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高中英语必修1(人教新课标)Unit 5 Nelson Mandela--a modern hero 知识点总结


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高中英语必修 1(人教新课标)Unit 5 Nelson Mandela--a modern hero 知识点总结
一、重点词汇 quality

· 原文再现 And what qualities does a great person have? 一个伟大的人具有什么样的品质? ·

基本用法 quality n. 质量;品质;性质(复数形式:qualities)

As an actress she shows real quality. 她表现出演员的真正才华。 · 知识拓展--相关短语 of poor quality 质量差 of good/high quality 质量好/高
generous

· 基本用法 generous adj. 慷慨的;大方的;宽容的,常用于如下结构中:

be generous to sb. 对人宽容/大方 be generous with sth. (用钱等)大方 She was always very generous in her charity. 她行善时总是很慷慨。 Students should be generous in doing hard jobs. 学生应该乐于做艰苦的工作。 She isn't anywhere near as generous as her sister. 她一点都不像姊姊那样慷慨大方。
mean

· 基本用法 mean adj. 吝啬的;自私的;卑鄙的 She is too mean to make a donation.

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她太小气不肯捐款。 · 知识拓展 其他词性 mean v. 意指某事,意思是;意欲,打算

I don’t mean to waste any labor. 我没打算浪费任何劳动力。 相关短语 mean to do sth. 打算做某事 mean doing sth. 意味着做某事 be meant to do 要做,必须做 be mean with/about 对??吝啬/小气 be mean to sb. 对某人刻薄 相关句型 What do you mean by ?? 你说/做??是什么意思?
devote

· 基本用法 devote v. 献身;专心于

He devoted all his efforts to the task. 他把所有的精力投入到了这项工作中去。 · 知识拓展--相关句型/结构 devote?to? 把??献给 devote oneself to 致力于;献身于,专心 be devoted to 致力于;专用于
found

· 原文再现 He founded the first Republic in China in 1911 after many years’ fighting. 他经过多年的奋战在 1911 年成立了共和国。 · 基本用法 found vt. 建立,创立,创办

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His family founded the college in 1912. 他的家族在 1912 年创立了这个学院。 The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. 中华人民共和国成立于 1949 年。 注: found 与 find 的过去式,过去分词的形式相同,它的过去式和过去分词 是 founded。 · 知识拓展 词义辨析 found build 创建,建立(组织,机构,国家,学校等) 建设,建造(具体的或抽象事物)

put up 建造,搭起(建造高于地面的建筑物) set up form 开设,建立 (生意,公司,公益医院) 构成,形成 (关系网,观点,习惯等) 竖起旗帜 搭起帐篷 建立研究院

set up a flag put up a tent

found a institute

build some hospitals 建一些医院 form a habit/an opinion 养成习惯,形成观点 相关单词 founder n. 创始人,奠基人

foundation n. 基础;奠基;基金会 The rumor is totally without foundation. 谣言纯粹是无中生有。
as a matter of fact

· 原文再现 As a matter of fact, I do not like violence? 事实上,我不喜欢暴力?? · 基本用法 as a matter of fact 意为“事实上,实际上”。如: As a matter of fact, I don’t know the truth.

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事实上,我不知道事情真相。 · 知识拓展--近义短语 in fact /in actual fact /in reality/in effect 都有”实际上,事实上“的 含义。
vote

· 原文再现 Black people could not vote or choose their leaders. 黑人不能选举或选择他们的领导者。 · 基本用法 vote v. 投票;选举

I may vote for her at the next election. 下届选举我可能选她。、 If we cannot agree, let's vote on it. 咱们意见要是不一致就表决吧。 · 知识拓展--相关短语 vote for 投票赞成;投某人的票 vote against 投票反对
attack

· 原文再现 We chose to attack the laws. 我们选择抨击法律。 · 基本用法 attack v. 进攻,攻击,抨击 They attacked without a warning. 他们不宣而战。 · 知识拓展--相关短语 make an attack on/against?进攻,攻击,抨击
turn to · 原文再现

Why did Nelson Mandela turn to violence to make black and white people equal?

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为什么纳尔逊·曼德拉致力于通过暴力使黑人和白人平等?
· 基本用法

turn to 意为“求助于;致力于;转向”,其中 to 是介词。如“ If you have any questions, turn to me for help. 有任何问题的话,找我帮忙。
· 知识拓展--相关短语

turn up 出现;到场;调高 turn down 拒绝;调低 turn out 在现场;结果为
turn over 翻转

lose heart · 原文再现

The scientist from whom never lost heart when he was in trouble. 这位科学家在他陷入困境的时候从未丧失勇气或信心。
· 基本用法

lose heart 意为“丧失勇气或信心”,其中 heart 为不可数名词,也不加修 饰语。 No matter what you do, never lose heart. 不管你做什么千万不可泄气。 Difficulties were increasing. Even then we did not lose heart. 尽管困难在增加,但我们毫不灰心。
· 知识拓展--相关短语

lose one’s heart (to) 喜欢上 put one’s heart into 把全部心思放在??
learn/know by heart 记熟

come to power · 原文再现

? Mr Mandela and the ANC came to power in 1994. ??德拉及非洲人民大会在 1994 年当权。
· 基本用法

come to power 意为“当权;上台”。

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The new leader has come to power. 新领导上台了。 The party came to power at the last election. 这个政党是在上次大选中当选执政的。 He came to power at the age of thirty. 他在 30 岁时开始掌权。
· 知识拓展

