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必修3 Module 4外研社高中英语必修三单元四各知识点


Module 4 Sandstorms in Asia 亚洲的沙尘暴

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Ⅰ. 单词盘点 根据词性和汉语意思写出词汇 mass (adj. ) 1. _____ campaign (n. ) 2. _________ process (n. ) 3. _______ citizen (n. ) 4. ______

/>
大量的;大规模的
战役;活动

进程;过程
公民;市民

forecast (vt. ) 5. ________ atmosphere (n. ) 6. ___________ recycle (v. ) 7. _______

预报;预告 大气;大气层 重新利用;再循环

strength (n. ) 力量;力气→__________ strengthen (vt. ) 加强 8. ________ strongly (adv. )坚强地 strong (adj. )坚强的;强壮的→________ →______ environment (n. ) 环境→ _____________ environmental (adj. ) 环境的 9. ____________ concerned (adj. ) 关心的;担心的→_______ concern (n. &v. ) 关 10. _________

concerning (prep. )关于 心, 担心→ __________

evidence (n. ) 根据;证明→_______ evident (adj. ) 明显的;显然的 11. ________
urge (vt. ) 催促;极力主张 urgent (adj. ) 紧急的→_____ 12. ______

urgency (n. )紧急;紧急的事 →________
complaint (n. ) 抱怨 13. complain ________ (vi. ) 抱怨;发牢骚→__________ scary (adj. ) 恐怖的;吓人的→_____ scare (vt. ) 使??受惊 14. _____ scared (adj. ) 受惊吓的 →______ protection (n. ) 保护→_______ protect (vt. ) 保护 15. _________

【品词自测】根据所给词的适当形式填空 strongly feel that many factors determine whether we can ①We _______ strong body and a succeed in our life and careers, including a ______ strength is also very important. good personality. Knowing our _______ strengthen the ties with the people But the most important is to _________ around us. (strength)

concern about ②In the past year the public have shown great _______ concerns the people’s health the food safety in China, because it ________ and the safety of their lives. It is hoped that the authorities concerning concerned can really do something with the issue __________ _________ the public’s health. (concern)

Ⅱ. 短语回放 1. 砍倒;削减;减少 2. 突然遭遇(风暴等) 3. 一个接一个地 4. 对??有坏影响 cut down _________ be caught in ___________ one after another ________________ have a bad effect on __________________

5. 醒来面对;意识到 6. 吸收;欺骗;理解

wake up to __________ take in _______ give out _______ can’t help but _____________ in a nutshell ___________ look through ____________

7. 放出,发出;分发;用尽;精疲力竭
8. 不得不

9. 简言之;概括地讲
10. 浏览,翻阅,查阅

Ⅲ. 句式扫描

so thick that (如此密集以至于)you cannot see 1. They are often ___________
the sun, and the wind is sometimes strong enough to move sand

dunes.
To have been caught in a sandstorm (突然遭遇沙尘暴) was 2. ________________________________ a terrible experience.

to have increased in recent years 3. Sandstorms in China appear __________________________________ (似乎在最近几年增加了)as a result of “desertification”.

4. The storms sometimes continue all day and traffic moves very
makes it difficult to see (使得能见 slowly because the thick dust ____________________

度很低).
if possible (如果可能的 5. The garbage is then taken away and, _________ 话),recycled.

【仿句自测】根据下面句式仿写句子 ①so+adj. /adv. + that引导结果状语从句 仿写:这个故事如此有趣以至于我想再读一遍。 This story was so interesting that I wanted to read it a second time. ②动词不定式作主语 仿写:为孩子提供最好的教育是大多数家长所希望的事。 (provide) To provide their children with best education is what most parents

expect.

③make +it +adj. /n. + to do. . . (it在句中充当形式宾语) 仿写:互联网使得人们可以更容易地获取他们所需要的信息。 The Internet makes it easier for people to get the information they want. ④if/when/whenever possible构成的省略句 仿写:无论什么时间有可能的话,他就会帮助那些孩子们建立信 心。

Whenever possible, he will help those children to build their
confidence.

