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Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period


Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Outline of The Renaissance文艺复兴 Period I. Historical Background II. Definition of Renaissance and Human

ism III. Distinguished Writers 1. Edmund Spenser 2. Christopher Marlowe 3. William Shakespeare 4. Francis Bacon 5. John Donne 6. George Herbert 7. Andrew Marvell 8. Ben Jonson 9. Robert Herrick 10.John Milton

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Historical Background Renaissance in Europe: 14th -- mid-17th Slow in reaching England, Why? a. separation from the continent b. Unrest动荡 1st, Wars of the Roses: 1455-1485 (aristocrats贵族) 2nd, Hundred Years War: 14th-15th (Bri-Fran)

The old aristocracy was wiped out.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Henry Tudor’s Marriages and Children Marriage to Catherine of Aragon; Mary Anne Boleyn; Elizabeth Jane Seymour; Edward Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

King Henry VIII of the Tudor House (1509-1547)

Religious Reformation
Roman Catholic天主教 Church

Church of England

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Queen Elizabeth (Tudor) (1558-- 1603) “Balance” Protestants新教徒 ------ Catholics天主教徒 1588 English navy海军 Spanish navy

the rising middle class中产阶级 ------ feudal lords封建贵族

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

The word “Renaissance” means revival复兴 or rebirth再生, and the Renaissance in England means the revival of arts and sciences of ancient Greece and Rome after long years of neglect忽视 in the medieval中世纪 time. “The renaissance, therefore, in essence本质,实 质,… Roman Catholic Church.” Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

humanism

Humanism is both the keynote 主基调of the Renaissance and the intellectual liberation思维解放 movement. The humanists took interest in human life and human activities and gave expression to the new feeling of admiration for human beauty, human achievement.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Chief Achievements
1.Poetry诗歌 prosperous

“a nest of singing birds”
Sonnet十四行诗

2. Drama戏剧
Marlowe, Ben Jonson, Shakespeare blank verse London--- centre of drama performance

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Edmund Spenser (1552-- 1599)

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Masterpiece?

The Faerie Queene仙女女王
incomplete English epic poem

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

This masterpiece is dedicated to _____. Queen Elizabeth Spenser plans 12 books, each one with a hero standing for a different ____. moral virtue Largely symbolic, the poem follows several knights in their adventures to test their virtues: Holiness, Friendship, Justice, Courtesy, etc. The two main characters that serve as the unity of the book are _______. Arthur and Gloriana

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Comments on Spenser Spenser was the greatest non-dramatic poet of the Elizabethan Age. Spenser has been called the “poets’ poet”, because of his idealism, his love of beauty, and his exquisite精美的,敏锐的 melody旋律. Spenser has exerted施加影响 great influence on later poets. 一

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

二 Christopher Marlowe (1564--1593)

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

University Wits大学智慧 The name is given by some modern literary historians to a group of English poets and playwrights剧作家 who established themselves in London in the 1580s and 1590s after attending at either Oxford or Cambridge. The most important member of the group was Christopher Marlowe.

(Others included George Peele, Robert Greene, Thomas Nashe, John Lyly and Thomas Lodge).

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

representative works Tamburlaine the Great The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus The Jew of Malta “The passionate shepherd to his love”

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

achievements

Marlowe’s greatest achievement lies in that he perfected the blank verse and made it the principal medium of English drama. His second achievement is his creation of the Renaissance hero for English drama.
His work paved the way for the plays of the greatest English dramatist--- Shakespeare.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

blank verse
Blank verse refers to verse written in unrhymed iambic pentameter抑扬格的五音步诗.

