Members of Sentences 句子成分
Things are not taught. Things are learnt. Subject（S）主语, Verb(V)谓语, Vt 及物动词， Vi 不及物动词， L-v 系动词 predicative(P) 表 语 ,object(O) 宾 语 , direct object(DO) 直 接 宾 语 , in
direct object(IO) 间 接 宾 语 , object complement(OC)宾补, attribute(At)定语, adverbial(Ad)状语) I． Underline the Subject & Verb in the following sentences. Tell what is used as the Subject(划出下列句子的主语和谓语动词。 说出什么作的主语。 名词、 代词、 ________ ________ _______ ________ _______ . Liu Xiang set the world record. It is getting cooler and cooler.. 2008 is the year when the 29th Olympic Games was held. The injured were sent to the hospital at once. To win the Nobel Prize is a great honour.==It is a great honour to win the Nobel prize Doing sports takes him two hours every day. Whether(是否) we will go camping(野营) depends on the weather. It’s great that he will join us. 下列句子中划线的的动词叫_____动词 , 其后的成分叫_______语。说出什么作的 _____语。名词、________ ________ _______ ________ ) Teaching English as a foreign language has become a big business. I am slow in learning English. Please keep quiet and remain seated. The teacher got very angry. His favourite sport is playing basketball. My dream is to be a famous lawyer. This is what Hawking thought. The only problem is that he won’t change his mind.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. II． 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
III.Underline the Object in the following sentences. Tell what is used as the Object(划出下列句 子中的宾语。 说出什么作的宾语。 名词、________ ________ _______ ________ _______ ) 1. Newspapers and TV play an important role in our eveyday life. 2. I will meet you at the airport soon. 3. He paid 20,0000 yuan for his new car. 4. He enjoys reading very much. 5. I hope to go to a key university.. 6. People find it difficult to understand him. 7. They gave him a very beautiful gift.==They gave a very beautiful gift. to him. 8. I showed him my pictures.=_____________________________ . 9. I told him that the bus was late. 10. I wonder where he came from. IV. Underline the Object complement in the following sentences. Tell what is used as the Object complement (划出下列句子中的宾语和宾语补足补。说出什么作的宾补。名词、________
________ _______ ________ _______ ) 1. We made /elected Tom our monitor . 2. I think it impossible to finish the task now. 3. The sun keeps us warm. 4. I think the book very interesting. 5. They didn’t allow him to make his own decisions. 6. I often hear him sing the song. 7. I saw her getting on the bus. 8. Please keep the dog away.. V. Underline the Attribute in the following sentences. Tell what is used as the Attribute (划出 下列句子中的定语。说出什么作的定语。名词、________ ________ _______ ________ _______ ______ ______ ) 1. He’s a famous reporter. 2. There are two school buses outside our school gate. 3. He is an 8-year-old boy. 4. I’d like something to eat. 5. I need a pen to write with. 6. The books lying on the floor is mine. 7. I only eat food that tastes good. 8. I only like music that I can dance to. VI. Underline the Adverbial in the following sentences. Tell what is used as the Adverbial (划出 下列句子中的状语。说出什么作的状语。 副词、________ ________ _______ ________ _______ ) 1. Personally, I don't care. It’s not my business. 2. To our joy, they arrived safely. 3. Only by following the teacher’s tips(advice), can you learn English better. 4. He sat there, smoking. 5. To/in order to catch the early train, I set the alarm clock(设闹钟). 6. I’m on fire for music because it can make me relaxed. 7. I want to be a writer when I grow up. 8． We can reach our goal（实现目标） and make a big difference(有作为；有影响) if we work hard.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I usually go to school by bus. The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. The days get longer and longer when summer comes. I don't like the picture on the wall. Some of the students in the school want to go swimming. They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. Jennifer bought me a gift on my fifteenth birthday.
8. They made him monitor of the class. 9. You will find English very useful in your future work. 10. I think it easy to get along with her.
Challenge Yourself (挑战自我)
指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分。 1. There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. 2. To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult. 3. It’s a pity that there are a lot of people who do not know the importance of time. 4. Keeping a balanced diet does good to your health. 5. Whether we’ll go climbing depend on the weather . 6. People’s living standards are going up steadily . 7. The light music sounds so sweet. 8. That was how they were defeated. 9. My dream is that I can become a millionaire to help the needy people. 10. I’ll return the book to you tomorrow . 11. Mr Liu often tells us jokes after class. 12. Lucy sang us an English song. 13. Last Sunday he helped me do the housework. 14. I heard her playing the piano in the next room. 15. The woman with a baby in her arms is his other . 16. I have a lot of work to do . 17. There is nothing that I fear. 18. Personally I think you are right. 19. I’ll call at your office if I’m free. 20. The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. A cold welcome 冷遇 On Wednesday evening, we went to the Town Hall. It was the last day of the year and a large crowd of people had gathered under the Town Hall clock. It would strike twelve in twenty minutes' time. Fifteen minutes passed and then, at five to twelve, the clock stopped. The big minute hand did not move. We waited and waited, but nothing happened. Suddenly someone shouted, 'It's two minutes past twelve! The clock has stopped!' I looked at my watch. It was true. The big clock refused to welcome the New Year. At that moment everybody began to laugh and sing.
