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GRE 写作 Issue 问题题库分析与提纲 第一类 社会


However, what differentiates human beings from other

animals is that humans have a sense of future and are morally

2. "Competition is ultimately more beneficial than detrimental to society." 归根结底,竞争对于社会是利多弊少。

responsible for the well-being of their descendents.


Therefore, as beneficiaries of previous generations, each

generation should make its own contribution for the

Generally speaking, competition contributes to progress in society.

well-being of future generations.


Generally speaking, competition contributes to progress in 当务之急和百年大计的关系



In democratic countries, when parties and candidates compete


for power, the public benefits.

9. "Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent


Admittedly, when competition gets out of the control of

years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience. Until

mores and laws, society will suffer. 竞争对于社会的优点和缺点

scholars can reach a wider audience, their ideas will have little


-----------------------------近些年来,学科已经细化到了相当的程度以至于学者们的理念 只影响小范围的人群。除非学者们能拥有影响到大范围的人 群,否则他们的理念将几乎毫无用处。

3. "It is more important to allocate money for immediate, existing

social problems than to spend it on long-term research that might

help future generations."与其花钱进行可能有助于后代的长期 性研究,还不如把钱花在迫在眉睫,已经存在的社会问题上。

The speaker oversimplifies the issue of academic influence on


Humanity should take into account both long-term interests and


It is true that academic disciplines have become so

short-term interests when making budgets.

specialized nowadays that some scholar’s seemingly


Naturally, each generation is most concerned about solving

idiosyncratic ideas only reach a narrow audience.

problems that immediately confront them.



It is also true that social scientists’ failing to reach the large

public makes it impossible for their ideas to contribute to

16. "Although many people think that the luxuries and


conveniences of contemporary life are entirely harmless, in fact,


Nevertheless, scholars in certain realms are doomed to live in

they actually prevent people from developing into truly strong and

an isolated and purely academic world, which does not

independent individuals."

necessarily mean that their ideas will have little use. 尽管许多人认为现代生活的奢华和便利是丝毫没有坏处的,但 过分专业化问题 overspecialization 是这实际上让人们无法成为真正强大和独立的个体。



15. "The stability of a society depends on how it responds to the


Consider first the effect of the automobile on our

extremes of human behavior."

independence as individuals. In some respects the automobile

serves to enhance such independence. 一个社会的稳定取决于该社会对人们极端行为所作出的反应。


However, we have become slaves to the automobile.

It is true that how a society copes with the extremes of human


Consider next the overall impact of the automobile on our

behavior largely determines the society’s stability.

strength as individuals, by which I mean strength of character,


The extremes of human behavior--such as violence or

or mettle.

strikes--usually dictate grave social troubles.


In contrast, there is a certain strength of character that comes


One solution to these social problems is suppressing, which

with eschewing modern conveniences such as cars, and with

proves effective in the short run and counterproductive in the

the knowledge that one is contributing to a cleaner and

long run.

quieter environment, a safer neighborhood, and arguably a


The most effective way of responding to such problems is

more genteel society. 社会和个人之发展问题

constructive communication and sometimes compromise. 抽象型题目




17. "There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual

19. "If a society is to thrive, it must put its own overall success

in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more

before the well-being of its individual citizens."

importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws." 如果一个社会要繁荣就必须将社会整体的成败置于单个社会 有两种法律:公正的和不公正的。每个社会成员都有责任遵守 公正的法律,但是更重要的是,更应该不遵守和反抗不公正的 法律。 成员的幸福之上。



The society is made up of individual citizens; therefore, the


development of individual citizens is crucial for the


First, whether a law is just or unjust is rarely a

development of the whole society.

straightforward issue. The fairness of any law depends on one’s personal value system. The fairness of a law also depends on one’s personal interest,


A society that ignores the well being of individual citizens is

bound to end up in social turmoil or revolution. 少数和多数之成功


or stake, in the legal issue at hand.


Disobeying unjust laws often has the opposite effect of what


was intended or hoped for.

20. "National governments should devote more of their social


By justifying a violation of one sort of law we find ourselves

programs and services to children than to adults."

on a slippery slope toward sanctioning all types of illegal 任何一个国家的政府都应该为孩子而不是为成人建设更多的 社会项目和服务。 社会和个人之法律公正么?

behavior, including egregious criminal conduct.



No one would deny the fact that it is in the young generation

that lies the future of our society.


Therefore, we should attach enough importance to the

development of children.



However, this does not mean that we can ignore the interests

preoccupied with bits of fragmented information that they pay too

of adults, who make up the major work force of our society. 孩子和成人之社会建设

little attention to the larger issues and overall perspectives."


现代技术使获得大量细节信息成为可能。其结果是人们全神贯 注于七零八碎的信息而很少去注意更大的问题和全局。

22. "Many people believe that a few individuals or small groups

(family, friends, teachers, celebrities, for example) have caused

them to think and behave in the way they do. Yet it is always


Access to great deal of information help people get a wider

society as a whole that defines us and our attitudes, not a few

view of an issue, thus help them prevent being limited in



2. 很多人认为只是一些个人或者小团体 (比如家庭、 朋友、 老师、 名人)促成了他们的思维和行动。其实一直以来不是一些个人 而是社会作为一个整体在定义我们和我们的态度。

Technology helps us pay more attention to the larger issues

and overall perspectives.


To prevent preoccupation by fragmented information, people

should hold right view on information, not to assimilate all,

but to percolate relevant ones from those needing only a


Individuals and small groups also change our attitudes and

glance. 少数和多数之细节信息

minds to a large extent.


Everyone influencing us is also influenced the society.



Internet is playing an ever more significant role in influencing people’s attitude and values.

29. "Public figures such as actors, politicians, and athletes should

expect people to be interested in their private lives. When they


seek a public role, they should expect that they will lose at least


some of their privacy."

23. "Contemporary technology makes available many small pieces

of factual information. As a result, people have become so


像演员、政治家和运动员这样的公众人物应该预料到大众会对 他们的私生活感兴趣。当他们希望受人瞩目的时候就应该至少 预期到会失去一些隐私(被大众得知一些隐私)。

I agree that image has become a more central concern, at least

where short-term business or political success is at stake.

Nevertheless, I think that in the longer term image ultimately


yields to substance and fact.


Intense media attention to the lives of public figures raises a


The important role of image is particularly evident in the

presumption in the collective mind of the viewing or reading public that our public figures’ lives are far more interesting

business world.


The growing significance of image is also evident in the

than our own.

political realm, particularly when it comes to presidential


The media consist of large corporations whose chief objective


is to maximize shareholder profit. In pursuit of that objective,


In the long terms, however, the significance of image wanes

the media are simply giving the public what they demand—a


voyeuristic look into the private lives of public figures.


Nevertheless, the statement should be qualified in that a 外表和内容

political figure has reason to expect privacy than other public

figures. 少数和多数之公众人物的隐私


36. "The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those


who live after them, not by their contemporaries."

33. "Creating an appealing image has become more important in 一个人是否伟大是由后人评定的而非他同时代的人。

contemporary society than is the reality or truth behind that


1. 在当代社会,打造一个引人入胜的外表已经变得比外表下的内 容更加重要了。

We do not require a rear-view mirror to recognize artistic

greatness— whether in music, visual arts, or literature. The

reason for this is simple: art can be judged at face value.



In contrast, in the sciences it is difficult to identify greatness


without the benefit of historical perspective.

41. "Such non-mainstream areas of inquiry as astrology,


In the realm of business, in some cases great achievement is

fortune-telling, and psychic and paranormal pursuits play a vital

recognizable immediately, while in other cases it is not. 时间先后

role in society by satisfying human needs that are not addressed by

mainstream science."

-----------------------------研究界的一些非主流领域,比如星象学、占卜术和意念及超自 然探索,在社会中起到了很重要的作用,因为它们满足了人们 无法从主流科学获得的需求。

40. "Scholars and researchers should not be concerned with

whether their work makes a contribution to the larger society. It is

more important that they pursue their individual interests, however

unusual or idiosyncratic those interests may seem."

1. 我们不应该仅仅关注学者和研究者的著作能否对社会做出贡 献。更重要的是关注他们如何追求实现自己的兴趣,无论那些 兴趣显得是多么的非同寻常。

Admittedly, these non-mainstream areas of inquiry address

certain human needs, which mainstream science and other

areas of intellectual inquiry inherently cannot.


However, because these pursuits are not rooted in reason,

they are favorite pastimes of charlatans and others who seek


to prey on dupes.


Who is to decide which areas of academic inquiry are


Furthermore, without any sure way to evaluate the legitimacy

worthwhile? Scholars cannot be left to decide; nor can

of these avenues of inquiry, participants become vulnerable

regulators and legislators.

to self-deception, false hopes, fantastic ideas and even


Secondly, by human nature we are motivated to pursue those

delusions. 少数和多数之非主流学科

activities in which we excel. Thirdly, it is “idiosyncratic” and ”unusual” avenues of



inquiry that lead to greatest contributions to society. 少数和多数之科学家

46. "While some leaders in government, sports, industry, and other

areas attribute their success to a well-developed sense of


competition, a society can better prepare its young people for

47. "Society does not place enough emphasis on the intellect--that

leadership by instilling in them a sense of cooperation."

is, on reasoning and other cognitive skills."

政府、体育界、工业界和其他领域中的一些领导者将他们的成 功归因于一种高度的竞争意识,然而一个社会还是应该更好的 为那些即将成为领导者的年轻人灌输一种合作的意识。


While the speaker might overlook the benefits of nurturing certain

emotions and feelings, on balance I agree that it is by way of our

heads rather than our hearts that we can best ensure the well-being


of our society.


The chief reason why we should stress cooperation in nurturing young people today is that, as tomorrow’s leaders,


I concede that undue emphasis on cultivating the intellect at

they will face pressing societal problems that simply cannot

the expense of healthy emotions can harm and individual

be solved apart from cooperative international efforts.



The second compelling reason for instilling in young people a


In many other respects, however, emphasizing emotions

sense of cooperation over competition is that effective

and de-emphasizing intellect can carry negative, even

leadership depends less on the latter than the former.

dangerous, consequences for any society.


A third reason why instilling a sense of cooperation is to be


The dangers of a de-emphasis on intellect are all too evident

preferred over instilling a sense of competition is that the latter serves to narrow a leader’s focus on thwarting the

in contemporary America. 独立题目

efforts of competitors.


58. "The increasingly rapid pace of life today causes more


problems than it solves."




What is significant is that high-profile awards point out the


right directions in which all individuals in particular fields


The rapid pace of life has resulted in health problems in

should make efforts.

unprecedented large numbers.


To make sure that high-profile awards serve the right purpose


Although people today have more leisure time, they are not in

of society, it is imperative that the rules of the awards be fair

a better position than their ancestors to enjoy themselves.

and strictly adhered to.


More unfortunately, people seem to have become addicted to 少数和多数,精英和大众

the rapid pace of modern life. 利多弊少题型



65. "People have been so encouraged by society to focus on

61. "High-profile awards such as the Nobel Prize are actually

apparent differences that they fail to see meaningful similarities

damaging to society because they suggest that only a few people

among ideas, individuals, and groups."

deserve such recognition." 人们被社会鼓励而将注意力集中于显而易见的差异上,以至于 最高荣誉比如诺贝尔奖实际上是在损害社会,因为这种奖项在 暗示只有少数人才配得上这样的荣誉。 人们已经无法看到各种理念、个人和群体之间的有意义的相 似。

People in different cultural environments would respond

The fact that only a few people deserve high-profile awards is

differently to this statement.

insufficient evidence to suggest that such awards are damaging to


On the one hand, western cultures tend to focus on


differences among ideas, individuals and groups.


