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取得英语语法成功的基石句子成分和句子的基本类型1


取得英语语法成功的基石
句子成分和句子的基本类型

How many?

句子成分
? 状语(adverbial ) ? 补语(complement) ? 同位语(appositive ) ? 表语(predicative )

?主谓宾
– 主语(subject) – 谓语(predic

ate ) – 宾语(object)

? 定语(attribute )

主语 谓语 宾语
? 观察下面一个例句,你能找到句中
的“主语” 、“谓语” 、“宾语” 吗?

主语 I

谓语 宾语 . beat you
SVO

? 因此这是个典型的“主谓宾”句型。

主语 (Subject)
? 主语是动作的主体部分
– 在主动句中:主语是动作的发出者 ? I teach you English. – 在被动句中:主语是动作的承受者 ? You are beaten .

名词、代词 数词 充当。 ? 主语一般由_____ _____或______ 从句 或___________ 非谓语动词 充当。 ? 主语还可以由_____
– What I want to do is join the party. – Smoking is harmful to your health. – To learn English is difficult.
– Twelve divided by four is three.(数词)

谓语 (Predicate)
? 谓语 表示一个动作、行为,是由动
词充当的。
– I teach 谓语 you English.

? 一个句子能不能没有谓语? 不能 ? 影响动词形式的五大要素: ? 人称;数;时态;语态;语气

宾语 (Object):
? 宾语的分类:
– 动词宾语:动作涉及的对象。 ? I love you. 动宾 – 介词宾语:介词所涉及的对象。 ? I want to give this book to you.

名词、代词 ? 宾语一般由_____ ______充当。 ? 宾语也可以是一个______ 从句 或___________ 非谓语动词 。
– He told me that he felt lonely. – He likes swimming.

介宾

定语 (Attributive):
? 定语的作用
修饰、限定 – 用于_____ _____名词或代词。
形容词 ? 定语一般由???充当。

名词 充当,表用途。 ? 定语还可以由______ – a pencil box – a swimming pool

– a beautiful 定语 girl

定语 (Attributive):
从句 或_____________ 非谓语动词 充当。 ? 定语也可以由_____
– Those who want to learn English well should study harder than others. – an interesting book – a meeting to attend – The man over there – The books on the shelf

? 定语也可以由副词(词组)或介词(词组)
充当。

状语(Adverbial)
? 状语是用于修饰______ ______ ______ 副词、形容词、动词 ?
句子 的成分。 或_____ 状语一般由???充当。 副词
– Those problems are pretty(=very) hard.

? 形容词也可以充当状语。
– Happy to see him, she forgot everything.

状语(Adverbial)
非谓语动词 和______ 从句 也 ? 介词词组、____________ 可以充当状语。
– They managed to finish the job before Monday. – The old man sat on the bench, enjoying the sun-set. – As he was leaving the office, it started to rain.

补语(Complement)
? 补语是用于补充说明主语或宾语的身份 ?
或特征。 名词 或________ 形容词 充当。 补语一般由_____
Don’t leave me alone. 宾语补足语 The war made him a soldier . They painted the door green.
英语中只有少部分动词可 以跟宾语+宾补的结构!!

补语(Complement)
? ___________ 非谓语动词 ,介词词组也可以充当补语。 ? The teacher ask the students to close the
windows. ? I often find him at work.

? 随着语态的变化,主语补语和宾语补语是发生
变化的。 – Everyone calls him Jack. (宾补) – He is called Jack.(主补)

表语(predicative)
? 表语是系动词后面的成分。 ??? ? 表语一般由名词或形容词充当。 ? I am a student.

be, become, get , turn, grow, come, taste, feel, sound, look ,smell, stay, keep, remain, prove

? The dish tastes delicious.

Notice:这是一句“SVC”句型不是 “SVO”

表语(predicative)
非谓语动词 ? 副词、介词(词组)、___________
– Time is up. – They are in the classroom. – The place is where we first met each other. – The news is exciting.

或_____ 从句 都可以在系动词后充当表语。

同位语(Appositive)
? 同位语是位于名词或代词后面的个别名词或
补充说明 。 名词词组,对前者进行____________ 名词 或__________ 名词词组 充当 ? 同位语一般由______
– The Great Wall, one of the wonders in the world, attracts a large number of foreign friends.

从句 也可以充当同位语 ? ______ ? The news that he went abroad surprised me.

强 化 练 习
一.提出下列句子划线部分的句子成分。 1. We think it necessary that everyone should attend the conference.
宾语

2. The woman with a baby in her arm is his mother. 定语 3. After the First World War Madame Cure travelled to the USA, where she was received by the President and given a gram of radium for her future work.
定语

4. He therefore loaded the ship with litres of vinegar for the purpose of cleaning of the ship.
状语

5. They developed a way of life suitable for this hot and dry country in many places.
定语

6.

As I walked through the courtyard, I noticed how the Cambodian woman devoted hours to cleaning carefully a tiny area of stone. 宾语

7. What she was afraid of was their taking her daughter abroad. 表语 8. Few realize that the English language is actually Germanic (日耳曼语的) in its beginning and that the French influence are all the result of one man’s ambition. 宾语 9. The third time he left, I went to the window to see what he was doing. 状语 10. One mistaken idea about business is that it can be treated as a game of perfect information. 表语

二.分析下列句子成分。

宾补

1.The students often keep their classroom clean and tidy.
主语 形宾 宾补 谓语 宾语 真宾

2.We find it impossible to finish the task in such a short time. 3.The question being discussed seemed important.
4.The town towards which we are moving is the one I used to live in. 定语
定语 定语 表语

5.Hearing that his son was badly wounded, he hurried to the hospital to see him. 时状 主语 谓语
宾语 目状

二.分析下列句子成分。

同位语从句

6.We heard a warning on the radio that a hurricane is on its way.
宾语

7. It was a pity that you didn’t watch that wonderful football match.
主语从句

主语

表语

8. Many accidents which occur in the streets could be prevented if we were more careful. 定语从句
条件状语

9. The watch which her mother gave to her works very well.
定语从句

10.His delay of an hour is due to the fact that the train met with a minor accident.
宾语 同位语从句

三.选出最佳选项。
1.The person we spoke to ___no D answer at first. A. make B. making C. makes D. made

C a talk this afternoon? 2.Who do you think ___us A. to give B. gave C. will give D. giving
3、The days we look forward to ____at last. C A. comes B. to come C. came D. coming
4.Time should be made good use of ___our lessons well. C A. learning B. learned C. to learn D. learns 5.We should do all we can ___ A him. A. to help B. help C. helping

D. helps

6.Why all the boys fell ill suddenly ___ C still unknown. A. are B. was C. is D. were 7.“Can’t you read”? Mary said ___ A to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing

C with you? 8.Whom would you rather have ___ A. to go B. gone C. go D. went 9.What do you consider __ B to them? A. to happen B. has happened C. happening D. happen 10. ___ C from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine with him wherever he goes. A. Suffered B. Suffering C. Having suffered D. Being suffered


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