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2016高考英语完形填空和阅读理解一轮选练(6)


四川省广安市 2016 高考英语完形填空和阅读理解一轮选练(6)
完形填空。 So far,about 27 countries have visited Antarctica for scientific research.Hard __1__the living conditions are,many scientists __2__to stay there fo

r long periods of research. So,how do they manage their lives on the ice? Well,during the __3__,the temperature in Antarctica reaches about 20℃.It falls to about -60℃ in winter.So,__4__there are 24 hours of sunshine,scientists must keep wearing all the correct clothes to __5__themselves from the cold.These clothes include jeans,runing shoes,jackets,long underwear,boots and woolen socks. Although highly technical clothing provides much __6__against the extreme cold, scientists often need to __7__when there is an icy wind blowing and the temperature is -30℃ so natural protection such as facial(面部的)hair can also __8__. That's __9__many researchers wear a __10__.It really does keep you warm. Usually,the polar researchers have __11__meals.Some __12__ have feasts(盛宴)on holidays like Christmas and New Year's Day.__13__are always welcomed and usually finished quickly. Life on the ice means living with other researchers in __14__living space.Most people sleep in dorm?style rooms.Some remote field camps use __15__tents.So,at least some researchers won't be __16__by annoying snores(鼾声). But what do they do for __17__in their spare time?There are actually a lot of things they can do.They watch movies,read tons of books,listen to music,paint and ski.Some __18__researchers might even do some knitting(编织). It is important for a polar researcher to be in good physical condition.They can be required to __19__to heights of more than 3,000 metres and the Antarctic atmosphere has less oxygen than that of any other__20__. 1.A.as C.because B.but D.unless

答案:A 连词 as 在此引导一个让步状语从句。 2.A.supposed C.ought B.used D.have

答案:D 句意:尽管生活条件很艰苦,但很多科学家为了研究不得不在那儿待上很长一 段时间。本文主要记叙了在南极考察的科学家的生活情况,突出科学家的奉献精神。

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3.A.spring C.winter 答案:B 与下文中的 winter 相呼应。 4.A.as if C.even though

B.summer D.autumn

B.as long as D.in case

答案:C 句意:即使一天 24 小时阳光普照,科学家们也要穿上厚厚的衣服。 5.A.prevent C.free 答案:D B.separate D.protect protect sb.from the cold 意为“保护某人不被冻坏”。 B.food D.protection

6.A.water C.air 答案:D 衣服是用来御寒保暖的。 7.A.go outside C.sleep on ice 答案:A 科学家们经常需要外出。 8.A.help C.mind 答案:A 天生的毛发也有助于防寒。 9.A.how C.why

B.stay indoors D.work at home

B.do D.depend

B.where D.when

答案:C 这就是许多研究者留胡须的原因。 10.A.hat C.raincoat 答案:D wear a beard“留胡须”。 B.good D.common B.shirt D.beard

11.A.bad C.sweet

答案:B 从下文得知,极地研究者的饮食是不错的。 12.A.even C.ever 答案:A even 用于加强语气。 B.Vegetables D.Letters B.still D.yet

13.A.Books C.Songs

答案:B 这一段讲的都是饮食情况。“Vegetables are always welcomed and usually finished quickly.”意为:蔬菜总是很受欢迎,而且常是很快就被吃完。
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14.A.comfortable C.tight

B.bright D.big

答案:C 极地科学家的生活空间不可能非常宽敞。 15.A.common C.small B.advanced D.separate

答案:D 一些偏远野外宿营地使用单独的帐篷。 16.A.caught up C.made up 答案:D 独居不会被鼾声打扰。 17.A.sports C.work B.fun D.research B.kept up D.bothered

答案:B 这一段讲的是科学家们业余时间的安排。for fun“取乐”。 18.A.women C.polar 答案:A 编织通常为女性所为。 19.A.skate C.climb B.run D.fly B.man D.Russian