Undoubtedly, high-profile awards suggest that only a few


The danger of traditional societies, on the other hand, is to

people deserve such recognition.

ignore differences forcing individuals and groups to conform

to one authority.



A healthy attitude is to be sensitive to both differences and


similarities. 统一和差异


72. "One can best understand the most important characteristics of


a society by studying its major cities."

70. "In any profession--business, politics, education, 人们可以通过研究一个社会的主要城市来了解它最重要的特 点。

government--those in power should step down after five years.

The surest path to success for any enterprise is revitalization

through new leadership."

It is no longer true the major cities are characteristic of a society. 在任何领域中----商业、政治、教育、政府----掌权者应该在五 年后就让位。这是任何机构获得成功的最好的方式:通过更新 领导者而保持活力。


Major cities used to be the cultural centers of a society.


Nowadays, however, due to the influence of globalization,

major cities throughout the world look more or less the same.


By contrast, the rural areas of a society maintain more of its

Limiting the term of leadership is an effective way to prevent

cultural tradition. 少数和多数之以小见大

corruption and lack of initiatives.


When leaders have no fear of losing their power, they tend to


abuse their power.

76. "Truly profound thinkers and highly creative artists are always


A new leadership usually has greater initiative and would

out of step with their time and their society."

bring in new ideas. 真正深刻的思想家和充满创造力的艺术家总是超前于他们所 在的时代和社会的。


However, in certain realms such as business it might not be

so necessary to limit the term of leadership.


Furthermore, new leaders often lack the necessary skill and

experience to cope with existing problems; therefore, they

To be more exact, great thinkers and artists are generally out of

need a period of time for adaptation.

step with their time and society.



Many great artists remained obscure all their lives.


The problem daunting contemporary society is that egoism as


There are countless examples of original thinkers who were

run wild.

either ignored or misunderstood by their time and their


Today there is every need for the society to encourage


individuals to work for the interests of others. 少数和多数


However, there are cases of greater thinkers or artists who

were recognized and rocketed to instant fame in their own


time and their own society. 另类天才

89. "Leaders are created primarily by the demands that are placed

upon them."


77. "People today are too individualistic. Instead of pursuing

self-centered, separate goals, people need to understand that

Generally speaking, leaders are the results of a combination of

satisfaction comes from working for the greater good of the family,

internal qualities and external conditions.

the community, or society as a whole."


The demands place upon a person could challenge him or her

to become a leader. 现在的人们太个人主义了。与其追求以个人为中心和孤立的目 标,人们更需要明白满足是源于为家庭、社区或者整个社会的 更大利益的服务。


However, the statement seems to suggest that anybody can

become a leader if demands are placed on him or her, which

is unwarranted.


Besides opportunities, one also need to have certain qualities

Extreme individualism has become a serious threat to the social

to make a leader. 时势造英雄

fabric and the welfare of all members of society.


Some people may claim that the greater good of the family,


the community or society lies in the good of the individual,

93. "The concept of 'individual responsibility' is a necessary

which justifies the pursuit of self-interests.

fiction. Although societies must hold individuals accountable for


their own actions, people's behavior is largely determined by

I strongly agree that we define ourselves primarily through our

forces not of their own making."

identification with social groups, as the speaker asserts.

个人责任的概念是一种很必要的虚构。尽管社会必须让个人对 他们自己的行为负责,但是人们的行为很大程度上不是自己能 够左右的。


Any developmental psychologist would agree that

socialization with other children plays a critical role in any child’s understanding and psychological development of self.


The claim that individual responsibility is a necessary fictions


As children progress to the social world of the playground

has some merit in that a society where individuals are not

and other after-school venues, their earlier recognition that

held accountable for their actions and choices is a lawless one,

they relate more closely to some people than to others

devoid of any order whatsoever.

evolves into a desire to form well-defined social groups, and


A correlative argument for individual responsibility involves

to set these groups apart from others.

the fact that lawless, or anarchist, states give way to despotic


However, as young adults take on the responsibilities of

rule by strong individuals who seize power. As for the speaker’s second claim, it flies in the face of our

partnering, parenting, and working, they appear to define


themselves less by their social affiliations and more by their

everyday experiences in making choices and decisions.

marital status, parental status, and occupation.


120. "So much is new and complex today that looking back for an


understanding of the past provides little guidance for living in the

113. "It is primarily through our identification with social groups


that we define ourselves." 现代社会是如此的崭新和复杂以至于回首了解过去对于当代 如果我们要定位自己最重要是要定位自己所处的社会团体。 生活已经没有太大帮助了。


Even though history offers few foolproof panaceas for living today, the author’s claim that today’s world is so unique that the past is


Overemphasizing the social criterion of success tends to

belittle the worth of an individual. 客观和主观

irrelevant is too radical.



Admittedly, history has helped us learn the appropriateness of

addressing certain social issues, particularly moral ones, on a

societal level.

133. "The problems of modern society have led many people to


However, the only firm lesson from history about social ills is

complain: 'We live in terrible times.' Yet, given the choice, no one

that they are here to stay.

today would prefer to live in any other time."


现代社会的问题是很多人都在抱怨:“我们生活在一个可怕的 时代。”但是假设让他们选择的话,现在的人们仍然会选择现 在而不是其他的时代。


126. "Society's external rewards are no measure of true success.

True success can be measured only in relation to the goals one sets

for oneself." We live in the best time of history.

1. 社会给予的客观奖励并不能衡量真正的成功。真正的成功只能

Firstly, our living conditions today are superior to those of

any past generations. 是取决于一个人为他自己设定的目标。 2. Secondly, technologies have made it possible for men to

work under much more comfortable working conditions Success should be gauged on a personal base. today than before. 1. Society’s external rewards can only be regarded as society’s 3. recognition of one’s contribution to society. human beings for a long time. 2. For an individual person, a correct attitude is to gauge 时间 Most of the problems troubling us today have been troubling

success in relation to the goals one sets for oneself. -----------------------------12

142. "The well-being of a society is enhanced when many of its

people question authority."

140. "What society has thought to be its greatest social, political, 当很多人都质疑权威的时候社会就会繁荣昌盛。

and individual achievements have often resulted in the greatest


Agree with concession:

1. 被社会自诩为是它最伟大的社会、政治和个人成就的东西结果 往往带来最大的非议。

Admittedly, when many people question authority, some

societal harm might result, even if a social cause is worthy.


While violence is rarely justifiable as a means of questioning

Agree with concession:

authority, peaceful challenges to political and legal authority,


With respect to individual achievements, great achievers are

by many people, are not only justifiable but actually

by nature ambitious people and therefore tend to be

necessary when it comes to enhancing and even preserving

dissatisfied and discontent with their accomplishments—no

society’s well-being.

matter how great.


Questioning authority is also essential for advances in the


Individual achievements can often result in discontent on a


societal level.


Similarly, in the arts, people must challenge established styles


Turning from individual achievements to societal, including

and forms rather than imitate them; otherwise, no genuinely

political, achievements, the extent to which great

new art would ever emerge, and society would be worse off.

achievement have caused discontent often depends on one’s

perspective. 社会和人民大众



149. "The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness

areas is to attract more tourists to these areas through

environmentally sensitive projects."


1. 保护野生环境最实际和最有效的途径就是通过环保的(旅游) 项目吸引更多的旅游者来这些地区(旅游)。

On the one hand are convincing arguments that profit

maximization within the bounds of the law should be a

business executive’s sole responsibility. First, imposing on

businesses additional duties to society in which they operate

can, paradoxically, harm that society.



Secondly, by affirming that profit maximization within legal


Tourists swarming to visit the environmentally sensitive

bounds is the most ethical behavior possible for business,

projects may pose a serious threat to the wildness areas.

more private enterprises and individuals will be encouraged


The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness

enter the marketplace in the quest of profits.

areas is to leave those places to take care of themselves. 环保和旅游的关系


On the other hand are compelling arguments for holding

business executives to certain responsibilities in addition to

profit maximization and to compliance with the letter of law.



152. "The only responsibility of corporate executives, provided

-160. "The most essential quality of an effective leader is the

they stay within the law, is to make as much money as possible for

ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles

their companies."

and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by

shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little." 公司的经营者们唯一的责任就是在法律规定范围之内为他们 的公司赚尽可能多的钱。 对于一位强有力的领导者来说,最关键的能力就是要对一些原 则和目标坚定不移。任何领导如果很频繁的、很轻易的为大众 意志而转移的话,他将会一事无成。

In several respects this position has considerable merit; yet it

ignores certain compelling arguments for imposing on businesses

additional obligations to the society in which they operate.

In addressing the issue it is helpful to consider, in turn, three

distinct forms of leadership: business, political and social-spiritual.


speaker fails to provide a clear litmus test for measuring that


In the business realm, effective leadership is generally


defined, at least in our corporate culture, as that which


Many scientific achievements serve to enhance a nation’s

achieves the goal of profit maximization for a firm’s

general welfare.

shareholders or other owners.


Artistic achievement is also needed to make a nation a better


In the political realm, stubborn adherence to one’s objective

place for humans overall.

in the short term might serve a political leader’s interest in


We should also be careful not to hastily assume that a nation

preserving his or her power, yet in the long term such

is necessarily great merely by virtue of the achievements of

behavior invariably results in that leader’s downfall.

individual citizens. 社会精英和人民大众


Socio-spiritual leadership, in order to be effective, inherently

requires that the leader remain steadfastly committed to

the general welfare

principle. 少数和多数之领导与大众


171. "People who pursue their own intellectual interests for purely

personal reasons are more likely to benefit the rest of the world


than are people who try to act for the public good."

170. "The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements 能够造福社会的是那些纯粹出于个人原因而追求自己兴趣知 识的人,而不是那些打算为大众谋福利的人。

of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its


一个伟大国家最真实的体现不是它的统治者、艺术家或者科学 家的成就,而是他所有老百姓的普通福利(幸福)。



By human nature we are motivated to pursue activities in

which we excel.


Admittedly, the overriding imperative of any democratic state


Secondly, it is unusual avenues of personal interest that most

is to enhance the general welfare of its citizenry. Yet the

often lead to the greatest contributions to society.



Thirdly, to adopt a view that runs contrary to the speaker’s

178. "It is possible to pass laws that control or place limits on

position would be to sanction certain intellectual pursuits

people's behavior, but legislation cannot reform human nature.

while proscribing others—which smacks of thought control

Laws cannot change what is in people's hearts and minds."

and political oppression. 通过法律可以控制或者限制人们的行为,但是立法是无法改变 个人和整体之动机 人类本性的。法律无法改变人们的感情和思想。

-----------------------------It is necessary to realize the limits of law when we hail “rule by

174. "Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be

flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times,


and places."


Common tells us that without laws, society would fall into a

state of chaos. 法律不应该是僵化或固定的,而应该根据不同的环境、时期和 地点而足够灵活。


However, legislation cannot reform human nature.


Society should depend on education to cultivate people’s

hearts and minds.


On the one hand, a certain measure of consistency, stability


and predictability in our laws is required in order for us to

understand our legal obligations and rights as we go about

180. "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws

our day-to-day business as a society.

and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."