It is a very popular verse form in English poetry. It was extensively employed in English poetry of the Renaissance.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus Adapted from a popular old German legend Tired with the study of Medieval knowledge (Theology, Philosophy, Medicine, Law), Dr. Faustus turns to magic books and signs a contract with the devil Mephistopheles. He sells his soul to the devil on the condition that the latter will satisfy every demand of his for a period of 24 years.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Then a series of adventures and romances follow the signing of the contract. First his romance with a woman, then his visit to Alexander the Great and later a visit from Helen of Troy. The play ends with Faustus’ forced surrender of his soul to the devil.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Was this the face that launch'd a thousand ships, And burnt the topless towers of Ilium-Sweet Helen, make me immortal with a kiss.-Her lips suck forth my soul: see, where it flies!-Come, Helen, come, give me my soul again. Here will I dwell, for heaven is in these lips, And all is dross that is not Helena.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Troy Prince Hector his brother Paris

Sparta king Menelaus queen Helen

Mycenae elder brother of Menelaus king Agamemnon and supreme commander of all the Greek forces

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Born: 23 April 1564

Birthplace: Stratfordupon-Avon, England
Died: 23 April 1616 Best Known As:

Playwright, poet, actor

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Generally, his dramatic career is divided into four periods.

1) Apprenticeship
History plays Comedies 2) Individualized History plays

Comedies
Tragedies

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

3) Great tragedies

The Four Greatest Tragedies
Dark comedies 4) Romantic tragicomedies

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

2 long narrative poems

154 sonnets

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

sonnet

It is a lyric poem comprising 14 rhyming lines of equal length, iambic pentameters抑扬五音步 in English.
The English/ Shakespearean sonnet comprises three quatrains and a couplet, rhyming “ababcdcdefef gg”.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

archaic words thou: you (subject) thee: you (object) thy: your art: are hath: has

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Sonnet 18

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Romeo and Juliet
plot There are two families in Italy who share mutual hostility to each other. One is Montague; the other is Capulet. One day Romeo Montague participated in a fancy dress party held by Capulet home, where he met Juliet Capulet and they fell in love with each other at first sight.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Romeo and Juliet secretly got married with the help of the priest, who hoped to eliminate the longstanding hatred between the two families. Later, Romeo killed Juliet’s cousin and was punished by expulsion. Meanwhile, Capulet agrees to marry his daughter to Count Paris and threatens to disown Juliet when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride."

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

After hearing the bad news, Juliet comes to the Father for help, who helps her drink a poison to pretend committing suicide but can wake up 42 hours later. Romeo arrives at the church in a hurry. Believing Juliet has already died he drinks a toxic drug and kills himself. When Juliet wakes up, she also chooses to take her own life. In the end, the younger generation’s love tragedy leads to the reconciliation between two families.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Act II Scene II

ROMEO But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief, That thou her maid art far more fair than she: Be not her maid, since she is envious; Her vestal livery is but sick and green And none but fools do wear it; cast it off. It is my lady, O, it is my love! O, that she knew she were!

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

She speaks yet she says nothing: what of that? Her eye discourses; I will answer it. I am too bold, 'tis not to me she speaks: Two of the fairest stars in all the heaven, Having some business, do entreat her eyes To twinkle in their spheres till they return. What if her eyes were there, they in her head? The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars, As daylight doth a lamp; her eyes in heaven Would through the airy region stream so bright That birds would sing and think it were not night. See, how she leans her cheek upon her hand! O, that I were a glove upon that hand, That I might touch that cheek!

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

JULIET Ay me! ROMEO She speaks: O, speak again, bright angel! for thou art As glorious to this night, being o'er my head As is a winged messenger of heaven Unto the white-upturned wondering eyes Of mortals that fall back to gaze on him When he bestrides the lazy-pacing clouds And sails upon the bosom of the air.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

JULIET O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy father and refuse thy name; Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, And I'll no longer be a Capulet. ROMEO [Aside] Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

JULIET 'Tis but thy name that is my enemy; Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot, Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. O, be some other name! What's in a name? that which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd, Retain that dear perfection which he owes Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name, And for that name which is no part of thee Take all myself.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

三 Shakespeare in Love
The best movie of 71st Oscar

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Shakespeare’s Achievements 1. Shakespeare represented the trend of history in giving voice to the desires and aspirations of the people. In the first two periods, Shakespeare wrote a number of plays with the history of England as their background. So his plays include the whole transitional 过渡期的 period of England from medieval time to modern time.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