答案:C 他们可能得爬到海拔 3000 多米的高处。 20.A.state C.continent B.city D.country

答案:C 南极洲是一个洲,因此选择名词 continent 与之相对应。

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的 A.B.C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项。 It is over 40 years since first atomic bomb was dropped on a major city in Japan. Yet even now its effects are showing themselves and may continue to do so for years to come. Much effort and human energy have been used to try to prevent such a terrifying thing from happening again. So far there is no guarantee that it will not. Countries which already possess nuclear knowledge and resources have bombs stored away which are powerful enough to wipe out all life on earth. But this is not all. Other countries, which previously were not so advanced in technology, are gradually buying materials that can be used for making atomic devices. This nuclear energy will naturally be

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of great value in helping the economy of poorer nations. The generation of electricity through nuclear power came directly from the original work on the atom bomb. Because of the increase in demand for energy and the possibility of decreasing supplies of oil and natural gas, the interest in electricity has increased. One of the by-products of nuclear power stations is plutonium (钸) produced from unclear fuel: plutonium is ingredient (成分) in bomb-making. It means that there are far more opportunities for the manufacture of bombs. This brings the problem to a full circle again. How can something so valuable and useful be controlled so that it works for the benefit and not the destruction of man? (from www.nmet168.com) 1. The effects of dropping the first atomic bomb ________. A. are not over C. could last much longer B. may go on forever D. will not be over in the near future

2. The writer says that enough atomic bombs have already been manufactured to ________. A. wipe out Japan B. last forever D. destroy all living things

C. act as a peace-keeping device

3. The advantage of less developed countries being able to make atomic devices is that it ______. A. gives them more opportunities for work richer C. will enable them to make better explosives D. will be of great value to them B. will help poor countries to become

4. The second paragraph tells us that the increased demand for electricity today ________. A. has led to the decrease in supplies of oil B. means that more countries are interested in nuclear power C. has increased the risk of accidental explosions D. has increased the very means of producing more atomic bombs 【答案与解析】 1. A 细节理解题。根据第一段第二句 Yet even now its effects are showing themselves and may continue to do so for years to come 可知。
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2. D 细节理解题。根据第一段“?have bombs stored away which are powerful enough to wipe out all life on earth”一句可知。 3. B 细节理解题。根据第一段“This nuclear energy will naturally be of great value in helping the economy of poorer nations”一句可知。 4. D 段落主旨题。根据第二段最后一句“It means that there are far more opportunities for the manufacture of bombs.”可知。

阅读理解。 June 26, 2000 — the Human Genome(基因组) Project, a great $3 billion, 15-year task aimed at drawing the genetic(遗传的) map of humans, is now more than 90 percent completed. The scientific and medical communities(团体) are very excited about the chances genetic research provides for getting rid of diseases and prolonging(延长) human life. But those communities and policy(政策) makers also are careful about the scientific door they are opening as the project uncovers the mysteries of life. For the last few years, the genetic advances in the developing field of biotechnology(生物技术) have provides material for all kinds of work, but the developments of modern science in unlocking the secrets of the human genetic code(密 码) have opened a world of possibilities for human health, as well as for the popular imagination. While European and Japanese researchers are making rapid progress in decoding(解 码) human DNA, the leading organization for genetic research is in the United States, which began in 1990, is “unlocking the code” of the human body to learn how to defeat fatal(致命的)diseases. Already, the Human Genome Project has become widely known and praised for finding the genes(基因) connected with terrible diseases as yet(迄今), and making progress toward separating the genes that show a sign of breast cancer or AIDS. Once these genes are found and studied, researchers can develop new ways to attack infections(传染), and genetic diseases. Medical companies are very interested in
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mapping the human genome, as they expect to develop a lot of new drugs for these illnesses.

1. Why did the scientists work hard at mapping the human genome? A. Because the human genome can destroy many illnesses. B. Because the human genome's completion can help them get rid of many diseases. C. Because they wanted to be better known than others. D. Because the human genome can provide a lot of chances of work. 答案解析:答案为 B。本题为细节推理题。由第一段第二句话 “the chances genetic research provides for getting rid of diseases and prolonging human life.” 和最后一段首句 “Once these genes are found and studied, researchers can develop new ways to attack infections, and genetic diseases.” 可知,科学家绘制人类基因组图是为了驱除疾病,故 答案为 B。A 选项表述不正确;C、D 在文中均未提到。

2. Which country studied the genes most rapidly in the world? A. Japan. B. Germany. C. The United States. D. China.

答案解析:答案为 C。本题为细节题。由第三段首句提到的 “?the leading organization for genetic research is in the United States, ?”可知,答案为 C。.