核 心 要 点

strength urgent take in

三年4考 三年1考 三年1考

1. process n. 进程;过程 vt. 加工,处理 (1)be in process in the process in the process of (doing) sth. (2)process sth. 在进行中 在过程中,在进行中 在??的过程中 加工/处理某事

①Reforming the current education system will be a difficult and slow process. 改革现有的教育体制将是一个既艰难又缓慢的过程。 ②All the data will be processed on the computer automatically. 所有的这些数据将在计算机上自动处理。 in ___ the ③I was moving some furniture and I twisted my ankle __ process _______. 我在搬一些家具,在这个过程中我扭伤了踝关节。

2. strength n. 力量;力气;长处;优势

(1)have the strength to do sth.
with all one’s strength

有力量/意志做某事
用全力

physical strength
(2)strong adj.

体力
坚强的;强壮的;强烈

的;浓的
strengthen vt. 加强;巩固

①He was too weak to have enough strength to talk with us. 他身体太虚弱了,都没有力气和我们谈话。 ②I pushed the car with all my strength but it didn’t move at all. 我用尽全力推那辆车,可它根本就不动。 ③A good teacher knows how to make the best of the strength of his students. 一个好的老师懂得如何利用学生的长处。

【辨析】理解下列区别并选词填空 常用来指体力、力量、强度等,尤其指承重的力 strength
force power 量,也可用来指长处或优势。 常指促使物体运动的力,也可指势力、武力或暴力。 意为“能力”,可指内在的或外加的力、潜在的或活 动的力、具体的或抽象的力、身体的或精神的力等。 指自然界的能量;人的活力、精力,更多着眼于人

energy

的精神风貌。be full of energy精力充沛。

④In the labour market, skills and experience are more strength important than physical ________.

force to enter the bank. ⑤The robber used _____
power to give you a free ticket to the concert. ⑥It is beyond his ______ energy at such an old age. ⑦We are amazed that he is full of ______

3. concerned adj. 关心的;担心的 (1)be concerned that. . . be concerned with. . . be concerned about/for. . . as far as. . . concerned (2)concern n. express one’s concern about (3)concerning prep. 担心?? 与??有关,涉及 担心?? 就??而言/来说 关心, 忧虑 对??表示关心/担心 有关,涉及

①She has been concerned that the children may get lost in the mountains.

她担心孩子们会在山里迷路。
②The case is concerned with other cases.

这起案子与其他案子有关。 are ______ always _________ concerned about ③They ___ _____ their children’s future. 他们总是为孩子们的未来担心。

【点津】concerned 作形容词时,意为“关心的,挂念的,担 心的”,充当前置定语;表示“相关的,有关的”,作定语时 要后置。例如:a concerned look关切的神色;the authorities concerned有关部门。

4. urgent adj. 紧急的;迫切的;非常重要的 (1)in urgent need of (2)urge vt. 急需 催促,极力主张

urge sb. to do sth. /into doing sth.

力劝/敦促某人做某事
urge (sb. ) on 力劝,强烈要求

urge+that-clause

强烈要求,极力主张(从句谓语
动词用should+动词原形)

(3)urgency n.

紧急;紧急的事

①The people in the earthquake-stricken area are in urgent need of food, medicine and shelters. 地震灾区的人们急需食品、药品和住的地方。 ②Police are urging whoever witnessed the accident to contact

them immediately.
警方正敦促任何目击这一事件的人马上与他们联系。 should ____ take measures ③The public urged that the government ______ ________ to prevent such cases from happening again. 公众强烈要求政府采取措施来防止此类案件的再次发生。

【想一想】有哪些动词还可以像 urge一样接 that引导的宾语从
句,从句中的谓语动词要用“ should+ 动词原形”的虚拟语气 结构? 【拓展延伸】后接宾语从句时用should+动词原形的动词 能这样使用的动词包括: insist, order, command, advise, suggest, recommend, require, request, demand, desire, propose, prefer, arrange等。