2. Shakespeare’s humanism In his early stage, his plays were overflowed泛滥,溢出 with optimistic spirit, no matter whether in comedies or tragedies. He had firm belief in the nobility高贵,贵族 of human nature and in the power of love. But as the years went on Shakespeare became more mature and his knowledge of human nature grew in depth. The more he knew about human nature, the more he was depressed at the ugliness of human nature. This pessimistic悲观的 outlook appears in his tragedies. However, the human dramatist 剧作家at last overcame spiritual crisis宗教信仰危机 and recovered his faith in human nature and wrote the beautiful romances which ended his career.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

3. Shakespeare’s characterization In his plays he described a great number of characters, ranging from kings to clowns, and grave-diggers; from lunatics to ghosts; from lovers to man-haters. Shakespeare’s characters are “round”, in the sense that they have many aspects or dimensions 方面,特点. In his characters, vice 缺点and virtue commingle 混合and that is true of the common sense of humanity.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

4. Shakespeare’s originality独创性 Shakespeare drew most of his materials from sources that were known to his audience; some from Roman dramas, some from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle编年史, and some from other writers’ plays. But his plays are original because he instilled into the old materials a new spirit that gives new life to his plays. The best example is Hamlet, which bears many resemblance to Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

5. Shakespeare as a great poet Shakespeare was not only a great dramatist, but also a great poet. Apart from his sonnets and long poems, his dramas are poetry. They are rich in images, metaphors and symbols.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

6. Shakespeare as master of the English language It is estimated that he had a command of about 15,000 words. Many of his quotations and phrases have been absorbed into the English language.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Quotes

Good night, good night! Parting is such sweet sorrow, that I shall say good night till it be tomorrow. Cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste of death but once.
Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice. The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool. But love is blind, and lovers cannot see the pretty follies that themselves commit.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

TEM 8 Exercise “What’s in a name? that which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet;” this is a perfect example of ____ as one design features of languages. A. duality B. creativity C. arbitrariness D. displacement C

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

_____ is defined as an expression of human emotion which is condensed into fourteen lines. A. Free verse B. Sonnet

C. Ode
D. Epigram B

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

The real mainstream of the English Renaissance is ____. A. the Elizabethan drama B. the Elizabethan prose

C. ancient poem
D. romantic novel A

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Which of the following is not Marlowe’s Plays?

A.Tamburlaine the Great
B.The Jew of Malta

C.The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus
D.Cymbeline D

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Here are two lines from a long poem:〝Upon a great adventure he was bond,/ That greatest Gloriana to him gave.〞The poem must be ____. A.Beowulf

B.Shakespeare’s The Rape of Lucrece
C.Marlowe’s “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love”

D.Edmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene D

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Shakespeare has established his giant position in world literature with his ___ plays. A. 47 B. 27

C. 52
D. 37 D

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

The following are the main qualities of Spenser’s poetry except ___. A. perfect melody B. sense of beauty C. dedicated idealism D. bitter irony D

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Which of the following historical events does not directly help to stimulate the rising of the Renaissance Movement? A.The rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman culture B.The new discoveries in geography and astrology C.The Glorious Revolution D.The religious reformation and the economic expansion C Page 14, Page 65

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

三 Francis Bacon

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

He was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer and author. “had a fortunate heritage and background” death He died of the cold he caught during an experiment.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Essayist
Bacon’s 58 essays were published in 1625. They are the author’s reflections and comments, mostly on rather abstract subjects, such as “Of Truth”, “Of Friendship”, and “Of Riches”. They are known for their brevity, compactness and powerfulness.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

“Of Studies” from Essays 读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。 其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时; 其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;

其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Some books are to be tasted, ? able to
contend.

Translation

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。 换言之,有只须读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者, 少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。 书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次 或价值不高者,

否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味矣。

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。 因此不常做笔记者须记忆特强, 不常讨论者须天生聪颖, 不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。 读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密, 科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学 使人善辩。

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

五四 John Donne

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

No man is an island, Entire of itself, Every man is a piece of the continent, A part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less. As well as if a promontory were. As well as if a manor of thy friend's Or of thine own were: Any man's death diminishes me, Because I am involved in mankind, And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; It tolls for thee.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

English poet and clergyman牧师
Donne is the leading figure of the 17th-century "metaphysical school."