3. Which of the following is NOT true? A. If the genes can be found, scientists can study many new ways to cure illnesses. B. The scientists have made great progress in connecting the genes with the cancers. C. Many medical companies show great interest in drawing the human genome D. The United States began the Genes Study early in the 19th century. 答案解析:答案为 D。本题为细节判断题。由第三段首句提到的 “which began in 1990” 可 知,美国是在 20 世纪末开始绘制人类基因组图的,故 D 选项表达错误。 由最后一段首句 “Once these genes are found and studied, researchers can develop new ways to attack infections, and genetic diseases.”可知,A 选项与文意符合;由第 三段最后一句 “?and making progress toward separating the genes that show a sign of breast cancer or AIDS.” 可知,B 选项与文意符合;由最后一段最后一句话 “Medical
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map.

companies are very interested in mapping the human genome, ?”可知,C 选项与文意符 合,均不选。

4. The author suggests that the Human Genome Project can cause _______. A. the policy makers to feel very worried and careful B. the scientists to work harder C. many people to find work easily D. a lot of companies to produce many new drugs 答案解析: 答案为 B。 本题为推理题。 由第一段最后一句话 “But those communities and policy makers also are careful about the scientific door they are opening as the project uncovers the mysteries of life.” 可知,A 选项表述与文意不符。C 选项未提及。由最后 一段最后一句话 “Medical companies are very interested in mapping the human genome, as they expect to develop a lot of new drugs for these illnesses.”可知,D 选项是文 中的一个事实,不需要推理,故不选。 结合全文内容和第一段提到的 “June 26, 2000 — the Human Genome Project, a great $3 billion, 15-year task aimed at drawing the genetic map of humans, is now more than 90 percent completed.” 可以推断,绘制人类基因组图是一个长期的项目,现在虽然完成了 百分之九十多,但是作者在文中也暗示了这个项目需要科学家更努力地工作,故 B 选项正确。

5. The main idea of this article is about _______. A. unlocking genetic code B. the genes' discovery C. the great human genome D. the genes and the scientists 答案解析: 答案为 A。 本题考查文章的主旨大意。 结合第二段提到的 “?but the developments of modern science in unlocking the secrets of the human genetic code?”和第三段提 到的 “? is ‘unlocking the code’ of the human body to learn how to defeat fatal diseases.” 可知,解读基因密码可以知道如何打败疾病。故答案为 A。B、C、D 都不是文章 的中心。

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【2015 高考复习】阅读理解 With more and more cars on the road,traffic jams are inevitable.Traffic jams can lead to increased accidents as there are more cars,with more people trying to get to their destination,all the while getting worse.Although it's impossible to avoid traffic jams altogether,there are some tips you can follow to reduce the amount of time on the road. Check for traffic jams before you leave.You can listen to the radio for traffic news, or check on the Internet to get up?to?minute information on traffic.If the route you want to take is heavy with traffic,you can choose another. Look for a different route permanently.Most traffic jams occur on busy roads.Using country roads could see you avoiding a lot of traffic.Although the distance you may have to travel is further,it can work out quicker. Set your car radio to receive traffic bulletins.Many new car stereo systems(汽车 音响系统)are equipped with a radio system by which you can hear the traffic channel.This way you can get the latest traffic information and change your journey if necessary. ________.Most traffic jams usually occur during rush hour,so try to avoid this time period if possible.Some jobs offer flexible working hours so that you can travel to work outside of rush hour.Some jobs even allow you to work from home so as to avoid commuting altogether.Ask your manager to see what you can do if traffic is a problem for you. Use public transport alternatives where available.The easiest way to avoid traffic jams is to take buses or the underground instead of driving your own car.Not only will you avoid traffic jams but you will most likely be saving money as the cost of motoring rises. 【语篇解读】 随着汽车数量的增加,城市的堵车现象日益严重,因此如何减少自己在路上花 费的时间就显得非常重要。本文给我们提出了五条可行的建议。 16.The underlined word“inevitable”in Paragraph 1 probably means________. A.hard to accept C.getting less serious 答案 B B.impossible to avoid D.seen everywhere