有些表示“建议、命令、要求”的动词接宾语从句时,从句中 谓语用“(should)do”的形式。为了记住这些动词,请记住一句

顺口溜:“I DROP CAPS. (我丢帽子了。)”
I:insist(坚持)D:demand(要求), desire(希望,想要) R : require ( 要求 ) , request ( 要 求 ,请求 ), recommend (建议)O:order(命令)P:propose(提议,建议) C:command (命令) A:advise(建议), arrange(安排) P:prefer(更喜欢) S:suggest(建议)

5. complain v. 抱怨;发牢骚;控诉,投诉;诉说

(1)complain to sb. about/of sth.
complain that-clause

向某人抱怨某事
抱怨??

(2)complaint n.
make a complaint

抱怨,诉苦;投诉
抱怨,提出投诉

a letter of complaints

投诉信

①Several passengers complained to the air company about the bad service on the flight. 几名乘客向航空公司投诉这架航班上的服务太差。 ②The old man complained that the children were making too much noise. 老人抱怨说孩子们太吵了。 to complain about/of ③We have nothing __ ________ ________. 我们没有什么可抱怨的。

6. cut down砍倒;削减;减少
①A large number of trees are cut down every year. 每年都有大量的树木被砍倒。 ②By adopting the new method, they have cut down the noise made by the machines. 通过采用新的方法,他们已经减少了由机器产生的噪音。

【拓展】补全下列cut短语:
in cut __ 插嘴;插入 切断,中断,使隔绝 剪下,裁出 抄近路穿过;刺穿

off cut ___
out cut ___

through cut ________

7. take in吸收;欺骗;理解; (把衣服)改小
①The club will not take in new members any more. 俱乐部将不再吸收新成员。 ② Don’t be taken in by products claiming to help you lose weight. 不要被声称会帮助你减肥的产品所欺骗。 ③I found it hard to take in what he said in the class. 我发现很难理解他在课堂上所说的东西。

【拓展】补全下列take短语: after take _____ down take _____ off take ___ on take ___ over take ____ up take ___ (在外貌,性格方面)像某人

记下;写下;拆下
脱下;起飞;请假;(事业)成功

呈现;雇用;承担
接收;接管

占据;开始从事

8. give out发出、放出(光、热,气体等);分发;公布;用完; 精疲力竭

写出下列句中give out的意思:
①The sun gives out light and heat to the earth. ( 发出,放出 )

②Mum gave out the candies to the three children. (分发 )
③The news was given out that Steve Jobs passed away. (公布 )

④Both my money and patience were beginning to give out.
( 用完;精疲力竭 )

【拓展】give away give back give in (to sb. /sth. ) give up

赠送;泄露;出卖 归还;恢复 向??屈服/让步 放弃;让出

【点津】(1) give out表示“分发,发出,放出,公布”的意义

时为及物动词短语,主语为人。
(2) give out表示“耗尽,精疲力竭”时,与run out相同都是不

及物动词短语,主语通常是物,而不是人,不能用于被动语态;
而use up和run out of为及物动词短语,主语是人而不是物,可 以用于被动语态。

【助记】

9. look through浏览;仔细审核;温习 ①He has formed a habit of looking through evening papers in his spare time. 他已经养成了在业余时间浏览晚报的习惯。 ②Please look through your paper before you hand it in to avoid possible mistakes.

为了避免可能的错误,请在交试卷前仔细检查一遍。

【拓展】补全下列“look+prep. /adv. ”短语: back look _____ up look ___ into look ____ out(for) look _________ down on/upon look _____________ 回头看;回顾 查阅;仰望 调查;窥视 当心,注意,留神 瞧不起 敬仰;尊重

up to look _____

【真题链接】 [2009湖北,21]Would you please _______ the paper for me and see if there are any obvious mistakes?