相关短语 beyond/out of one’s power 某人力所不及的 within one’s power 某人力所能及的 词义辨析
energy/force/power /strength

be sentenced to

· 原文再现 ? sentenced to five years’ hard labour? ??被判五年劳役?? · 基本用法 be sentenced to 被判处??,其中 to 是介词,后接名词或动名词。 The man was sentenced to three years in prison. 他被判三年监禁。 The murderer was sentenced to death. 杀人犯被判处死刑。 He was sentenced to 10 years' hard labor. 他被判十年劳役。 · 知识拓展--其他词性 sentence 作名词,意为“判刑,徒刑”。如:
a sentence of six months 刑期 6 个月

opinion

· 原文再现 What’s your opinion? 你有什么意见?

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· 基本用法 opinion n. 意见; 看法; 主张, in one’s opinion 意为“依照某人的看法”。 发表意见用 give/express one’s opinion。 opinion 还可用 good, high, no 等词来修饰。 (复数形式:opinions) She has a high opinion of her teacher.
她对她的老师评价很高。

二、重点句型 ? only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. 直到那时,我们才决定以暴制暴。

· 原文再现 这句话的意思是: “??只有到这个时候, 我们才决定以暴力反抗暴力”。 句 中 only then 引导倒装结构, 当 only 修饰状语位于句首时,句子采用部分倒装的结构。如: Only when the war was over was he able to return home. 只有在战争结束时他才能够回到家里。
There were not cleverer than me, but they did pass their exams. So I knew I could get a degree too.

他们不如我聪明,却又确实通过了考试,因此我知道我也能获得学位.

· 基本用法 but 连接的是并列复合句,表示转折; 句中 did pass 为强调结构。强调谓语动词时,在动词原形前加 do, does 或 did。如: He did read the letter just now.
他刚才的确读过那封信。

I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. 第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我心情很不好。
·基本用法 本句是主从复合句。其中名词短语 the first time 在此处用作连词,引导时间状语从句,意为“第一次…… 时”。 常见的可作连词的名词短语还有:

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the moment/minute/second=as soon as 一……就…… the day/month/year 那一天/月/年 every/each time 每次 注:for the first time 是介词短语,只能作状语,意为“初次;第一次”。 建议:在搜索题目时,输入关键词”the first time“。

三、重点语法 定语从句(II)

· 关系副词:关系副词用于引出定语从句,英语的关系副词主要有 when, 1. when:指代时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。如:

where, why 三个。

I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. We will never forget the happy time when we worked on the farm. 2. where:指代地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。如: This is the house where we lived last year. The factory where his father works is in the west of the city. 3. why:指代原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。如: There are several reasons why we can’t do that. He couldn’t give the teacher a good reason why he was late for school. · 关于“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 1. 名(代)词+介词+关系代词(在句中一般作主语),常用此结构的代词有: one, both, all, some, most, several, few, a few, little, a little, many, much, none, half 等。如: The boy was paid 100 dollars for cleaning the windows, most of which had not been cleaned for years. We received a large number of visitors, some of whom are very old people. 2. 数量词或形容词最高级+of+关系代词。如: The company now has more than 100 employees, half of whom are women. They have four children, the youngest of whom is a boy. 3. 介词+关系代词(在句中作状语): 根据定语从句的谓语选择适当的介词;

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动词短语不能拆开,如 look for, look after, look forward to, take care of 4. 介词+关系代词+名词(在句中作状语),此结构可转换为“and+介词+that 或 this+名词”结构。如: We got the party at seven, and by which time they had enjoyed themselves for two hours and were about to leave. Mr. Smith can come tonight, in which case we have to do the test all by ourselves. 5. 介词短语+介词+关系代词 (在句中一般作状语) , 此结构可与“介词+whose+ 名词”结构转换。如: At the station we met a kind-hearted old gentleman, with whose help we easily found the Friendship Hotel. 6. (介词)+whose+名词+主谓结构=and+介词+形容词性物主代词+名词+主谓结 构; (介词)+which+名词+主谓结构=and+介词+this/that+名词+主谓结构。如: He is the man from whose house the picture were stolen. The president looked sad, whose son was killed last month. We stopped at the gate of the school at which place we said goodbye to each other. 注:
1. 介词的选用原则

根据定语从句中谓语动词的习惯搭配来选用介词; 根据先行词的习惯搭配来选用介词。
2. 介词可后移,关系代词可省略。如:

The person to whom you’ll write is Mr. Ball. The person (whom/that/who) you’ll write to is Mr. Ball. 3. 介词位于从句句首时,其后不用 that 或 who,只能用 which(指物)或 whom (指人)。如: The place in which I’ll arrive is Barcelona. Do you know the girl to whom I introduced Mary?

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4. 定语从句中谓语动词是含有介词的动词短语时,介词要放在动词之后,不 能拆开。如:
This is the baby whom you will look after.

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