【KS5U 原创】 《阅读理解特训：3 真 2 模含解析》2014 届高三英语二轮突破 17
C8 [2013· 浙江卷] C The baby monkey is much more developed at birth than the human baby. Almost from the moment it is born, the baby mon
key can move around and hold tightly to its mother. During the first few days of its life the baby will approach and hold onto almost any large, warm, and soft object in its environment, particularly if that object also gives it milk. After a week or so, however, the baby monkey begins to avoid newcomers and focuses its attentions on “mother”—the real mother or the mother－substitute (母亲替代物). During the first two weeks of its life warmth is perhaps the most important psychological (心理的) thing that a monkey mother has to give to its baby. The Harlows, a couple who are both psychologists, discovered this fact by offering baby monkeys a choice of two types of mother－substitutes—one covered with cloth and one made of bare wire. If the two artificial mothers were both the same temperature, the little monkeys always preferred the cloth mother. However, if the wire model was heated, while the cloth model was cool, for the first two weeks after birth the baby monkeys picked the warm wire mother－substitutes as their favorites. Thereafter they switched and spent most of their time on the more comfortable cloth mother. Why is cloth preferable to bare wire? Something that the Harlows called contact(接触) comfort seems to be the answer, and a most powerful influence it is. Baby monkeys spend much of their time rubbing against their mothers' skins, putting themselves in as close contact with the parent as they can. Whenever the young animal is frightened, disturbed, or annoyed, it typically rushes to its mother and rubs itself against her body. Wire doesn't “rub” as well as does soft cloth. Prolonged (长时间的) “contact comfort” with a cloth mother appears to give the babies confidence and is much more rewarding to them than is either warmth or milk. According to the Harlows, the basic quality of a baby's love for its mother is trust. If the baby is put into an unfamiliar playroom without its mother, the baby ignores the toys no matter how interesting they might be. It screams in terror and curls up into a furry little ball. If its cloth mother is now introduced into the playroom, the baby rushes to it and holds onto it for dear life. After a few minutes of contact comfort, it obviously begins to feel more secure. It then climbs down from the mother－substitute and begins to explore the toys, but often rushes back for a deep embrace (拥 抱) as if to make sure that its mother is still there and that all is well. Bit by bit its fears of the new environment are gone and it spends more and more time playing with the toys and less and less time holding onto its “mother”.
50．Psychologically, what does the baby monkey desire most during the first two weeks of its life? A. Warmth. C. Contact. B. Milk. D. Trust.
51．After the first two weeks of their life, baby monkeys prefer the cloth mother to the wire mother because the former is ________. A. larger in size B. closer to them C. less frightening and less disturbing D. more comfortable to rub against 52．What does the baby monkey probably gain from prolonged “contact comfort”？ A. Attention. C. Confidence. B. Softness. D. Interest.
53．It can be inferred that when the baby monkey feels secure, ________. A. it frequently rushes back for a deep embrace when exploring the toys B. it spends more time screaming to get rewards C. it is less attracted to the toys though they are interesting D. it cares less about whether its mother is still around 54．The main purpose of the passage is to ________. A. give the reasons for the experiment B. present the findings of the experiment C. introduce the method of the experiment D. describe the process of the experiment 【要点综述】 这是一篇说明文。作者主要向读者阐述了一个关于幼猴的实验发现。 50．A 考查细节理解。从文章第一段“During the first few days of its life…onto almost any large, warm, and soft object…”可知，幼猴刚出生最需要的是温暖，所以选 A 项。 51．D 考查推理判断。从第三段“Why is cloth preferable to bare wire？…Baby monkeys spent much of their time rubbing against their mothers' skins…”推知，幼猴选择“布妈妈”，而不是“线妈妈”的原因在于相对于 “线妈妈”而言，“布妈妈”皮肤接触起来更舒服，可能也更暖和，故选 D 项。
52． C 考查细节理解。 从第三段“Prolonged (长时间的)‘contact comfort’ with a cloth mother appears to give the babies confidence and …”可知，长时间地与“布妈妈”接触，增加了幼猴的自信心，因此 C 项是最佳答案。 53．D 考查推理判断。从最后一段“If its cloth mother is now introduced…it obviously begins to feel more secure.It then climbs down from…and less and less time holding onto its ‘mother’．”推知，当幼猴看到“布妈 妈”后，它会觉得有安全感，从而在行为上会放松起来，从而越来越喜欢玩玩具，而减少与“母亲”接触的时 间，所以 D 项正确。 54．B 考查写作意图。文章主要介绍了一个关于幼猴的实验结果，因此作者在文章中是要呈现这个结果
给读者，所以 B 项为最佳答案。 C8 [2013· 北京卷] D Multitasking People who multitask all the time may be the worst at doing two things at once, a new research suggests. The findings, based on performances and self－evaluations by about 275 college students, indicate that many people multitask not out of a desire to increase productivity, but because they are easily distracted (分心) and can't focus on one activity. And “those people turn out to be the worst at handling different things，” said David Sanbonmatsu, a psychologist at the University of Utah. Sanbonmatsu and his colleagues gave the students a set of tests and asked them to report how often they multitasked, how good they thought they were at it, and how sensation－seeking (寻求刺激) or impulsive (冲动) they were. They then evaluated the participants' multitasking ability with a tricky mental task that required the students to do simple mathematical calculations while remembering a set of letters. Not surprisingly, the scientists said, most people thought they were better than average at multitasking, and those who thought they were better at it were more likely to report using a cellphone while driving or viewing multiple kinds of media at once. But those who frequently deal with many things at the same time were found to perform the worst at the actual multitasking test. They also were more likely to admit to sensation－seeking and impulsive behavior, which connects with how easily people get bored and distracted. “People multitask not because it's going to lead to greater productivity, but because they're distractible, and they get sucked into things that are not as important，” Sanbonmatsu said.