英语句子看上去纷繁庞杂，但绝大多数英语句子都是由这 5 种基本句型扩展生成的。 1. S 十 Vi 主谓结构 2. S 十 link. v 十 P 主系表结构 （be, look, seem, smell, taste, sound, keep…） 3. S 十 Vt 十 O 主谓宾结构 4. S 十 Vt 十 IO 十 DO 主谓双宾结构
5. S 十 Vt 十 O 十 OC
1. Quite a few changes have taken place in our school. 2. The old man fell with a cry. The car didn’t stop, but drove off at great speed. 3. I have promised to meet him at the airport at 4 tomorrow afternoon. 4. Sometimes, parents will prepare a special dinner or a cake to show their love for their children. 5. Now I can follow my own interests such as reading books, visiting museums, taking computer lessons, drawing and so on. 6. The farm workers gave us a warm welcome. 7. We gave the gifts to Grandma and she gave us some lucky money(压岁钱)。 8. Please send me an email as soon as you arrive in Beijing. 9. We taught the foreigners how to use chopsticks. 10. The voices on the tape may become unclear or even disappear. 11. One suggestion is to give our dear teacher an album with our photos in it. 12. I’m glad to hear that you are coming to Chongqing,, China. 13. 60% of the students are against the idea of entrance fee(入场费；门票钱)。 14. We can see a boy standing in front of a mirror. 15. Our government called on(号召) schools to reduce learning load. 16. Have you ever heard the song sung? Yes, I heard my neighbour sing it once. 学以致用
Make your own sentences using the 5 kinds of patterns.
1. S 十 Vi 2. S 十 link. v 十 P 3. S 十 Vt 十 O 4. S 十 Vt 十 IO 十 DO 5. S 十 Vt 十 O 十 OC
英语句子种类 英语句子按其结构可分为 3 种： 1. 简单句（Simple Sentence） ：只含一个“主谓结构”或“并列主谓结构”的句子叫简单 句。Eg a. Great scientists like Hawking always want to know more. b. They are never satisfied with a simple answer and are always looking for new questions. c. Today both Zhang Heng and Galileo are known as scientific pioneers. d. What a hardworking graduate he is! e. Scientists must be creative and use their imagination all the time. 2. 并列句（Compound Sentence） ：把两个或更多互不依从的简单句用“并列连词（或连接 副词） ”连在一起的句子叫并列句。 常见的并列连词： and; but, or ( or else, otherwise 否则)，for, so, Neither…nor; either…or, not only…but also…etc. Scientists must be creative and they must use their imagination all the time. Hurry up, or ( or else, otherwise) you’ll miss your flight. He is not only my teacher, but he is also my friend. Yet two years had gone by and I was not that much worse.
a. b. c. d. 3.
复合句（Complex Sentence）:由一个“主句”和一个或更多的“从句”构成的句子叫复 合句。 “主句”是复合句的主干（main clause） ，从句充当主句的一个成分。 从句分 3 种：定语从句、状语从句（时间 when, while since 、地点 where 、条件 if 、 让步 though, even though(即使)、原因、目的 so that, in order that、结果、方式 as、比较 than 等） 、名词性从句（主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句） 。 a.. People find it difficult to understand him, because his thoughts and ideas often seem as large as the universe he is trying to describe. b. Try your best and I’m sure your dream will come true. c. Scientists know that their job is never finished and that even the best theory can turn out to be wrong. d. The only trouble is that it gives me an American accent.
I only like food that tastes delicious. There’s nothing that I fear with the help of my teachers and classmates.
Challenge Yourself 指出下列短文中句子的种类（Simple Sentence，Compound Sentence or Complex Sentence） One good turn deserves another 礼尚往来 I was having dinner at a restaurant when Harry Steele came in. Harry worked in a lawyer's office years ago, but he is now working at a bank. He gets a good salary, but he always borrows money from his friends and never pays it back. Harry saw me and came and sat at the same table. He has never borrowed money from me. While he was eating, I asked him to lend me twenty pounds. To my surprise, he gave me the money immediately. 'I have never borrowed any money from you,' Harry said, 'so now you can pay for my dinner!' 学以致用
Make your own sentences using the 3 types 1
Compound Sentence Complex Sentence
Good news 佳音 The secretary told me that Mr. Harmsworth would see me. I felt very nervous when I went into his office. He did not look up from his desk when I entered. After I had sat down, he said that business was very bad. He told me that the firm could not afford to pay such large salaries. Twenty people had already left. I knew that my turn had come. 'Mr. Harmsworth,' I said in a weak voice. 'Don't interrupt,' he said. Then he smiled and told me I would receive an extra thousand pounds a year!
One man in a boat 独坐孤舟 Fishing is my favorite sport. I often fish for hours without catching anything. But this does not worry me. Some fishermen are unlucky. Instead of catching fish, they catch old boots and rubbish. I am even less lucky. I never catch anything-not even old boots. After having spent whole mornings on the river, I always go home with an empty bag. 'You must give up fishing!' my friends say.' It's a waste of time.' But they don't realize one important thing. I'm not really interested in fishing. I am only interested in sitting in a boat and doing nothing at all!