that life wasn’t always easy.

Some of them were in poor health and were very unhappy. They couldn’t go outside and the visits by children brought some sunshine into their lives. Many young people like me have very little contact with elderly people. As a result, we have a lot of wrong ideas about them. We have little or no idea of the kind of lives they lead in the homes. After this visit, my friends and I decided we should do something to help improve the quality of their lives.

Since the creation of our visiting group, over twenty volunteers have joined us. Up to now, we have organized three group evening parties and a concert. But I think the individual (单独的)visits are the most important. Club members regularly visit old people and everyone finds the experience rich and rewarding.

Our local community (社区)Youth Club is a very popular organization with young people in my town. I have been a member for four years now and I've taken part in a lot of interesting projects.
1.

Is the writer a member of the Youth Club? Yes.

The old people at the home were excited by our visits. They were very talkative (健谈 的) and they told us their personal stories. During our visit, the home was full of the sound of laughter. We sang songs and played games with the old people and had tea together. 2. How did the old people feel by the children’s visit? The old people felt excited by the children’s visit./ Excited.

Many young people like me have very little contact with elderly people. As a result, we have a lot of wrong ideas about them. We have little or no idea of the kind of lives they lead in the homes. 3. Why do young people have wrong ideas about the elderly? Because young people have little contact with the elderly.

We have little or no idea of the kind of lives they lead in the homes. After this visit, my friends and I decided we should do something to help improve the quality of their lives.
4. What did the writer and his friends decide to do after the visit to the home for the elderly? To do something to help improve the quality of the old people’s lives.

5. Put the sentence “ They couldn’t go outside

and the visit by children brought some sunshine into their lives.” into Chinese.

这些老人不能外出,孩子们的来访给他们 的生活带来了阳光。

同学们在答题时需要注意以下几点:
1. 回答问题要答在要点上,不要啰嗦(有时写 多了反而写错了); 2. 翻译句子时一定要注意符合中文的语言习惯, 不能就英文的字面翻译。 3. 排序时先把自己最熟悉的词组写下来。你只 要能写出两、三个词组,那么这个句子也就 基本上出来了;

Tips:
? 不论是主观阅读还是客观阅读,它们都是以篇章 的形式出现,因此,我们必须在阅读时把它看作 一个整体,在理解全文大意的前提下有针对性地 挖掘细节内容。 ? 对于需要我们总结或猜测的题目,不能局限在这 句话或这个段落中,一定要看上下文,如果不确 定就重新看一下全文(找首尾段和其他段落的主 题句)。


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