Adam Gazzaley, a researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who was not a member of the research group, said one limitation of the study was that it couldn't find out whether people who start out less focused tend toward multitasking or whether people's recognizing and understanding abilities change as a result of multitasking. The findings do suggest, however, why the sensation－seekers who multitask the most may enjoy risky distracted driving. “People who are multitasking are generally less sensitive to risky situations，” said Paul Atchley, another researcher not in the group. “This may partly expl ain why people go in for these situations even though they're dangerous.” 67. The research led by Sanbonmatsu indicates that people who multitask A. seek high productivity constantly B. prefer handling different things when getting bored C. are more focused when doing many things at a time D. have the poorest results in doing various things at the same time 68．When Sanbonmatsu and his colleagues conducted their research, they A. assessed the multitasking ability of the students B. evaluated the academic achievements of the students C. analyzed the effects of the participants' tricky mental tasks D. measured the changes of the students' understanding ability 69．According to Sanbonmatsu, people multitask because of their A. limited power in calculation B. interests in doing things differently C. inability to concentrate on one task D. impulsive desire to try new things 70．From the last paragraph, we can learn that multitaskers usually A. drive very skillfully B. go in for difficult tasks C. fail to react quickly to potential dangers D. refuse to explain the reasons for their behavior 【要点综述】 这是一篇科普议论文，主要论证同时处理多重任务这一心理现象。犹太大学研究者发现，同 时处理多重任务并不是出于提高生产率的目的，而是当事人容易分心而不能专心于所做的事情上。尽管来自加 ________． ________． ________． ________．
州大学的研究者提出了不同的看法，但确实证明同时处理多重任务者对于危险境地确实不太敏感。 67．D 68．A 细节理解题。根据第一段“those people turn out to be the worst at handling different things”可知选 D。 细节理解题。根据第二段“They then evaluated the participants' multitasking ability with a tricky
mental task…”可知评估的是参与者的同时处理多重任务的能力。 69．C 细节理解题。根据第四段“…but because they're distractible…”可知，人们同时处理多重任务是因
为他们容易分心，而不是高效。distractible“容易分心的，不专心的”，C 项是对它的同义转换。 70．C 细节理解题。从最后一段“…are generally less sensitive to risky situations”可知，同时处理多重任
务者对于潜在危险不能及时做出反应。 C8 [2013· 大纲全国卷] E The oldest and most common source(来源)of renewable energy known to man, biomass is one of the most important forms of energy production in the United States and elsewhere.Since such a wide variety of biomass materials is everywhere—from trees and grasses to agricultural and city－life wastes—biomass promises to play a continuing role in providing power and heat for millions of people around the world. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists(UCS), biomass is a kind of renewable energy source that produces no carbon dioxide(二氧化碳), because the energy it contains comes from the sun.When plant matter is burned, it gives off the sun's energy.In this way, biomass serves as a sort of natural battery(电池)for storing the sun's energy.As long as biomass is produced continuously—with only as much grown as is used—the “battery” lasts forever. According to the Energy Information Administration, biomass has been one of the leading renewable energy sources in the United States for several years running through 2007, making up between 0.5 and 0.9 percent of the nation's total electricity supply.In 2008—although the numbers aren't all in yet—wind power probably took over first place because of the rapid development of wind farms across the country. Producing power from biomass helps reduce some 11 million tons of carbon dioxide each year.Some homeowners also try to make their own heat by using biomass materials.Such practice may save homeowners' money, but it also produces a lot of pollution.So, the best way is to encourage power plants to use it. 72．Why is biomass considered as “a sort of natural battery”？ A．It burns merely plant matter.