On the other hand, rigid laws can result in unfairness if 现代社会的很多问题是法律和立法系统无法解决的,因为道德 行为是无法用法律约束的。

applied inflexibly in all places at all times. 法律的灵活性


I agree with this assertion insofar as it relates to constraints on

certain personal freedoms. However, when it comes to the conduct


of business, I think that moral behavior not only can but must be


On the other hand, scandals can sometimes serve chiefly to

legislated for the purpose of alleviating societal problems.

distract us from more pressing community or societal


Morality laws that impinge upon freedom of choice about our


personal lives—to control what we do with and to

ourselves—simply do not work in a democratic society.



Morality laws impinging on personal freedoms are not made

any more useful or effective by purporting to serve the

193. "It is not the headline-making political events but the

greater good of society, because on balance their costs far

seldom-reported social transformations that have the most lasting

outweigh their benefits.



In sharp contrast to personal behavior, the behavior of

businesses can and must be controlled through legislation. 道德和法律

Transformation: change 真正具有长远意义的,不是那些被炒作的政治事件,而是那些 鲜有报道的社会变化。


Agree The headline-making “sensational” political events are often

185. "Scandals--whether in politics, academia, or other areas--can


be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no

superficial and short-lived.

speaker or reformer ever could."


The commercial interests of the mass media determine their

preoccupation with the news value of events rather than the 丑闻----无论是政治、学术还是其他领域----可能会是有用的。 丑闻可以用演说家或者改革家无法使用的手段让我们注意到 某些问题。

social value of events.


Social transformations usually take place slowly, and are hard

to notice at their beginning.


On the one hand, scandals can sometimes serve to call our

attention to pervasive social or political problems that we

would otherwise neglect.



198. "Instead of encouraging conformity, society should show


Next consider the military hero, who gains heroic stature by

greater appreciation of individual differences."

way of courage in battle, or by otherwise facing certain defeat

and emerging victorious.

Conformity: agreement 社会应该多一些鼓励个人间的差异而不是统一。


On the other hand, consider a third type of hero: the

champion of social causes who inspires and incites society to

meaningful political and social change.

There is no doubt that society should encourage individuals to

stand out to show their unique character and qualities.



Conformity leads to the death of creativity.


A society that encourages individual differences will benefit

220. "The increase in knowledge is forcing people to specialize.

from the creations and vitality of its people. “Whatever crushes individuality is despotism, by whatever

As a result, the distance between fields of specialization has


become so vast that specialists in different areas are rarely able to

name it may be called.” (John Stuart Mill)

influence each other." 知识的增加促使了人们的专业化。其结果是不同的专业化领域 之间的差异变得越来越大以至于各个领域中的专业人员很少 能够互相影响了。


203. "The best way to understand the character of a society is to

examine the character of the men and women that the society

chooses as its heroes or its heroines."

Overspecialization in the academic world is liable to exert 了解一个社会特点最好的方法是去考察被这个社会视为英雄 的人们的特点。

negative impacts on academic research in various fields, which

makes it necessary for education to encourage interdisciplinary



First consider the sports hero, whom in my observation


The dramatic increase in knowledge today has made it

society chooses not merely by virtue of athletic prowess.

impossible for any one to keep pace with the latest

developments in all academic fields.



As a result, specialists in different areas tend to focus only on


The primary responsibility of humans is to try to maintain the

their own area of study.

environment at its natural state, and then let nature do the rest


However, this overspecialization is harmful not only

job. 人类和物种

academically but also socially.


Schools should aim at cultivating not only specialists but also


generalists. 少数和多数的关系之专业化


244. "Most societies do not take their greatest thinkers seriously,

242. "Societies should try to save every plant and animal species,

even when they claim to admire them." 大多数社会都没把最伟大的思想家当回事,虽然有时候这些社 会自称是求才若渴的。

regardless of the expense to humans in effort, time, and financial

well-being." 社会应该以不计人类的努力、时间和金钱为代价,尝试挽救每 一个动植物物种。

Great thinkers are often wronged or ignored in many societies.


Confucius is regarded as a great thinker in China, but today

There is no need to save every plant and animal species regardless

few people pay much attention to what he actually said.

of the human costs.


John Dewey was one of the greatest thinkers in American


The history of natural evolution has witnessed the extinction

history, but few Americans including scholars know much

of some plants and animals species, which did not result in

about him.

any harm to the environment.


In ancient Greece, the great thinker Socrates was sentenced to


Of course, if scientists can more or less prove that the

death. 社会和思想家

extinction of a certain plant or species will cause some

disastrous chain effects, we should make every effort to save



第二类 行为类

只有通过排除异议和对照其他的观点来捍卫一个理念,人们才 能真正的发现该理念的价值所在。

12. "People's attitudes are determined more by their immediate

situation or surroundings than by any internal characteristic."


1. 人们的态度更多的是由临时的情况或者环境所决定,而非人们 自身的特点。

Different viewpoints interconnect with each other. Only after

careful comparison can we reach the soul of the idea.


Doubts and contrasting views can provide valuable use for

reverences to our learning.

Social environment does plays a more important role in forming a


History is replete with illustrative cases in which doubts and

person’s attitudes.

contrasting views contribute to the consummation of our


Admittedly, people’s inborn temperament does play an


important role in their attitudes.


However, more often than not, people’s attitudes are largely


influenced by their immediate situation or surroundings.


It should also be noted that external factors not only influence

21. "Reform is seldom brought about by people who are concerned

people’s attitudes, but also shape their characters.

with their own reputation and social standing. Those who are

really in earnest about reforming a government, an educational


system, or any other institution must be willing to be viewed with

disdain by the rest of the world."

18. "Only by being forced to defend an idea against the doubts and 改革几乎从来都不是由那些关心自己声誉和社会地位的人发 起的。那些真正热衷于政府改革、教育改革和其他机构改革的 人们一定都是甘于被他人轻视的。

contrasting views of others does one really discover the value of

that idea."



Reform means the redistribution of benefits of various levels;


therefore, resist and dissatisfaction is inevitable.


Those who are not really in earnest about reform will retreat

when facing difficulties in a reform.

27. "No one can possibly achieve success in the world by


conforming to conventional practices and conventional ways of


这个世界上没有人能够靠墨守陈规(行动或者思维上的)而获 得成功。

25. "Anyone can make things bigger and more complex. What

requires real effort and courage is to move in the opposite

direction--in other words, to make things as simple as possible."


Traditional ways of thinking are treasures which will prevent

us from wasting time and energy on trial things. 任何人都可以把事情简单复杂化,但是需要真正努力和勇气的 恰恰相反,也就是说应该把事情变得尽可能的简单。


However, we can create nothing if we are only confined to

the conventional experience.


The statement brings immediately to mind the ever-growing


and increasingly complex digital world.



Lending even more credence to the statement is the so-called “big government” phenomenon.

31. "Money spent on research is almost always a good investment,


Adding further credibility to the statement is the tendency of

even when the results of that research are controversial."

most people to complicate their personal lives. 花在研究上的资金基本上都是不错的投资,即使研究的结果是 复杂和简单 有争议的。


Disagree with concession:


Having a belief is a good thing for an individual in a certain


I concede that the speaker is on the correct philosophical side

degree in the form of spiritual support. However, if the belief goes too extreme and even influences people’s life and family

of this issue. After all, research is the exploration of the

unknown for answers to our questions, and for lasting

negatively, it is best to reconsider whether the belief worth so

solutions to our endure problems.

much persistence.


While we must invest in research irrespective of whether the


Choosing to compromise does not mean that we have to give

results might be controversial, at the same time we should be

up our original belief. On the contrary, we are finding a better

circumspect about research whose objectives are too vague

way to perfect our belief.

and whose potential benefits are too speculative.


No amount of research can completely solve the enduring 信仰

problems of war, poverty and violence, for the reason that

they stem from the certain aspects of human nature—such as


aggression and greed.


37. "In most societies, competition generally has more of a


negative than a positive effect."

35. "No matter what the situation, it is more harmful to


compromise one's beliefs than to adhere to them."


1. 无论在什么样的情况下,折衷自己的信仰要比坚持有害。

Competition benefits the general public by providing people

with cheaper products and better service.


Competition spurs innovation and invention, bringing new

products and technology to multitudes.



Admittedly, we should notice the side effect of competition,

64. "Many people know how to attain success, but few know how

which are shrinking profit, dishonesty, etc. 利多弊少之竞争

to make the best use of it."


很多人懂得如何去获得成功,但是很少有人知道如何最好的去 利用成功。

62. "The widespread idea that people should make


A common characteristic of contemporary society is that

self-improvement a primary goal in their lives is problematic

people everywhere are concerned about how to attain

because it assumes that people are intrinsically deficient."


2. 认为人们应该把自我进步当做是人生头等大事的流行观点是 有问题的,因为这样的观点在假设人们是天生就有缺陷的。

Success is commonly understood as material gains.


However, success does not ensure happiness. “Successful” people often ignore the interests and needs of other people, which renders their “success” meaningless.


Disagree Attain and sustain 打江山容易,保江山难


On the one hand, admitting that we are deficient is the first

step towards progress.



On the other hand, smugness only leads to stagnancy.


A serious problem with modern society is that too many

68. "People make the mistake of treating experts with suspicion

people fail to realize the need for self-improvement.

and mistrust, no matter how valuable their contributions might

be." 独立题目 人们经常错误的猜疑和不信任专家,无论专家们的贡献是多么 的有价值。


Expert’s opinions should be evaluated objectively.



Generally speaking, experts’ opinions are comparatively

more trustworthy than ordinary people’s when it comes to

74. "The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to

solving problems that require special expertise.

large groups of people is through the use of images, not language."


The reality of our society is that people tend to take for 和一大群人交流想法或者价值观的最有效方式是图像而非语 言。

granted whatever experts say.


It is possible that sometimes experts do make mistakes which

ordinary people can correct. 怀疑权威

The use of images is not always more effective than that of




On the one hand, images are more vivid and easier for the

71. "Spending time alone makes one a better companion to

largest audience to comprehend.



On the other hand, images tend to cause ambiguities.

3. 学会独自消磨时光会使你更好地成为别人的伙伴。

The most effective way of communication is combing the use

of images and that of language. 独立题目




Admittedly, habitually isolating oneself from others does not

automatically make one a better companion.

75. "The people who make important contributions to society are


However, people who think and work independently will be

generally not those who develop their own new ideas, but those

able to bring new ideas and new perspectives to others. One’s loneliness makes one crave for and cherish the

who are most gifted at perceiving and coordinating the talents and


skills of others."

opportunity to stay with others. 人际关系之个人时间和公众时间 对社会做出重要贡献的人往往不是那些发展自己新想法的人, 而是那些最善于察觉和调控他人天赋和技术的人。




However, irrational reverence for national history would

Generally speaking, the progress of society depends more on the

result in social conservatism that rejects the introduction of

contributions of leaders rather than the ordinary masses.

any social reforms.


It should be admitted that individual thinkers and scientist


Blind reverence for national history would also cause fanatic

make important contributions to society.

nationalism, making impossible the communication between


However, history is filled with examples that indicate the

nations and cultures. 沙文主义

dramatic contributions to society made by the people who are

capable of leading others toward a common goal.



Today, progress in every field is impossible without the

joined efforts of individuals—through the coordination of

84. "In any field of endeavor, it is impossible to make a significant


contribution without first being strongly influenced by past

achievements within that field."


在任何物质领域中,如果不首先接受该领域中过去成就的影响 就不可能会有意义重大的成功。

81. "Patriotic reverence for the history of a nation often does more

to impede than to encourage progress."

