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blood cell 血液


HISTOLOGY & EMBRYOLOGY
Teaching PPT

BLOOD

一、CONSTRUCTION
Plasm (I.M.) : 55% Hemocytes(cells):45% erythrocytes leucocytes blood platlets * hematocrit(packed red cell volume,红细胞压积): 45%
Plasm
Leucocytes & Platlets

Erythrocyte

*using anticoagulants

1. Plasm
90% water 10% others : ? plasma pr.
? ? ? ? ?

Serum

albumin components same fibrinogen as that of plasm but fibrinogen enzymes Ig. etc.
serum

Lipid hormones Vitamins inorganic salts metabolites

Blood clots

BLOOD CELLS
?blood smear stains w/ Wright or Giemsa

Erythrocytes: 4.2~5.5×1012/L(M) 3.5~5.0×1012/L(W) *Hb: 120~150g/L(M);105~135g/L(W) Leukocytes: 4~10×109/L neutrophils 50~70% Granulocytes eosinophils 0.5~3 % basophils 0~1% Agranulocytes lymphocytes 20~30% monocytes 3~8% Platelets: 100~300×109/L

Erythrocyte
?

?
? ?

biconcave discs, 7.5~8.5μm,flaxible no nuclei,no organelles rich in Hb:105~150g/L blood group (ABO; Rh…): dependent on the agglutinogen (on the membrane)

Pathology
?

Anemia:R.B.C < 3×1012/L or Hb< 100g/L megaloblastic anemia(巨细胞贫血) : >9 μm

iron deficiency animia: (缺铁性贫血) <6 μm
?

Osmotic stress abnormal: hypotonic(低滲): RBC swelling &hemolysis (remain ghost血影); hypertonic (高滲): RBC collapsing

? Reticulocytes
? 0.5~1.5% ? containing ribosomes & Mit. (stained by brilliant cresyl blue) ? increase in anemia ? Indicator of hematopoietic capacity of the bone marrow.

? Function
Binding & transporting O2 and CO2

In lungs

In organs & tissues

CO2+HbO2

HbCO2+O2

Leukocytes
?
? ? ?

Spherical, nucleate & colorless
Contain specific or nonspecific gralules

Amoeboid movement
Phagocytosis except

for lymphocytes
?

Involved in defense

against foreign materials

Leukocytes: Granulocyte

Agranulocyte

4~10×109/L neutrophil 50 ~70% eosinophil 0.5~3 % basophil 0 ~1% lymphocyte 20 ~30% monocyte 3 ~8%

A. Neutrophils
? D=10~12μm;

? Nuclear: polymorphous 2~5 lobes increase w/ the age of the cells. ? Specific Granules: 80%, fine (0.3~0.4μm ) neutrophilic (light reddish) ? Azurophilic granules: 20%, larger, purple
(嗜天青颗粒)

E.M.
S.G.: medium-dense containing A.K.P, phagocytins lysozymes ? A.G.: lysosomes containing A.C.P. peroxidase
?

Function
Mobility(chemotaxis): Attracted by polymorphonuclear chemotactic factor (released by macrophages) ? Phagocytose & destroy bacteria: the number of leukocytes↑ acute the % of neutrophils↑ bacteria infection ** cell mark: peroxidase and CD15
?

B. Eosinophilis
?D = 10~15μm; ?Nu.: 2 ~5 lobes ?S.G.: uniformity, large (0.5~1.0μm ), bright red or orange (acidophilic)

?

S.G.:

E.M.

?

Lysosome :ovoid, w/ granule matrix & a elongated crystalloid core Containing: acid phosphatase, peroxidase, histaminase.

Function
? ? ? ?

*

Chemotaxis: attracted by chemotactic factor from the mast cells Phagocytize: foreign bodies, Ag-Ab complex Release histaminase: inactivate histamine for weakening allergic reaction Antiparasite It is increased in patients infected w/ allergic reaction or parasite

C. Basophilics
? D = 10 ~ 12μm ? Nucleus: irregular or S-shaped ? S.G.: large (various size), basophilic (dark blue), cover nuclear, distribute unevenly & metachromasia

EM & FN
? E.M.: S.G. w/ fine grains, containing heparin, histamine, leukotriene ? F.N.: anticoagulate responsible to allergic reaction

D. Monocytes
Largest, 14~20μm, bluish-grey staining ? Nu.: kidney- or horseshoe-shaped w/ delicate net-like Chromatin ? Cytoplasm: abundant, gray blue, w/ fine azurophilic granules
?