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Metaphysical Poets/ School/ Poetry

It is a school of highly intellectual poetry marked by bold conceits, complexity of thought, frequent use of paradox and often by deliberate harshness of expression.
The main themes of the metaphysical形而上学 poets are love, death, and religion.

The chief representative poet is John Donne.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Death Be Not Proud

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Theme? Death has no right to be proud, since human beings do not die but live eternally after “one short sleep”.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

六 George Herbert
Metaphysical poet and clergyman

形而上学诗人和牧师

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Influenced by John Donne, also by the religion of the Church of England, most of his works praised highly of the God and beauty, which can be found in one of his poem “Virtue”.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Virtue rhyming scheme?

images?
theme?

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Rhyme Scheme? abab, cbcb, dbdb, eded Images? day rose spring timber Theme? Everything will meet its end, but virtue can survive forever.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

七 Andrew Marvell Metaphysical Poet “To His Coy Mistress”

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

八 Ben Jonson

playwright
poet

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Plays satire humor characters Poems short lyric form poet laureate Song--- To Celia

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Poet Laureate桂冠诗人 A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, who is often expected to compose poems for special events and occasions. King James I essentially created the position as it is known today for Ben Jonson in 1617.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Song--- To Celia

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

九 Robert Herrick poet a follower of Ben Jonson

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Theme?

carpe diem---- seize the day
Dead Poets Society

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

唐 杜秋娘 《金缕衣》

imperial concubine

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

劝君莫惜金缕衣, Covet not a gold-threaded robe. 劝君惜取少年时。 Cherish only your young days ! 有花堪折直须折, Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, 莫待无花空折枝。 Lest you but wait for an empty bough.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

十 John Milton 1608—1674 Poet

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Three Great Poems

Samson Agonistes

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Paradise Lost the only generally acknowledged epic in English literature since Beowulf致羞怯的情人 The story is taken from the Old Testament: Satan and other angels rebel against God, but they are defeated and driven from Heaven into Hell. Even amidst the furnace of Hell, Satan is 立誓参孙 determined to fight back. 失乐园 He assumes the shape of a snake and comes to the Garden of Eden, a paradise where Adam and Eve live.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

God, after knowing Satan’s plot, sends the Archangel Raphael to warn Adam and Eve of Satan. However, Satan still succeeds in seducing Eve to eat the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge, which has been totally forbidden by God. As a result, Adam and Eve are exiled by God from the paradise and thereafter live a life full of hardship.

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

TEM 8 Practice
Metaphysical poets are noted for their use of ___. A. blank verse B. conceit C. alliteration

D. couplet
B

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Paradise Lost is actually a story taken from ____. A. the Renaissance B. the Old Testament C. Greek Mythology D. the New Testament B

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Which writing is the most perfect example of the verse drama after the Greek style in English? A. Samson Agonistes B. Paradise Lost C. Paradise Regained D. Beowulf A (Page 57)

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

John Donne is the leading figure of ___. A. Lake poets B. Graveyard School C. Satanic poets D. Metaphysical School
D

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

A poet perfected the blank verse and made it the principal medium of English drama. The poet is ___. A. William Shakespeare B. Christopher Marlowe C. Geoffrey Chaucer D. John Milton B

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

____ is the essence of the Renaissance. A. Reformation B. Humanism C. Chivalry D. Heroism B

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Dr. Faustus is a play based on the ___ of a magician aspiring for knowledge. A. German legend B. Norman legend C. French legend D. American legend

A

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

_____ marks a transition from the Medieval to the modern world. A. Romance B. Neoclassical Period C. Renaissance D. Victorian Period
C

Lecture 2 The Renaissance Period

Fill in the blanks _____ broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and established _____. Henry VIII the Church of England The Tudor reign reached its most glorious time under ____. Queen Elizabeth George Herbert’s verse is collected in ____, published in 1633, soon after his death. The Temple. (Page 49)


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