Progress in any field is based on past achievements within that 出于爱国对于一个国家的尊崇往往不是促进进步而是阻碍进 步。



In social sciences, the past achievements of a field are the


rich sources of inspirations for formulating new theories in


It should be admitted that patriotic reverence for the history

that field.

of a nation is a precondition of national cohesion.


In natural sciences, scientists use the existing methods and

equipments—the achievements of the past—to make new

discoveries or inventions.



Even in creative fields such as arts and literature, mastering

在所有的研究领域中,新手要比专家更有可能获得重要的发 现。

the achievements of the past is a precondition of creating new

works. 现在和过去



Beginners have intense curiosity about the unknown and


great courage to try new things, while experienced experts

tend to be more conservative.

86. "Young people should be encouraged to pursue long-term,


Furthermore, beginners are highly motivated and enthusiastic

realistic goals rather than seek immediate fame and recognition."

people who are eager to establish their career and fame. 新手和老手

年轻人应该被鼓励去寻求长期的现实目标而不是追求眼前的 名声。


91. "Most people think that their deeply held values are the result


Seeking immediate fame and recognition would turn out to be

of rational choice, but reason often has little to do with the way


people form values."


Unfortunately, today’s education and society seem to attach 大多数人认为他们深信不疑的价值观是理性选择的结果,但是 理智往往对于人们形成价值观几乎根本不起作用。

more importance to immediate success.


In the long run, pursuing long-term goals not only benefit

young people themselves but also the whole society. 现实和将来

Individual’s deeply held values are usually not the result of


rational choice, but the result of socialization.


It is the culture in which we live that provides us with the

87. "In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the


expert to make important discoveries."


Most people simply adopt the values instilled by their culture.



It is necessary to question the established values within a

than an idealistic, point of view. Pragmatic behavior guarantees

certain society. 理性和感性之价值观

survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superceded by

simpler, more immediate options."

-----------------------------在任何生活领域中----无论是学术、社会、商业还是政治----获 得成功的唯一道路就是采取现实的而不是理想化的观点。实用 的行为确保了生存,反之理想化的观点正在趋于被更简化的和 更直接的选择所取代。

95. "People work more productively in teams than individually.

Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates people much

more than individual competition does."

人们在团队中工作比独立工作要更加有效率。团队协作需要的 合作能够比个人间的竞争更加激励人们。

Idealism is just as crucial—if not more so—for long-term success

in any endeavor, whether it be in academics, business, or political

and social reform.


In some jobs productivity clearly depends on the ability of


When it comes to academics, although the idealist-student

coworkers to cooperate as members of a team.

might sacrifice a high overall grade average, the depth of


In other types of jobs individual competition, tenacity and

knowledge, academic discipline, and sense of purpose the

ambition are key to productivity.

students gains will serve that student well later in life.


On balance, however, my view is that cooperation is more crucial for an organization’s long-term productivity than


Considering the business world, without a dream or

vision—that is, without strong idealist leadership—a firm can

individual competition. 竞争和合作之效率

easily be cast about in the sea of commerce without clear direction, threatening not only the firm’s bottom line but also


its very survival.


Finally, when it comes to the political arena, it is

99. "In any realm of life--whether academic, social, business, or

idealists—not pragmatists—who sway the masses, incite

political—the only way to succeed is to take a practical, rather

revolutions, and make political ideology reality.




121. "At various times in the geological past, many species have

become extinct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes.

118. "In any field of endeavor-the sciences, the humanities, the

Thus, there is no justification for society to make extraordinary

social sciences, industry, etc.-it is not the attainment of a goal that

efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save

matters, but rather the ideas and discoveries that are encountered

endangered species."

on the way to the goal." 在过去不同的地质时期,许多的物种因为自然作用而非人类行 在所有的物质领域中--科学、人文科学、社会科学、工业等等 为而灭绝。因此,人类社会为了挽救濒危物种而付出的巨大努 力,尤其是以大量的资金和工作机会为代价,这样做是毫无道 理的。

--能否达到目的并不重要,而在争取达到目的的过程中获得的 想法和发现才更重要。

In some cases, the statement makes sense; in other cases, it does


The statement raises a variety of issues about morality, conscience,


In academic studies, the goal of a project is but a general

self-preservation, and economics. On balance, however, I

direction; what matters are the unexpected concrete findings

fundamentally agree with the notion that humans need not make “extraordinary” efforts—at the expense of money and jobs—to

on the way to the goal.


However, in industry and business, what is crucial is the

ensure the preservation of any endangered species.

attainment of a specific goal rather than the process toward

that goal.


There are three fundamental arguments for imposing on


In politics, failing to achieve a promised goal might mean a

ourselves at least some responsibility to preserve endangered

calamity for a politician. 过程和结果

species, which are culpability, capability, and





On the other hand are two compelling arguments against


On an individual level, we all engage in futile attempts to

placing a duty on humans to protect endangered species. The

alter facts—by pretending that certain things are not the way

first is essentially the Darwinian argument that extinction results from the inexorable process of so-called “natural selection” in which stronger species survive while weaker

they are because they are inconsistent with our wishes or

personal interests.


Nor can we alter facts by virtue of our inclinations or

ones do not.

passions when it comes to history. Historical event is not


Secondly, many animal extinctions are due to natural forces

rendered any less factual by either our ignorance or

which are far beyond our ability. The more money and jobs it

characterization of it.

would cost to save a certain species, the lower priority we


Similarly, when it comes to science, our wishes and desires

should place on doing so. 人类和自然--当务之急(资金、工作)和长远考虑(物种)

ultimately yield to the stubbornness of facts—by which I

mean empirical scientific evidence and the laws and

principles of the physical world. 客观和主观



127. "Facts are stubborn things. They cannot be altered by our

wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions."

136. "The absence of choice is a circumstance that is very, very

rare." 事实都是固执的。它不可能随着我们的愿望、喜好或者情绪而 改变。 没有选择的情况少之又少。

When it comes to certain aspect of our personal lives, and to


historical events and scientific truths, no measure of desire or even


Our collective life experience is that we make choices and

passion can change external reality.

decisions every day—on a continual basis. Common sense


dictates that humans have free will, and therefore the true


However, there is no need to be pessimistic about progress.

absence of choice is very rare. 独立


People often claim that life’s circumstances leave them with “no choice”. The fundamental problem with these sorts of


claim is that the claimants are only considering those choice

that are not viable or attractive.

139. "Every new generation needs to redefine 'right' and 'wrong' in


Besides, the contention that we are almost invariably free to

its own terms and according to the conditions of its own time."

choose is far more appealing from a socio-political standpoint 每一代人都要根据自己时代的情况和自己的说法来重新定义 对与错。

than the opposite claim. 独立题目



We should define some new items for better understanding of

137. "What we call progress is a matter of exchanging one

the development of techniques and enhancing the quality of

problem for another."

our life.

2. 我们所称之为进步的过程就是从一个问题变化到另一个问题。

However, rashness of redefining the terms may cause

detrimental effects to our society. Such as the sex liberty in

the U.S., which led to dramatic rise in juvenile delinquency.


3. 时间

Meanwhile, we should give no doubt to axioms.


Industrialization, a great historical progress which has

dramatically saved the limited labor force, has brought about


environmental problems.


Urbanization, another breakthrough in human history, has

141. "Most people recognize the benefits of individuality, but the

witnessed a rise in crime rates and disintegration of

fact is that personal economic success requires conformity."



虽然大多数人都承认个人的利益,但是事实上个人的经济成功 需要的是一致。

对于个性的最大考验在于一个人是否能够适应不断变化的社 会规范而不牺牲自己的原则。

Agree with concession

How to confront changing social conventions is a crucial


Regarding the sort of economic success that results from investing one’s wealth, the principles of investing dictate that

challenge to one’s character.


Those who can adapt to the changing social conventions such

those who seek risky investments in areas that are out of

as economic climate without sacrificing their principles are

favor with the majority of investors ultimately reap higher

more likely to succeed.

returns than those who follow the crowd.


However, an even more praiseworthy character is one who is


Turning to the sort of economic success that one achieves by way of one’s work, neither conformists nor non-conformists

willing to change his principles to adapt to the changing

situations when those principles are out of date. 个体和整体

necessarily achieve greater success than the other group.


However, in traditional service industries—such as finance,

accounting, insurance, legal services, and health


care—personal economic success comes not to

non-conformist but rather to those who can work most

146. "People who are the most deeply committed to an idea or

effectively within the constraints of established practices,

policy are the most critical of it."

policies and regulations. 个人和整体 对于一种想法或者政策最忠实的人往往是那些对其最严厉的 人。


145. "A crucial test of character is whether one is able to adapt to

Critical: Inclined to judge severely and find fault. 爱挑剔的倾向于进行严厉批判和找岔的

changing social conventions without sacrificing one's principles."


While I find this claim paradoxical on its face, the paradox is 很多人向往理想主义,但是它实际上总是带来失望或者麻烦。

explainable, and the explanation is well supported empirically.

Nevertheless, the claim is an unfair generalization in that it fails to

account for other empirical evidence serving to discredit it.

Idealism does more harm than good to society as well as


Are commitment and criticism mutually exclusive?



possible explanation is that individuals most firmly


An idealist is one who, on noticing that a rose smells better a

committed to an idea or policy are often the same people who

cabbage, concludes that it will also make better soup.

are most knowledgeable on the subject, and therefore are in


Political idealism such as communism brought catastrophes

the best position to understand and appreciate the problems

to former socialist countries.

with the idea or policy.


Individually, idealism, if it were not balanced by pragmatism,


Lending credence to this explanation for the paradoxical

would lead to personal failure.

nature of the speaker’s claim are the many historical cases of


Guided by practical plans, however, idealism can lead to

uneasy marriage between commitment to and criticism of the

hope and enthusiasm. 理想和现实

same idea or policy.


In the face of historical examples supporting the speaker’s

claim are innumerable influential individuals who were

idealism: The act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal

zealously committed to certain ideas and policies but who

form. 理想主义用理想的观点看待事物的行为或实践行为

were not critical of them, at least not outwardly.



156. "Choice is an illusion. In reality, our lives are controlled by

the society in which we live."

148. "Many people admire idealism, but it usually leads to

disappointment or trouble."


选择只是一种假象。实际上,我们的生活是被我们生活其中的 社会所控制的。


However, these sorts of subjective “observations” are actually subjective “interpretations” of what we observe.



Choice is a highly practical thing that everyone is confronted


with all the time.


However, not every one can tackle choice properly with

much easiness.

162. "One often hears about the need for individuals to take


Society is also influenced and controlled by our way of

responsibility for their own lives. However, the conditions in

living. 类似于现有环境后有意识

which people find themselves have been largely established long

before people become aware of them. Thus, the concept of


personal responsibility is much more complicated and unrealistic

than is often assumed."

157. "There is no such thing as purely objective observation. All 人们经常听说个人需要为他们自己的生活负责任。然而,人们 发现自己所处环境的存在要远远早于人们对其的认识。因此, 个人责任的概念要比通常人们想象的要复杂和不切实际。 纯粹客观的观察是不存在的。所有的观察都是主观的;观察总 是被观察者的预期或者喜好所左右的。

observation is subjective; it is always guided by the observer's

expectations or desires."

The statement can help us understand better the concept of A. It would be tempting to afford the speaker’s claim greater personal responsibility. merit than it deserves. After all, our everyday experience as 1. humans informs us that we often disagree about what we others. observe around us. 2. The environment in which we act, often uncontrollable, We all live in conditions that have been largely established by

exerts unforeseeable influence on our behavior. 33


Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the objective

165. "In any given field, the leading voices come from people who

conditions when we require a person to assume

are motivated not by conviction but by the desire to present


opinions and ideas that differ from those held by the majority."