B．It keeps producing electricity. C．It stores the energy from the sun. D．It produces zero carbon dioxide. 73．We learn from the text that in 2008 ________．
A．wind power could be the leader of renewable energy B. there was a rapid growth of electricity production C．biomass might become the main energy source D．0.5～0.9% of power supply came from biomass 74．Why does the author encourage power plants to use biomass? A．To prevent the waste of energy. B．To increase production safety. C．To reduce pollution. D．To save money. 75．Where does the text probably come from? A．A research plan. B．A science magazine. C．A book review. D．A business report. 【要点综述】 本文是一篇科技说明文。文章介绍了 biomass(生物量)的特征、优点以及它在美国能源中的 地位。 72． C 细节理解题。 根据第二段中的“…because the energy it contains comes from the sun.When plant matter is burned, it gives off the sun's energy.In this way, biomass serves as a sort of natural battery for storing the sun's energy.”可知 C 正确。 73．A 推理判断题。根据第三段中的“In 2008—although the numbers aren't all in yet—wind power probably took over first place because of the rapid development of wind farms across the country.”可知，2008 年风能占居首 位。关键词定位：A 项中的 the leader of 和文中 first place 意思相同。 74．C 推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“Some homeowners also try to make their own heat by using biomass
materials.Such practice may save homeowners' money, but it also produces a lot of pollution.So, the best way is to encourage power plants to use it.”可知 C 正确。 75．B 推理判断题。根据全文内容可知，本文是一篇有关生物量能源的科普类文章。所以，它应该是科
学杂志上的文章。故选 B。 C8 [2013· 湖北卷] D The technology is great.Without it we wouldn't have been able to put a man on the moon, explore the ocean's depths or eat microwave sausages.Computers have revolutionized our lives and they have the power to educate and pass on knowledge.But sometimes this power can create more problems than it solves. Every doctor has had to try their best to calm down patients who've come into their surgery waving an Internet print－out, convinced that they have some rare incurable disease, say, throat cancer.The truth is usually far more ordinary, though: they don't have throat cancer, and it's just that their throats are swollen.Being a graduate of the Internet “school” of medicine does not guarantee accurate self－health－checks. One day Mrs.Almond came to my hospital after feeling faint at work.While I took her blood sample and tried to find out what was wrong, she said calmly, “I know what's wrong; I've got throat cancer.I know there's nothing you doctors can do about it and I've just got to wait until the day comes.” As a matter of routine I ordered a chest X－ray.I looked at it and the blood results an hour later.Something wasn't right.“Did your local doctor do an X－ray？” I asked.“Oh, I haven't been to the doctor for years，” she replied.“I read about it on a website and the symptoms fitted, so I knew that's what I had.” However, some of her symptoms, like the severe cough and weight loss, didn't fit with it—but she'd just ignored this. I looked at the X－ray again, and more tests confirmed it wasn't the cancer but tuberculosis (肺结核)—something that most certainly did need treating, and could be deadly.She was lucky we caught it when we did. Mrs Almond went pale when I explained she would have to be on treatment for the next six months to ensure that she was fully recovered.It was certainly a lesson for her.“I'm_so_embarrassed，” she said, shaking her head, as I explained that all the people she had come into close contact with would have to be found out and tested.She listed up to about 20, and then I went to my office to type up my notes.Unexpectedly, the computer was not working, so I had to wait until someone from the IT department came to fix it.Typical.Maybe I should have a microwave sausage while I waited?
63．Mrs Almond talked about her illness calmly because ________． A．she thought she knew it well B．she had purchased medicine online C．she graduated from a medical school D．she had been treated by local doctors 64．It was lucky for Mrs Almond ________． A．to have contacted many friends B．to have recovered in a short time C．to have her assumption confirmed D．to have her disease identified in time 65．Mrs Almond said “I'm so embarrassed” (Para.7) because ________． A．she had distrusted her close friends B．she had caused unnecessary trouble C．she had to refuse the doctor's advice D．she had to tell the truth to the doctor 66．By mentioning the breakdown of the computer, the author probably wants to prove ________． A．it's a must to take a break at work B．it's vital to believe in IT professionals C．it's unwise to simply rely on technology D．it's a danger to work long hours on computers 【要点综述】 本文是一篇议论文，主要讲述技术带来的问题比它解决的更多。作者以人们看病为例：人们 感觉不舒服后，从网上查阅一下资料，看看自己的症状与癌症非常相符，因此失去了对生活的信心。而实际上， 他们只不过是患了另外一种不严重的病。 63．A 细节理解题。根据第三段中的“…she said calmly ‘I know what's wrong; I've got throat cancer.I
know … ”知这位病人已经从网上知道自己得了癌症，也活不了几天了，因此她很平静。故 A 正确。 64．D 细节理解题。根据第六段的最后一句“She was lucky we caught it when we did.”再结合此句前的肺
结核可知，对 Mrs Almond 来说，幸运的事情是她的病及时地得到了确诊。故 D 正确。
推理判断题。根据目标句子前的“It was certainly a lesson for her.”可知，她很后悔由于自己的莽撞
而导致了一些不必要的麻烦。故 B 正确。 66．C 推理判断题。电脑坏了，等着计算机公司的人来修。由此可知，作者认为我们仅依靠科技是不明
智的。故 C 正确。