A. look around
C. look up

B. look into
D. look through

【解析】选 D。考查 look短语。句意:你能不能帮我看看这份
试卷,看有没有明显的错误?look around环顾四周;look into 调查;look up查找;look through审核,仔细查看。

10. Sandstorms in China appear to have increased in recent

years as a result of “desertification”.
由于荒漠化,中国近年来发生沙尘暴的次数明显增加了。

句中的 to have increased为不定式的完成式结构,表示发生在
系动词appear之前。 不定式结构经常出现在seem, appear,happen, pretend等动词 之后,根据不同的语境,不定式可采用一般式(to do),一般 式的被动式(to be done), 完成式(to have done), 完成式的

被动式(to have been done), 进行式(to be doing)等形式。

①In order to win votes from the common people, they have to

at least appear to have the common touch.
为赢得普通民众的选票,他们至少要看起来很亲民。 ② The soldiers seemed to be digging up something valuable there. 士兵们似乎正从那里挖出什么值钱的东西。 have ______ found ___ out the truth. ③They appeared ________ to __ ____ 他们似乎已经了解了真相。

【点津】(1)appear/happen/seem to do可以转化成用it作形式主 语,以that引导的名词性从句作真正主语的形式: It seems/appears/happened that. . . . (2)在转化过程中要注意各自不同的时态形式的转化。例如: He seems to have studied English for nearly 6 years. →It seems that he has studied English for nearly 6 years.

11. The garbage is then taken away and, if possible, recycled.
然后把垃圾带走,如果可能的话,进行回收利用。 句中的if possible为状语从句的省略句,相当于if it is possible。

状语从句的三种省略情况: (1)在由when, if, unless, once, though, although, even if/even though, until, as if, as等引导状语从句时,如果状语从句的主语 和主句的主语一致,且从句的谓语动词部分含有be动词,可将 状语从句的主语和be动词省略。 (2)在when/whenever/if it is possible/necessary结构中将it is省 略, 构成常见的when/whenever/if possible/necessary结构。 (3)if any如果有的话;if so 如果是这样的话; if ever如果曾经有过的话;if not 如果不这样的话。

①Put on more clothes. If not,you will catch a cold.

多穿些衣服。如果不这样的话,你会患感冒的。 If _________, necessary we’ll deliver the furniture to your house this ②__ afternoon.
如果有必要的话,我们会在今天下午把家具送到你家。 Though very angry the father pretended to be happy with ③_______ ____ _____, the result. 尽管非常生气,父亲还是假装对结果非常满意。

【真题链接】 [ 2009 江西, 35 ] Some of you may have finished unit one. _______, you can go on to unit two. A. If you may C. If not B. If you do D. If so

【解析】选D。考查省略句的用法。句意:你们有些人可能已 经完成单元一了。如果是这样的话,你们可以继续单元二的内 容。 If so = If you have done that,意为“如果是这样的话”,

与语境相符。

(1)make+it+adj. /n. +to do结构中对it的考查 (2)be caught in的用法

(3)so. . . that与such. . . that的区别

1. [2010辽宁,33]The fact that she was foreign made _______ difficult for her to get a job in that country. A. so B. much C. that D. it

【解析】选 D 。考查 it 的指代用法。句意:她是外国人的事实 使得她在那个国家很难找到工作。the fact作句子的主语,that she was foreign作the fact 的同位语,made作谓语,it是形式宾

语,真正的宾语是for her to get a job in that country,difficult
是宾语补足语。

2. _______ in the heavy snow, the couple had to walk home, leaving their car behind. A. Caught B. Having caught

C. Catching

D. To catch

【解析】选A。考查非谓语动词作状语。句意:由于遭遇大雪,

这 对 夫 妇 只能 丢 下 他 们的 汽 车 , 步行 回 家 。 Caught in the
heavy snow在句中为过去分词短语作状语,相当于Because the couple were caught in the heavy snow, 其中的be caught in短语

用作状语时,要用过去分词,而B、C、D均为主动形式,且D
选项表示将来的动作。

3. 选词填空(so / such. . . that. . . )
such great progress ____ that the teachers are ①He has made ____ pleased with him. that he was unfit for this job. so little education ____ ②He had __


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