-----------------------------在任何领域当中,领导作用总是来自于这些人,他们并不为传 统的观念所动,而是极力渴望表达那些和主流思想不同的观点 和想法。

163. "Most people live, whether physically or morally, in a very

restricted circle. They make use of a very limited portion of the

resources available to them until they face a great problem or



When it comes to political power, I would admit that a

deep-seated psychological need to be noticed or to be 大多数人在物质上和精神上都生活在一个非常有限的圈子里 面。除非要面对严重的问题或者危机,否则他们仅仅会利用有 效资源的极有限的一小部分。

different sometimes lies at the heart of a person’s drive

to political power and fame.


Nevertheless, for every leading political voice driven to


new ideas by a desire to be noticed or to be different, on


Many people are confined by the physical deficiencies or

can cite many other political leaders clearly driven

moral regulations in their way of living. They have to obey

instead by the courage of their convictions.

them to procure their reputation, fame, success, and so on.


Turning to the arts, creative urges are born not of ego


However, when confronted with crisis and the like, people

but rather of some intensely personal commitment to an

will use resources of others or of the community or even the

aesthetic ideal.

whole society.


As for the physical sciences, innovation and progress


can only result from challenging conventional

theories—that is, the status quo.




With respect to business innovation, I agree that it is the vision and commitment of key individuals—such as a firm’s

168. "Critical judgment of work in any given field has little value

unless it comes from someone who is an expert in that field."

founder or chief executive—from which business burgeon

and innovative products, services, and marketing and 批判性的判断在任何领域当中都是没什么用处的,除非它是来 自于该领域中的专家。

management strategies emerge.


Nevertheless, teamwork and individual enterprise are not


With respect to the social sciences, the social world presents

necessarily inconsistent, as the speaker would have us

a seamless web of not only anthropogenic but also physical


forces, which interact in ways that can be understood only in

the context of a variety of disciplines.



In contrast, the work of researchers in the purely physical

sciences can be judged only by their peers. 统一和分歧之专家

182. "It is dangerous to trust only intelligence."



Intelligence is sufficient in some cases but not in any case.

175. "It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation;


In scientific studies regarding the physical world, we should

the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation

depend only on intelligence for discovering and testing truths.

results from the enterprise and unique perception of an


However, in the realm of human affairs, we have to use both


our intelligence and our hearts to solve problems.

革新的动力往往来自于个人;革新的细节可能来自于团队,但 是实质的革新都是个人努力和独特思维的结果。


184. "It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."


3. 在掌握足够资料之前建立理论会导致严重的错误。

Practicality is also the overriding concern in contemporary



On the other hand, the claim amounts to an overstatement when it comes to today’s scientific endeavors.


A theory conjured up without the benefit of data amounts to little more than the theorist’s hopes and desires—what he or


she wants to be true and not be true.



By theorizing before collecting data the theorist also runs that

risk of interpreting that data in a manner which makes it

187. "It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What

appear to lend more credence to the theory than it actually

most people find difficult, however, is accepting the way these


new ideas are put into practice."

-----------------------------拥护革新和接受新想法很简单。但是在大多数人们看来,最困 难的是接受把这些新想法付诸实现的方式。

186. "Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and

talents must serve. Anything that is not obviously practical has

little value in today's world."


In areas of politics and law, new ideas are not often easily

accepted. 实用主义是我们现在主要的追求,一切的力量和才智都必须为 其服务。任何并非显著实用的东西在当今世界几乎是没有价值 的。


Yet once society grows to accept these new ideas, it seems

that it has an easier time accepting how they are put into



In contrast, consider innovations in the natural sciences. It


Practicality seems clearly to be the litmus test for education

seems that we universally embrace any new technology in the


name of progress. Of course there are always informed


Practicality also dictates what sort of art is produced today.

dissenters with legitimate concerns.



Yet the reasons why these dissenters oppose certain

192. "Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking

innovations have to do with their potential applications and

chances or risks than from careful and cautious planning." 在生活的所有领域中,成功往往更多的来自于把握机会或者冒 险而不是通过仔细谨慎的计划。

uses, not with the innovations themselves.


Careful and cautious planning is just as important as taking

188. "Success, whether academic or professional, involves an

chances or risks.

ability to survive in a new environment and, eventually, to change


Whatever goal we intend to accomplish, the first thing to do


is planning.

2. 成功,无论是学术上的还是职业上的,都涉及了适应新环境并 最终改变新环境的能力。

Chance favors only the prepared minds.


Taking risks without any planning is nothing but rashness.




Regarding academic success, the speaker overstates the

significance of environment.

194. "The best preparation for life or a career is not learning to be


Turning next to professional success, and considering the two traditional professions of law and medicine, the speaker’s claim unfairly overrates the ability to change one’s

competitive, but learning to be cooperative." 对于生活或者事业最好的准备不是学会竞争而是学会合作。

professional environment as a key ingredient of professional




Cooperation benefits every member of the team.


In contrast, when it comes to certain other professions, such as business and scientific research, the speaker’s claim is far


Every field of life requires people who are ready to cooperate

with others.

more compelling.


Only through cooperation can we accomplish great tasks.



What is most needed today might be learning to compete in

the spirit of cooperation.





199. "Truly innovative ideas do not arise from groups of people,

206. "People are too quick to take action; instead they should stop

but from individuals. When groups try to be creative, the members

to think of the possible consequences of what they might do." 人们现在太急于采取行动,实际上人们应该先停下来考虑一下 他们这么做可能导致的结果。

force each other to compromise and, as a result, creative ideas tend

to be weakened and made more conventional. Most original ideas

arise from individuals working alone." 真正有创意的想法并非来自于群体而是来自于个人。当群体试 图创新的时候,它的成员之间会被迫相互妥协,结果就是新想 法趋于弱化而更接近于传统。大部分新想法都是来自于独立工 作的个人。

It is always wise to think twice before you act.


More haste, less speed.


It might not be too difficult to persuade people to consider the

possible impacts of their actions on themselves.

3. 少数和多数之新创意

People should also think of the impacts of their actions on

other people. 现在和将来之思维和行动

Original ideas may arise from individuals working alone as well as

from groups of people working together.



It is true that individual thinkers or scientists working alone

formulated many original ideas in history.

208. "The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes


However, one should see that those great individuals actually

and interests. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values

benefited a lot from the work either of his contemporaries or

by observing the appearance and behavior of its people."

of the people before their time. 人们的眼神、穿着和动作都揭示了他们的态度和兴趣。你可以 透过观察一个社会中人们的外貌和举止来认识该社会的理念 和价值观。


While members of a group might force each other to

compromise, it is also true that they may inspire and

enlighten each other.



History informs us of the chilling effect suppression of free


Turning first to the way people look and dress, certain aspects of the outward appearance of a culture’s people do inform us

discourse and debate can have on progress. 统一和分歧之进步

of their ideas, attitudes and values.



The habits, rituals and lifestyles of a culture often do provide

accurate signals about its values.

210. "Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic


Finally, the statement overlooks a crucial distinction between

considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of

free societies and oppressed ones. 以小见大

finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly

anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents


or interest in a particular kind of work."

209. "Progress is best made through discussion among people who

大多数人选择职业是基于很实际的考虑:经济需求、找工作简 单、高薪水。很难得有人能从自己的潜质和兴趣出发去自由的 寻找一份特定的工作。

have contrasting points of view."


Although practical considerations often play a significant role in

In all realms of human endeavor, including the behavior and

occupational trends, ultimately the driving forces behind people’s

natural sciences as well as government and law, debate and

career decisions are individual interest and ability.

disagreement form the foundation for progress.


At first glance the balance of empirical evidence would seem


Regarding the physical sciences, our scientific method is

to lend considerable credence to the speaker’s claim

essentially a call for progress through opposition.


However, upon further reflection it becomes clear that the


The nature-nurture debate will continue to serve as a catalyst

relationship between career seekers and the supply of careers

for progress across the entire social spectrum.

is an interdependent one, and therefore it is unfair to

generalize about which one drives the other.



Another compelling argument against the speaker’s claim has

to do with the myriad of ways in which people earn their 只要值得,不择手段达到目的是合理的。



Although the idealist way is to achieve the noblest goal through

211. "Any decision-whether made by government, by a

the noblest means, in reality we sometimes have to resort to low

corporation, or by an individual person-must take into account

means in order to attain high goals.

future conditions more than present conditions." 任何一个决定,无论它来自政府、公司还是个人,都必须更多 地考虑将来的情况而不是现在的情况。


Theoretically, the means taken should be consistent with the

ends in view.


However, in order to restore peace and social order,

individuals states or the international community has

We should take into account both future and present conditions

repeatedly used force in history.

when we make a decision.


We should be alert to the possibility that individuals,


Any decision that does not take into account future conditions

organizations or government tend to plead a worthy goal in

will become obsolete as time goes by.

excuse of their contemptible means and private interests.


We should know that fact that nobody can foretell exactly

what will happen in the future.



Meanwhile, if we ignore the present conditions, our decision

will not work at all. 当务之急和百年大计之决定

216. "Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is

usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come


across the answer to another."

212. "If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is

最重要的发现或是创造都是偶然的:在我们为一个问题寻求答 案的时候,通常通过这个答案获得另外的收获。




I agree with the speaker insofar as insisting on find


Turning first to discoveries, I agree that discovery often

similarities between things can often result in unfair, and

occurs when we unexpectedly happen upon something in our

sometimes harmful, comparison.

quest for something else—such as an answer to unrelated


We should be especially careful when looking for similarities

question or a solution to an unrelated problem.

between people.


Many important discoveries are anticipated and sought out


The speaker goes too far—by overlooking a fundamental,


even philosophical, reason why we should always look for


In marked contrast to discoveries, creations are by nature

similarities between things. 分歧和统一

products of their creator’s purposeful designs.



226. "People are mistaken when they assume that the problems

225. "People often look for similarities, even between very

they confront are more complex and challenging than the

different things, and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so.

problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually

Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should

dispelled with increased knowledge and experience."

avoid the tendency to compare it to something else." 人们总是错误地认为自己面临的问题要比前人来得更复杂和 更具有挑战性。不断增加的知识和经验最终消除这种假象。 人们总是在寻找相同点,即使是在非常不同的事物间也不例 外,甚至有时候这样做是无用乃至有害的。实际上,我们应该 具体问题具体分析;我们应该尽量避免比较的倾向。 现在和过去


The speaker overlooks certain societal problems unique to today’s world, which are complex and challenging in ways

unlike any problems that earlier societies ever faced.



However, humans face certain universal and timeless

234. "Most people prefer restrictions and regulations to absolute

problems, which are neither more nor less complex and

freedom of choice, although they would probably deny such a

challenging for any generation than for preceding ones.



大多数人更喜欢约束和规则,而不是绝对自由的选择权,尽管 他们可能会否认这样的倾向。

231. " 'Moderation in all things' is ill-considered advice. Rather,

one should say, 'Moderation in most things,' since many areas of

human concern require or at least profit from intense focus."


History informs us that attempts to quell basic individuals

freedoms—of expression, of opinion and belief, and to come “做任何事都要适度”这句话是欠考虑的。更确切的说,我们 应该“对大多数事情都要适度”,因为人类在很多领域中遇到 的问题都需要全力以赴(解决),或者至少会从中获益。

and go as we please—invariably fail; however, reasonable

constraints on freedom are needed to protect freedom—and to

prevent a society from devolving into a state of anarchy

where life is short and brutish.


