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宾语补足语的用法


宾语补足语 的用法

英语的五个基本结构
S十V 主谓结构 S十V十P 主系表结构 S十V十O 主谓宾结构 S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 S十V十O十C 主谓宾补结构 说明: S=主语;V=谓语;P=表语; O=宾语;O1=间接宾语;O2=直接宾语; C=宾语补足语

1.S 十 V 句式 He runs quickly.他跑得快。 2.S 十 V(link) 十 P 句式: The story sounds interesting.这个故事听起来有趣。 3.S 十 V 十 O 句式 They built a house last year.他们去年建了一所房子。 4.S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 句式 He offered me his seat / his seat to me.他把座位让给我。 5.S 十 V 十 O 十 C 句式 Good food keeps you healthy. I wish you to be happy. They named the boy Charlie. I saw her chatting with Nancy He watched the piano carried upstairs. Don’t leave me behind.

? 在英语语言中,一些及物动词后面除了 跟宾语外,还需要有一个宾语补足语来 对宾语进行补充说明,使其意义更加完 整清楚。宾语与宾语补足语合起来称作 复合宾语。

一、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有:
1、名词: We elected Smith our chairman. They named the city Leningrad. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 注①:常用名词充当宾语补足语的动词有: call, name, elect, make, think, appoint, choose, find, consider, keep, wish, feel等。 这类动词后也可用先行词 it做形式宾语,而把真正的宾语放到句子 后面去。 He felt is his duty to mention this to her.

一、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有:
2、形容词: He dyed her hair brown. I thought her so nice and sincere. 注:常用形容词充当宾语补足语的动词有: believe, think, get, keep, make, find, set, like, wish, see, consider, prove, have, leave, 以及paint, drive, turn, cut 等。
有时可用it做形式宾语,而把真正的宾语放到后面去,构成复 合宾语的可以是不定式或是从句。 I felt it necessary to make everything clear.

主语+及物动词+宾语+现在分词 (作补语)
? ? ? I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long. I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face. At this moment she noticed the teacher coming in. ? 加现在分词作宾补的动词有:see, hear, smell, feel, keep, watch, leave, get, catch, imagine, like, start, remember, hate.

主语+及物动词+宾语+过去分词 (作补语)
He watched the TV set carried out of the room.

? ?

Last year they had their house rebuilt. When you speak English, be sure to make yourself understood. ? 这类动词主要有:make, keep, leave, feel, find, have, hear, watch, see

4、动词不定式:
Remind me to write that letter, will you? He urged me to join their company.

At the meeting they invited me to speak.
这类动词包括: advice,get, allow, invite, force, oblige, hate, wish, permit, order, bring 注: 在某些动词后,这类不定式只限用to be 这种形式 We thought him to be an honest man. Do you consider that to be important? She found this to be true in all the cities she visited.

主语+及物动词+宾语+不带to的不 定式(作补语)
? We can let this go on. ? I saw Martin’s face go pale. ? 这类动词主要有:make, let, have, saw, hear, notice watch, fell, help ? 这类词变被动的时候后面要加to ? He was made to recite the whole poem. ? He was seen to fall.

? 6.此外,副词和介词短语也可以充当宾 语补足语,如: ? When do you want it back? ? Why didn’t you invite them in? ? We could hear the children at play outside.

二、宾语和其补足语之间的逻辑关系:
1、当名词、形容词、副词和介词短语充当宾语补足语时,它 们和宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系(或称表语关系),若 无宾语补足语,则句意不完整。宾语补足语说明宾语的情况、 性质、特征、状态、身份或属类等。试比较: You should keep your room clean and tidy. (Your room is clean and tidy.) We could hear the children at play outside. (The children are at play outside.)

二、宾语和其补足语之间的逻辑关系:
3、当过去分词充当宾语补足语时,它与宾语之间有着动宾关系,

即:宾语是过去分词所表示的动作的承受者,如:
I once heard this song sung in Japanese. (This song was once sung in Japanese.)

I didn’t want the children taken out in such weather.
(The children were taken out in such weather.)

三、在用现在分词或不定式作宾语补足语的动词中,有些只能用现 在分词作宾语补足语;有些只能用不定式作宾语补足语;还有的动 词既能用现在分词又可用不定式作宾语补足语:

1 、只能用现在分词作宾语补足语的动词有: catch, keep, mind, prevent, stop, smell, excuse 等。例如: She caught her son smoking a cigarette. His words started me thinking.

2、只能用不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:wish, desire, expect, love, prefer, trust, encourage, let, allow, permit, mean, lead, bring, put, hurry, cause, remind, ask, invite, beg, request, worry, advise, persuade, call on, tell, order, command, require, make, force, drive, forbid, warn, help, teach, show, assist, report, bear, wait for // think, take, know, judge, consider, suppose, believe, allow, prove, declare等。 3 、既能用现在分词又可用不定式作宾语补足语的动词有: see, watch, notice, look at, observe, listen to, hear, feel, have, imagine, discover, like, want, understand, hate, get, set, leave等。

四、使用不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式符号 to 的取舍问题: 1、在hear, listen to, let, have, make, see, watch, notice, observe 等动 词后的不定式需省去 to 。 2、feel 一词,跟 to be 型不定式带 to;跟 to do 型不定式不带 to。 3、help 一词后的不定式,可带 to,也可以不带 to。 (请参见“动词不定式”一节)

五、在复合宾语中,宾语通常为名词或代词,但有时也可 以用不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或that从句来充当。 这时,应使用先行 it代替宾语,而将真正的宾语移到句子 的后部,如:
I felt it necessary to speak about our shortcomings. Do you consider it any good trying again? We all thought it a pity that you couldn’t join us. 注意:在这种结构中,宾语补足语通常为名词或形容词;常用 于这种结构的动词有: feel, find, think, make, take, judge, consider 等。

Practice

单句改错
1. The speaker raised his voice but still couldn’t make himself understand. understood 2. We all elected Jason the monitor. 3. The teacher asked us not make so to much noise. 4. --- What a nice fire you have in your fireplace! --- During the winter I like my house warmly warm and comfortable.

5. Don’t leave the water run while you brush your teeth. running 6. He pushed the door opening. open 7. She looked around and caught a man put his hand into the pocket of a putting to passenger. 8. With a lot of difficult problems settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. hidden 9. When I came in, I found a boy hide behind the door. 10. It was a pity that the great writer with died of his works unfinished.

单项选择 1. Tell him _____ the window. A. to shut not B. not to shut C. to not shut D. not shut 2. ----There’s a hole in your bag. ---- I know, I’m going to have it _____. A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended

3. Though he had often made his little sister ____, today
he was made ____ by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry 4. They would not allow him _____ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking to go

C. for risk to go

D. risk going

5. I found the door _____ when I got home. A. opened B. close C. unlocking D. open 6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ___. A. not to B. not to do C. not do D. do not to 7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise____. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 8. With a lot of difficult problems_____, the newlyelected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 9. I advised _____ at once. A. him to starting B. him to start C. to starting D. to start

10. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his heart still ____. A. beat B. to be beating C. beating D. was beating 11. You had better get a doctor _____ your bad tooth. A. pull out B. to pull out C. pulled out D. pulling out 12. He managed to make himself____with his____English. A. understand; breaking B. understand; broken C. understood; breaking D. understood; broken 13. The doctor asked him not to leave his wound ______. A. expose B. exposed C. to expose D. exposing

Thank you


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