E.M :
A.G.: lysosomes (peroxidase, A.C.P., non-specific esterase); Phagocytic vacuoles

F.N. :
amoeboid movement & obvious chemotaxis ?Phagocytosis (mononuclear phagocytic system, MPS) ?differentiate into macrophage (out B.V.) **mark: CD14
?

E. Lymphocytes
?3 types: small
6~8μm; medium-sized 9~12μm; large 13~20μm ?Small lymphocyte(90%): LM: Round or ovoid; Nu.: sphericity w/ indentation, condensed chromatin, dark staining. Cytoplasm: scanty, as a thin rim in light-blue w/ azurophilic granules lacking proxidase

Large lymphocyte

medium lymphocyte

small lymphocyte

Classification & Function
Classification* function# T-Cell: 75% cellular immunity B-Cell: 10-15% humoral immunity large granule lymphocyte (K & NK cell) * based on the source, characteristics on cellular membrane, life & function # immunological defence

Blood platelets
? Megakaryocyte’ s

fragment, in clumps ? LM: 2~4μm,disc-like or irregular, anucleated. Two regions: ① Granulomere: centrallylocated, purple-blue granules. ② Hyalomere: peripherally located, in light-blue.

E.M.:
① cell coat: rich in glycoproteins associated to platelet adhesion; ②M.T. system: a. opening tubule system: to increase the surface area for platelet adhesion. b. dense tubule system: sER , support, collect Ca 2+ and synthesize prostaglandin

③actin-like M.F: mobile. ④ granules: a. αgranules (special granules): containing blood clotting factors (12 types found so far), fibrinogen & acidic hydrolases. b. dense granules: serotonin (5-HT), ADP, ATP, Ca2+ & adrenine

Function
1. Hemostasia: collagenous fiber in injure area platelet release serotonin constraction of b.v. slow & stop bleeding. 2. Coagulation: thrombogen

coagulation factor III
Fibrinogen

thrombase

Fibrin hemocyte coagulation 3. Protect blood vessel endothelium, repairing endothelium, prevent atherosclerosis(动脉硬化)

二、Hematopoiesis
Hematopoietic organ yolk sac (early embryo) →Liver / spleen (6w—5m) → bone marrow (4m and after) ? Structure of bone marrow red bone marrow: hematopoietic tissue + blood sinusoid yellow bone marrow: adipose tissue + immature hemocyte
?

Red bone marrow
? hematopoietic tissue: reticular c.t. +hemocytes in various stage, macrophages, adipocytes, mesenchymal cells ? blood sinusoid: discontinuous endothelia, incomplete BM

Hemopoietic stem cell (HSP) and Hemopoietic progenitor cell (HPC)
Hemopoietic stem cell self-replication powerful proliferation potency multi-differentiation Potency Mark:CD34, CDw90 Hemopoietic progenitor c. Unipotential or bipotential Produce matrue blood c. Erythron granulocyte series monocyte series megakaryocyte series

* Lymphocytes derived from lymphatic organs & tissues

Pb:原红

Be:早幼红

Erythrocyte series

Pe:中幼红

晚幼红

Mb:原粒

Pm:早幼粒

Mb

Neutrophilic series

M,Ma,Mb:中幼粒 M1:晚幼粒

Morphologic criteria of haemopoiesis

① Stages: the original stage the infant stage the mature stage ② Cell volume:↓, megakaryocytes:↑ ③ cytoplasm: ↑,ratio of Nu./ cytoplasm:↓

④ Nucleus: size↓(RBC: abesent; megakaryocytes↑) nucleoli: number & size↓, until disappear chromatin: fine & scanty → coarse & dense; staining: pale → deep ⑤ S.G in granulocytes & Hb in erythrocytes:↑ other organelles in red cell↓until disappear ⑥ mitotic ability:↓, until disappear(but lymphocyte)

Question

BYE

BYE


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