The virtues of moderation are undeniable. Moderation in all


Our preference for constraining our own freedom of choice is

things affords us the time and energy to sample more of what

evident on societal level as well as on individual level.

life and world have to offer. In contrast, lack of moderation 自由和约束

leads to a life out of balance.


Having acknowledged the wisdom of the old adage, I


nevertheless agree that under some circumstances, and for

some people, abandoning moderation might be well justified. 度的问题

235. "Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But

loyalty--whether to one's friends, to one's school or place of


employment, or to any institution--is all too often a destructive

rather than a positive force."


大多数人被告知忠诚是一种美德。 但是无论是对朋友、 对学校、 对单位还是对任何机构,忠诚时常都是弊大于利的。


Some of them may finally get frustrated because not every

one can accomplish great things; however, every one will

make progress through doing their best.


First consider the ways in which loyalty, if exercised in 理想和现实之努力篇

proper measure and direction, can be a positive force.


On the other hand, if misguided or overextended loyalty can


amount to divisive and destructive force. 统一和分歧之忠诚 all too often 时常


238. "Conformity almost always leads to a deadening of individual

creativity and energy."

236. "Encouraging young people to believe that they can 一致几乎总是阻隔个人的创造力和活力。

accomplish great things if they try hard enough is both misleading

and potentially harmful." 鼓励年轻人们相信只要他们努力就能够完成伟大的事情,这样 做不仅仅是在误导而且存在着潜在的危害性。


Whether conformity stifles individual energy depends on the

individual person involved.


Conformists find enhanced energy in certain corner of the

Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish

business world as well, particularly in traditional service

great things does more good than harm to them.

industries such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal


No one knows much he or she can achieve before trying.

services, and health care.


Encouraging young people to believe that they can


In sharp contrast, other people are nonconformists by nature.

accomplish great things gives them confidence, which helps

For these people a highly structured, bureaucratic

to bring out their potential.

environment only serves to quell motivation and energy.



As for whether conformity stifles individual creativity, one

240. "Although it is easy to respond positively to the work of

need only look around at the individuals whom we consider

another person or group, it is far more worthwhile to give negative

highly creative to conclude that this is indeed the case. 统一和分歧

feedback." 尽管对其他的个人或者群体的成就作积极的反应很容易,但是 给与负面的回应往往更有价值。


239. "Much of the information that people assume is 'factual'

Encouragement proves more valuable than negative feedback.

actually turns out to be inaccurate. Thus, any piece of information


People may not be as good as we tell them they are, but they

referred to as a 'fact' should be mistrusted since it may well be

will try harder thereafter.

proven false in the future."


Encouragement can make people happy and confident.

3. 大多数人们认为是事实的信息结果实际上都是不准确的。因 此,任何据称是事实的信息都应该被质疑,因为它在将来很可 能会被证明为是错误的。

Admittedly, honest negative feedback may help people see

their weakness.




On the one hand, we should not passively accept whatever is

passed off as fact; otherwise, human knowledge would never 第三类 教育



On the other hand, in certain cases undue skepticism can be

counterproductive and even harmful.

5. "A nation should require all its students to study the same

national curriculum until they enter college rather than allow 权威问题

schools in different parts of the nation to determine which


academic courses to offer."


一个国家应该要求所有的学生在进入大学之前都学习由国家 统一制定的课程,而不是允许由国家不同地区的学校去决定课 程的安排。 不管在校园外不同领域之间薪水的差异有多大,学校对于所有 学科老师的待遇应该是一视同仁的。比如,低年级的数学和美 术老师应该享有同样的收入,即便在校外,数学专家的收入一 反对 般是要比艺术家高得多。


On the one hand, a national curriculum contributes to

preserving a unified national culture and national cohesion.


The salary rate a teacher receives should be related not to his/


Furthermore, a general curriculum decided by authority rather

her discipline but his/her effort and contribution to the

than by local schools avoids limiting students to a narrow

educational course.

scope of knowledge too early.


Absolutely identical rate is unfair. Teachers of some


On the other hand, in a multi-cultural society, different ethnic

disciplines have to assume more harsh work under worse

communities should be given the opportunity to preserve and


promote their traditional cultures.


If the differences in salaries for related fields in the world


It’s beneficial to grant local schools the freedom to offer

outside of school or college are dismissed, schools and

students some elective courses, which can help the school to

colleges may have to face the loss of its staff.

build its unique culture charisma.



32. "A school or college should pay its teachers at the same rate in


all disciplines, regardless of differences in salaries for related

34. "Instead of requiring students to take courses in a variety of

fields in the world outside of school. For example, entry-level

disciplines--that is, courses ranging from the arts and the

teachers in mathematics and in the arts should receive the same

humanities to the physical and biological sciences--colleges and

pay, even if outside of school, math specialists earn a much higher

universities should allow students to enroll only in those courses

salary on average than do specialists in the arts."

that will help prepare them for jobs in their chosen fields. Such


concentration is necessary in today's increasingly work-oriented

39. "The intellectual benefits of attending a university or college


are vastly overrated: most people could learn more by studying

and reading on their own for four years than by pursuing a 与其要求学生们选修各种各样的学科----从艺术和人文科学到 物理和生物科学----大学还不如允许学生们仅仅去选择那些有 助于他们今后工作的学科。这种集中在当今这个工作至上的社 会是必要的。 大学学习的好处被过分的高估了:大多数人如果通过研究和阅 读的方式自学四年的话,会比追求一个大学学位学到的更多。

university or college degree."


To begin with, schools should attach enough importance to

courses that can help students prepare for jobs in their chosen




Schools offer systematical curriculum, qualified staff,


However, work-oriented courses is never incompatible with

libraries, facilities and so on, which are not available to

other courses such as arts, humanities and the like, which also

individuals who study on their own.

play an important role in one career success.


Studying with peers arouses competition and cooperation.


Inter-disciplinary study is crucial for the improvement of

Compulsory studies avoids laziness.

either discipline.


Qualified degrees help get a job offer more easily.


Though courses of a wide range of disciplines should be


However, degree does not mean everything. It is just a

made compulsory, sufficient freedom should be granted to

symbol. Even if you have a college degree, you still have to


work hard in order achieve career success. 大学和自学


50. "In order to improve the quality of instruction at the college


and university level, all faculty should be required to spend time


working outside the academic world in professions relevant to the


courses they teach."

51. "Education will be truly effective only when it is specifically

designed to meet the individual needs and interests of each 为了改善大学的教学质量,所有的教员都应该被要求花一定时 间到学术领域以外去参加和他们所教科目相关的工作。 教育只有被专门设计来满足每一个学生个人需求和兴趣的时 候才是真正有效率的。



Working experience in relevant professions enables college and

university faculty to offer practical instruction to students.

Student-oriented education is the most effective way to help

students learn.


First, faculty who are actively engaged in their fields come to


The traditional teacher-oriented education often neglects the

class with fresh insights and contagious excitement about the

individual needs and interests of each student, which proves

issue at hand.



Secondly, by keeping abreast with the changing demands of


Student-oriented education can most effectively involve

work as a professional, professors can help students who are

individual students in the learning process.

serious about pursuing a career in that field to make more


Nonetheless, winking at students’ unreasonable desires would

informed career decisions.

only result in chaos in education. 少数和多数


Thirdly, experience in the field can help a professor ferret out

cutting-edge and controversial issues—which might be


appropriate subjects for research and publication.

52. "Education encourages students to question and criticize, and


However, the teachers in some disciplines such as

therefore does little to promote social harmony."

mathematics, literature, history, philosophy, etc., may find it 教育鼓励学生们提出问题和进行批判,这样做的结果无助于促 进社会的和谐。

difficult to combine their teaching with relevant professional




The amount of money needed by universities is only a small

Encouraging students to question and criticize does not necessarily

percent of a nation’s Gross Domestic Product, and will surely

harm social harmony.

be compensated by the graduates in the future through the


Social harmony hinges on mutual understanding among

way of income taxation.

members of the society, which is achieved through active


Proving all students with higher education puts them on equal

communication rather than passive conformity.

footing with each other when they enter society—a


The ability to challenge existing authorities and paradigms

precondition of equal opportunity for all members of society. 奖学金

requires intensive training through education.


Encouraging students to question and criticize helps students


not only to learn more productively but also become qualified

55. "Competition for high grades seriously limits the quality of

citizens that will be able to actively participate in social

learning at all levels of education."

affairs. 教育问题 追求高分严重的限制了教育各阶段的学习质量。


Competition among students for higher grades does not

necessarily have a negative impact on the quality of learning.

53. "College and university education should be free for all


Admittedly, if education aims solely at cramming students for

students, fully financed by the government."

exams, the quality of learning will undoubtedly deteriorate.

2. 大学教育应该对所有学生免费,由政府来全额资助。

However, examinations do help students review their lessons

and master what they have learned.


Furthermore, the psychological pressure that competition


exerts on students is not always harmful.


Investment in education is always a wise choice for a nation. 分数


学校应该被要求去教授存在于所有人之间的重要联系,这样做 可以消灭战争、文化冲突和其他形式的纷争。


67. "Colleges should require students to engage in public-service

activities in order to assure that each student receives a balanced,


Human beings share many common interests and values, the

well-rounded education."

awareness of which would contribute to intercultural

understanding and cooperation. 大学应该要求学生们参加公益活动,这也是为了保证每一个学 生都能获得平衡而全面的教育。


Realizing the differences between different cultures would

help different peoples of the world communicate with each

other more effectively.



Considering the growing threat of cultural imperialism in this


Colleges today tend to isolate students from society.

information age, it might be more urgent for schools to give


However, we should realize that participating in some social

more emphasis on cultural differences.

activities may actually contribute to their academic work. 分歧和统一


To train qualified citizens for society, colleges should arrange

for public-service activities to increase student’s sense of


social responsibility. 少数和多数之社会实践和全面教育

80. "All students should be required to take courses in the sciences,

even if they have no interest in science."


所有的学生都应该被要求去学习科学课程,即使他们对科学毫 无兴趣。

78. "Schools should be required to teach the essential

interconnectedness of all human beings and thus help eliminate

wars, cultural clashes, and other forms of conflict."

Taking courses in the sciences benefits not only students in the

sciences but also students in humanities.



The research methods in the sciences can be applied to the

94. "Universities should require every student to take a variety of

studies of humanities.

courses outside the student's field of study because acquiring


Students of humanities and social sciences may bring fresh

knowledge of various academic disciplines is the best way to

and constructive perspectives and viewpoints to natural

become truly educated."

science classes. 大学应该要求每一个学生在自己专业课外选修各种学科,因为 获得各种学科的知识才是获得真正教育的最好途径。


Some knowledge of the sciences is a must for everyone living

in an age in which science and technology play a dominant

role. 现实和理想之学习与兴趣




True education amounts to far more than gaining the knowledge and ability to excel in one’s major course of study and in one’s professional career.

90. "College students should be encouraged to pursue subjects that

interest them rather than seek programs that promise entry into the

job market."


Becoming truly educated also requires sufficient mastery of

one academic area to permit a student to contribute 大学学生应该被鼓励去学习他们感兴趣的学科而不是那些容 易找工作的学科。

meaningfully to society later in life.


Nevertheless, the call for a broad educational experience as

the path to becoming truly educated comes with one


important caveat—in the pursuit of true education students


Today’s parents attach too much importance to the job

must be careful not to become a dilettante. 必修课和选修课

prospects of their children’s education.