[词义猜测题。根据第一段的内容可知,路上的汽车越来越多,交通堵塞是不可避免

的。inevitable 意为“不可避免的,必然发生的。”] 17.The author wrote the text in order to________. A.explain why there are traffic jams
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B.tell the negative effects of traffic jams C.tell us what we can do on the road D.tell us how to save time on the road 答案 D [写作目的题。根据第一段的最后一句可知,作者写本文的目的是告诉读者如何做才

能减少自己在路上花费的时间。] 18.To get the latest traffic information,you could do the following except________. A.surfing the Internet B.listening to the radio for traffic news C.listening to the traffic channel D.turning to other drivers for information 答案 D [推理判断题。根据第二、四段的信息可知,前三项均是获取最新交通信息的方式,

D 项文中并未提及。] 19.Which of the following can be put in the blank in the text? A.Choose a job that has flexible working hours B.Try traveling at different time C.Make friends with your manager D.Work from home 答案 B [段落大意题。根据第五段的内容可知,如果我们能够避开交通高峰,那么我们就可

以避免交通堵塞。因此段落标题为:选择不同的时间开车上班或回家。]

阅读理解。 Technology has been an encouragement of historical change. It acted as such a force in England beginning in the eighteenth century, and across the entire Western World in the nineteenth. Rapid advances were made in the use of scientific findings in the manufacture (制造) of goods, which has changed ideas about work. One of the first changes was that other forms of energy have taken the place of human power. Along with this came the increased use of machines to manufacture products in less time. People also developed machines that could produce the same parts for a product: each nail was exactly like every other nail, meaning that each nail could be changed for every other nail. This means that goods could be mass production, although mass production required breaking production down into smaller and smaller tasks.

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Workers no longer started on the product and labored to complete it. Instead, they might work only one thousandth of it, other workers completing their own parts in certain order. There is nothing strange about this manufacturing work by today's standards. Highly skilled workers were unable to compare with the new production techniques, as mass production allowed goods of high standard to be produced in greater number than could ever be done by hand. But the skilled worker wasn't the only loser, the common workers lost too. Similar changes forced farmer away. The increased mechanization (机械化) of agriculture freed masses of workers from ploughing the land and harvesting its crops. They had little choice but to stream toward the rapidly developing industrial centers. Increasingly, standards were set by machines. Workers no longer owned their own tools, their skill was no longer valued, and pride in their work was no longer possible. Workers fed, looked after and repaired the machines that could work faster than humans at greatly reduced cost. 1. In this passage, which of the following is NOT considered as a change caused by the use of scientific findings in the production of goods? A. Other forms of energy have taken the place of human power. B. The increased exploitation of workers in the 19th century. C. The increased use of machines to make products in less time. D. The use of machines producing parts of the same standard. 答案解析:答案为 B。本题为细节题。从文章的第一段 “One of the first changes was that other forms of energy have taken the place of human power. Along with this came the increased use of machines to manufacture products in less time. People also developed machines that could produce the same parts for a product:” 可知,A、C、D 都在文中 提到了。故答案为 B。

2. According to the writer, highly skilled workers ______ A. completely disappeared with the coming of the factory system B. were dismissed by the boss C. were unable to produce goods of high standard D. were unable to produce fine goods at that same speed as machines
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答案解析:答案为 D。本题为细节题。从文章第二段 “Highly skilled workers were unable to compare with the new production techniques, as mass production allowed goods of high standard to be produced in greater number than could ever be done by hand.” 可 知,机器批量生产的产品标准高,数量多,这是手工生产无法匹敌的。故答案为 D。

3. According to the passage, what did the farmers have to do with the coming of mechanization of agriculture? A. Many of them had to leave their farmland for industrial centers. B. They stuck to their farm work. C. They refused to use machines. D They did their best to learn how to use the machines. 答案解析:答案为 A。本题为细节题。从第二段的倒数第四句话 “They had little choice but to stream toward the rapidly developing industrial centers.” 可知,答案为 A。

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