However, empirical evidence suggests that young people are


more likely to succeed in a career that interests them. 现实和理想之兴趣

98. "Colleges and universities should offer more courses on

popular music, film, advertising, and television because



contemporary culture has much greater relevance for students than

Grade 连续 2 次出现,这里不是学历、学位的意思,学历、学 位应该是 degree。 教育之分数

do arts and literature of the past."

大学应该开设更多关于流行音乐、电影、广告和电视的课程, 因为当代文化比起过去的文学和艺术与学生们更加息息相关。

The speaker fails to see the positive effects of the pressure exerted

by exams.

Agree with concession Popular culture is a mirror of society’s impulses and values.


Admittedly, exams might exert some negative impact on




Knowledge of popular films, music, and art enables a person


However, competition for high grades among students could

to find common ground to relate to other people, which leads

motivate students to work hard.

to better communication between different subcultures.

Well-prepared exam questions could also help students review


Nevertheless, emphasizing the study of popular culture at the

their lessons.

expense of studying classical art and literature can carry

harmful consequences for students, as well as for society. 过去和现在之流行课程


102. "For better or worse, education is a process that involves


revising the ideas, beliefs, and values people held in the past."

100. "The pressure to achieve high grades in school seriously 不论好坏,教育是一个修正人们过去所持有的理念、信仰和价 值观的过程。

limits the quality of learning. An educational environment without

grades would promote more genuine intellectual development."

在学校获得高分的压力严重得限制了学习的质量。一个没有分 数的教育环境将会促进真正的智力发展。

Education is far more involved than just revising people’s old

ideas, beliefs and values.


Education often inputs, rather than revise, ideas and values to

people’s mind.



The ultimate purpose of education is to teach the young

106. "All students should be required to take at least one course in

generation how to confront the challenges of the present. 除旧取新的过程

ethics, even if taking the course means a decreased emphasis on

academic subjects."


所有的学生都应该被要求至少选修一门道德课,即使学这门课 意味着会影响学术课程的学习。

104. "It is primarily through formal education that a culture tries to

perpetuate the ideas it favors and discredit the ideas it fears."

1. 如果一个文化想要它认为好的理念永世长存而摈弃它厌恶的 理念,主要是通过正规的教育。

Nowadays, people tend to attach less and less importance to

the inculcation of morality.


Knowledge of ethics provides students with a correct view of

life and career.


I agree with the speaker with respect to formal grade-school


The goal of education is to help students grow not only

and even high-school education, yet the degree to which our

intellectually, but also ethically. 现实和道德

grade schools and high schools emphasize indoctrination

should not be overstated. Although the speaker’s assertion has some merit when it



112. "Some educational systems emphasize the development of

comes to the education of young people, I find it erroneous

students' capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, but students

when it comes to higher education.

would benefit more from an education that also taught them to


The speaker also ignores other means by which our culture

explore their own emotions."

perpetuates ideas it favors and discredits ideas it fears. 教育问题 一些教育体系强调学生逻辑推理思维能力的发展,但是那些教 学生们探究自身情绪的教育对学生们才更有好处。

While I concede that in certain fields students are well served by 52

nurturing their emotions and feelings, in most academic

deficient in knowledge, absolute free mind will lead to total

disciplines it is by cultivating intellect rather than emotions that

simplicity and naivety.

students master their discipline and, in turn, gain a capacity to


Formal education plays a very important role in the process

contribute to the well-being of society.

of freeing the mind and spirit.

Basic knowledge, which can

only be attained through formal education, is the prerequisite for freeing people’s mind and spirit.


I agree with the speaker insofar as undue emphasis on reason

and logical thinking can have a chilling effect on the arts. 解放思想


Aside from its utility in the arts, however, the exploration of

emotions has little place in educational systems.

Indeed, on a systemic scale undue emphasis on the exploration of


our emotions can have deleterious societal consequences.

130. "How children are socialized today determines the destiny of

Emotions invite irrationality in thought and action, the danger of

society. Unfortunately, we have not yet learned how to raise

which are all too evident in contemporary world history.

children who can help bring about a better society."


现在孩子的社会化程度决定了社会的命运。可惜的是,我们还 没有学会教孩子怎么样去建设一个更好的社会。

128. "It is often asserted that the purpose of education is to free the

mind and the spirit. In reality, however, formal education tends to The claim that society’s destiny hinges on how children are

restrain our minds and spirits rather than set them free."

socialized, while appealing in some respects, is an over-statement 教育的目的据称是要解放思想和精神。然而实际上,正规的教 育是要遏制我们的思维和精神而不是解放他们。

at best. And the claim that we have not yet learned how to raise

children who can better society is poorly supported by empirical



Some people might argue that the overwhelming curriculum

of schools would restrain our mind and spirit. However, if



Unless a child is allowed sufficient opportunities for healthy

独特的思维习惯,所以在自然科学、人文科学和社会科学之间 几乎是不存在有意义的交互的。

interaction with peers, that child is likely to grow into an

ineffectual, perhaps even an anti-social, adult.


However, socialization is only one factor influencing the


extent to which

an individual will ultimately contribute to a


Admittedly, the university community regards the three

better society. Turning to the second claim, if we define a “better” society as

different academic endeavors as separate realms.



Actually, the three fields are intrinsically interrelated to each

one characterized by greater tolerance of differing viewpoints


and people who are different from ourselves, greater respect


Combining the relevant methods used respectively in the

for individual rights, and greater cooperation across cultural

three fields will be of great help to our study and learning. 学科之间的关系

and national boundaries, then the children of the most recent

half-century are creating a better society. 下一代


134. "Students should be encouraged to realize that mental agility


and rhetorical skill must be accompanied by sincerity and the true

132. "The university community consists of three different

conviction of their own beliefs."

worlds----the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences. 学生们应该被鼓励而意识到思维的敏捷和口齿的伶俐必须和 真诚与坚持自己的信仰相伴随存在。

Because each world operates on its own assumptions and has its

own special habits of thinking, rarely is there meaningful

interaction among the sciences, the humanities, and the social



Our belief about what we are and what can be precisely

determine what we will be. 大学包括了三个不同的领域----科学、人文学科以及社会学科。 因为每一个领域都根据自己的前提运转,每一个领域都有自己



However, today’s education gives too much stress to mental

154. "Both parents and communities must be involved in the local

agility and rhetorical skills, which are skin-deep compared to

schools. Education is too important to leave solely to a group of

sincerity and true conviction of beliefs. 现实与道德

professional educators."

153. "Students should bring a certain skepticism to whatever they

父母和社会都必须参与到地方的学校中。教育太重要了以至于 不能把教育完全交给一群职业教育者。

study. They should question what they are taught instead of

accepting it passively." Educators, parents and communities can and should join efforts to

无论学生们学习什么都应该带着一定的疑问。学生们应该质疑 老师教授的东西而不只是被动的接受。

create a healthy learning environment for children.


First of all, we should never look down upon the key role that

professional educators play in fostering the younger


Skepticism is perhaps most important in the physical science. B.


Passive acceptance of prevailing principles quells innovation,

Meanwhile, both parents and communities can make

invention and discovery. C.

significant contribution to school education.


The value of skepticism is not limited to the physical sciences,

Without a constructive family and community environment, it

of course. (sociology, political science, law)

would be almost impossible for school education to fulfill its


Even in the arts, students must challenge established styles

noble mission. 教育之合作

and forms rather than learn to imitate them; otherwise, no

genuinely new art would ever emerge.


Admittedly, undue skepticism might be counterproductive in

educating young children. 教育问题之学而好问

191. "Education should be equally devoted to enriching the

personal lives of students and to training students to be productive




教育应该平衡的一方面丰富学生的个人生活,一方面把学生培 养成训练有素的工作者。

with a value system, a standard, a set of ideas--not to prepare them

for a specific job."

In my view, preparing students for the mundane aspects of work 教育的目的应该是给予学生一个价值体系,一个标准,一整套 想法----而不是为一个具体工作培养他们。

should be secondary to providing a broader education that equips

students with historical and cultural perspective, as well as

thoughtful and principled personal value systems and priorities.


One reason why educators should emphasize personal


By helping students develop a thoughtful, principled value

enrichment over job preparation is that rote technical

system educators actually help prepare students for jobs.

knowledge and skill do not help a student determine which


Another reason for my viewpoint lies in the fact that

goals in life are worthwhile and whether the means of

technology-driven industries account for an ever-increasing

attaining those goals are ethically or morally acceptable.

portion of our jobs.


Another reason why educators should emphasize personal


Besides helping students develop their own thoughtful value

enrichment over job preparation is that specific knowledge

systems, educators should instill in students certain basic

and skills needed for jobs are changing more and more

values upon which any democratic society depends;


otherwise, our freedom to choose our own jobs and careers


A third reason why educators should emphasized personally

might not survive in the long term.

enriching course work—particularly anthropology, sociology,


Admittedly, values and behavioral standards specific to

history, and political philosophy—is that these courses help

certain religions are best left to parents and churches.

students understand, appreciate and respect other people and

their viewpoints. 现实和理想

213. "Too much emphasis has been placed on the need for

students to challenge the assertions of others. In fact, the ability to

compromise and work with others--that is, the ability to achieve -----------------------------

social harmony--should be a major goal in every school."

201. "The purpose of education should be to provide students


人们过于重视了学生们挑战他人主张的要求。实际上,达成社 会和谐的能力,比如容让和协作能力,应该成为每一所学校的 主要目标。


At first blush the statement appears compelling. I agree with

the statement insofar as any society that values its own future

well-being must be attentive to its children’s talents.


Beyond this concession, however, I disagree with the

Encouraging students to think critically does not necessarily

statement because it seems to recommend that certain

conflict with our pursuit of social harmony.

children receive special attention at the expense of other


Critical thinking is key to students both academically and

children—a recommendation that I find troubling.



It is necessary for students to criticize the views of each other


in their studies, which does not necessarily lead to conflicts

222. "Learning for learning's sake is an outdated concept. Today,

among them.

education must serve an ulterior purpose and be directed toward


Compromising is harmful in academic pursuits.

clear goals." 孤立的教育已经是过时的想法了。现在的教育应该作用于更高 的目的并且由清晰的目标来指引。

--------------------------While education must serve clear purpose, “learning for learning’s sake” is not necessarily out-dated.

214. "Society should identify those children who have special

talents and abilities and begin training them at an early age so that

they can eventually excel in their areas of ability. Otherwise, these


The primary purpose of education is to cultivate qualified

talents are likely to remain undeveloped."

citizens and builders of a democratic society.

2. 社会应该发现那些具有特殊天赋和能力的孩子,并且在年幼的 时候就开始训练他们以便于这些孩子最终可以在他们擅长的 领域中出类拔萃。否则这些天才就可能会止步不前。

Another purpose of education is to train creative workers who

can fill in all the occupations of society. The idea of “learning for learning’s sake” does not necessarily conflict with education’s pursuit of the above





The statement overlooks circumstances under which praise might


be inappropriate, as well as ignoring the beneficial value of

223. "Education is primarily a personal matter; it has little to do

constructive criticism, and sometimes even punishment.

with school or college." 教育主要是个人的私事,和中小学或者大学基本上没什么关 系。


The recommendation that parents, teachers and employers

praise positive actions is generally good advice.


While recommending praise for positive actions is

fundamentally sound advice, this advice should carry with it

Education is not a personal matter in a large sense, and it certainly

certain caveats.

has a lot to do with school or college.


As for ignoring negative actions, I agree that minor


It is not difficult to understand that education directly benefits

peccadilloes can, and in many cases should, be overlooked.

the individual receiver of education.


At the same time, some measure of constructive criticism and


Furthermore, the education of an individual concerns the

critique, and sometimes even punishment, is appropriate.

interests of the whole society. 赞扬和批评


With the dramatic increase in knowledge today, it is

impossible to educate oneself without the involvement of


school or college. 少数和多数

230. "College students--and people in general--prefer to follow

directions rather than make their own decisions. Therefore,


colleges should eliminate as many choices as possible in order to

228. "The best way to teach--whether as an educator, employer, or

offer students clear direction." 大学学生和普通大众宁愿听从指示而不愿意自己做决定。因 此,大学应该尽可能为学生减少选择以便于为学生们提供一个

parent--is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones."

无论是作为教育者、雇主或者是父母,教育最好的方法就是赞 扬积极的行为而无视消极的行为。




As for the speaker’s threshold claim, I concede that under


A common misconception about education is that the so-called “important ideas” students learn at schools have

certain circumstances people prefer to take direction from


nothing to do with the practical world. Actually, students’ knowledge of the outside world


When it comes to particular tasks in which college professors


are more experienced and knowledgeable, following their

contributions to their academic studies.

directions is to be preferred, for failing to do so can result in


Furthermore, the ultimate purpose of education is to train

costly mistakes.

workers and citizens who can adapt themselves to and make


However, when it comes to decisions about major and minor

contributions to the society outside the campus. 理想和现实

fields of study, curriculum choices, and other broad decisions,

for the most part students themselves—and not college

administrators—should be the final decision-makers. 精英和大众之选择权 第四类 科技


232. "The purpose of education should be to create an academic

7. "The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing

environment that is separate from the outside world. This kind of

record of contemporary life that it has become a more important

environment is ideal because it allows students to focus on

form of documentation than written records."

important ideas without being held back by practical concerns." 教育的目的应该是要创造出一个隔离于外界的学术环境。这样 的环境最理想因为这样可以使学生们不受功利的干扰而专注 于重要的理念。 摄像机可以通过如此精确而有力的记录手段来再现当代生活, 因此它已经代替书面记录成为了一种更重要的记录手段。

Although I agree that a video provides a more objective and

accurate record of an event’s spatial aspects, there is far more to

It is near-sighted to isolate students from the outside world.

document in life than what we see and hear. Thus the speaker

overstates the comparative significance of video as a documentary




For the purpose of documenting temporal, spatial events and


experiences, I agree that a video record is usually more


accurate and more convincing than a written record.

66. "As people rely more and more on technology to solve


Nonetheless, for certain other purposes written records are

problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely

more advantageous and more appropriate than video records.



Finally, a video record is of not use in documenting statistical 当人们变得越来越依赖技术解决问题的时候,人类独立思考的 能力将肯定会有所衰退。

or quantitative information. 记录手段:现代摄像机和印刷术


30. "The primary goal of technological advancement should be to

Technology is a double-edged sword that may either serve or harm

increase people's efficiency so that everyone has more leisure

human interests.



On the one hand, it is possible that people may become the

slaves of technology. 技术进步的首要目标应该是提高人们的效率以便于每个人都 享有更多的闲暇时光。


On the other hand, technology may save people’s time and

energy so that they could devote themselves to more creative

and meaningful work.



Moreover, technology provides people with effective


The chief reason for my disagreement lies in the empirical

instruments for intellectual work. 技术进步之人和技术

proof: with technological advancement comes diminished

leisure time. Meanwhile, the suggestion that technology’s chief goal



69. "Government should place few, if any, restrictions on

should be to facilitate leisure is simply wrongheaded. There

scientific research and development"

are far more vital concerns that technology can and should 政府应该少限制科学研究和发展。





107. "Instant communication systems encourage people to form


Without government funding, scientists would find it difficult

hasty opinions and give quick replies rather than take the time to

to carry out large-scale projects.

develop thoughtful, well-reasoned points of view."


Government can also organize scientists to solve the most 即时通讯系统促使人们匆忙的做出判断并很快的给出回答,而 不是花时间去形成深思熟虑和理由充分的观点。

urgent problems that concern society.


However, government should refrain from interfering with

the freedom of scientific enquiry.

Instant communication systems tend to discourage thoughtful and 技术之政府限制 well-reasoned points of view. -----------------------------1. 88. "Technologies not only influence but actually determine social 2. customs and ethics." communication—forces people to form hasty opinions rather The pressure of time and space—a key feature of instant Instant communication systems usually require quick replies.

than thoughtful and well-reasoned points of view. 技术不仅仅影响而且实际上是决定了社会传统和道德规范。 3. On the contrary, traditional ways of communication such as

hand-written letters or face-to-face discussion are more likely 1. Technologies have radically changed the way we spend to induce in-depth thinking. holidays. 技术进步之即时判断


The new ways of communication brought about by electronic -----------------------------technology have transformed the way we associate with each

other in our daily lives. 114. "Humanity has made little real progress over the past century 3. However, we should not let technologies determine our or so. Technological innovations have taken place, but the overall ethics. condition of humanity is no better. War, violence, and poverty are 技术进步之社会影响


still with us. Technology cannot change the condition of




人文学科在过去的一百年左右止步不前。技术在不断进步而人 文学科的整体条件却没有改善。战争、暴力和贫困仍然困扰着 我们。技术无法改变人文学科的处境。

115. "It is through the use of logic and of precise, careful

measurement that we become aware of our progress. Without such

tools, we have no reference points to indicate how far we have

advanced or retreated."

Although I agree that technology cannot ultimately prevent us 通过逻辑和精确仔细的衡量,我们得以明白自己的进步。如果 没有这些手段,我们就没有参考来了解我们进步了多少或者退 步了多少。

from harming one another, the statement fails to account for the

significant positive impact that the modern industrial and

computer revolutions have had on the quality life—at least in the

developed world.

In certain endeavors, quantitative measurements and logical


I agree with the statement insofar as there is no technological

analysis of data are essential for us to determine whether and to

solution to the enduring problems of war, poverty, and

what extent we are progressing or regressing. However, in other

violence, for the reason that they stem from certain aspects of

realms, objective data provides little guidance for determining

human nature—such as aggression and greed.



For every technological innovation helping to reduce human

suffering is another that has served primarily to add it. Notwithstanding technology’s limitations in preventing war, poverty, and violence, 20th Century technological innovation


As for monitoring individual progress, the extent to which


careful measurement and logical analysis of data are required

depends on the specific endeavor. In the area of personal

has enhanced the overall standard of living and comfort level

finance, objective measurements are critical. In the area of one’s physical well-being, however,

of developed nations.



Of course, such progress has not come without costs.

quantitative measurement might be useful yet insufficient.



On a societal level, as on a personal level, the extent to which


Admittedly, scientific research whose societal benefits are

careful measurement and logic are needed to determine

immediate, predictable, and profound should continue to be a

progress also depends on the endeavor. In macroeconomics,

high priority.

as in personal finance, objective measurements are critical.


However, this is not to say that research whose benefits are


In contrast, socio-political progress is less susceptible to

less immediate or clear should be given lower priority. First of all, if we strictly follow the speaker’s suggestion, who

objective measurement.

would decide which areas of research are more worthwhile

than others? Researchers cannot be left to decide. 技术进步之人类进步


Secondly, to compel all researchers to focus only on certain


areas would be to force many to waste their true talents.

119. "When research priorities are being set for science, education,


Thirdly, it is difficult to predict which research avenues will

or any other area, the most important question to consider is: How

ultimately lead to the greatest contributions to society. 技术进步之改善人民生活

many people's lives will be improved if the results are successful?"

-----------------------------当研究的重点被置于科学、教育或者其他领域中时,最重要的 问题就是要考虑如果研究获得成功会有多少人的生活得以改 善。

124. "Instant foods, instant communication, faster

transportation-all of these recent developments are designed to

save time. Ironically, though, instead of making more leisure time

available, these developments have contributed to a pace of human

I agree insofar as areas of research certain to result in immediate

affairs that is more rushed and more frantic than ever before."

and significant benefits for society should continue to be a priority. Yet, strictly followed, the speaker’s recommendation would have a 方便食品、 即时通讯、 更快捷的交通----所有这些最新的发展都 是为了节省时间。具有讽刺意味的是,这样的发展并没有带来 更过的休闲时间,反而使人们的生活节奏前所未有的匆忙和混 乱。

harmful chilling effect on research and new knowledge.


While I agree that leisure time is declining as a result of


efficiencies which technology has brought about, whether the


Undoubtedly, technology is the prerequisite for modern

irony to which the speaker refers is real or imagined depends on


what one considers to be the chief aim of technology.


Admittedly, some people use technology for negative or even

evil purposes.


Few would disagree that technology has enhanced the speed


In that case, it is humanity rather than technology itself that

and efficiency with which we travel, prepare our food, plan

should be the culprit.

and coordinate projects, and communicate with one another.



What explains the irony—this decline in leisure despite

135. "While most of the environmental problems we face result

increase in efficiency that new technologies have brought

from the use of technology, society must depend upon technology

about? I agree that technology itself is the culprit. We use the

to find solutions to these problems." 虽然我们面临的大多数环境问题都是因为技术的使用,但是社 会必须依靠技术来寻求解决的办法。

additional free time that technology affords us not for leisure

but rather for work.


Yet there are far more vital concerns which technology seeks

to address; therefore, the above-mentioned irony does not

Depending upon technology to tackle environmental problems is

seem so ironic after all. 技术进步之生活节奏

an important but not sufficient solution.


The use of technology should be largely responsible for the


environmental problems.

129. "Technology is a necessary but not always a positive force in


It is true that technology will help us solve many

modern life."

environmental problems.

3. 技术对于现代生活是不可或缺的,但并不总是发挥积极的作 用。

However, if human beings do not change their attitude toward

nature, technology alone will not be able to save us. 技术对人类的影响之环保



movies: we all need to “get away” from our familiar routines

150. "Because of television and worldwide computer connections,

and surroundings from time to time.

people can now become familiar with a great many places that


In fact, computer connectivity might actually provide a boon

they have never visited. As a result, tourism will soon become

for tourism.



Admittedly, travel for purposes other than tourism might

eventually decline, as the business world becomes 由于电视和全球范围内的计算机网络,人们现在可以熟悉很多 以前从未涉足过的地方。其结果就是使得旅游变得过时了。

increasingly dependent on Internet. 技术进步对人类社会的影响之旅游

(旅游将会被淘汰) obsolete: 过时的,废弃的

I agree that these technologies might eventually serve to reduce


travel for certain purposes other than tourism. However, I strongly

disagree that tourism will become obsolete, or that it will even

151. "High-speed electronic communications media, such as

decline, as a result.

electronic mail and television, tend to prevent meaningful and

thoughtful communication."


As for the claim that television will render tourism obsolete, 高速电子通讯媒体,例如电子邮件和电视,在逐渐地抑制有意 义的和有思想性的交流。

we already have sufficient empirical evidence that this will

simply not happen.


It is somewhat more tempting to accept the speaker’s further

claim that computer connectivity will render tourism

Agree with concession


Although ample empirical evidence suggests so with respect to


Moreover, in my view tourism will continue to thrive for the

television, the answer is far less clear when it comes to

same reason that people still go out for dinner or to the

communication via computers.



Few would argue that since its inception broadcast television

publication of knowledge is called “e-book”—another form

has greatly enhanced communication to the masses.

of book. 技术进步对人类社会的影响之阅读


Media such as email and the Web are interactive by design,

yet email is often used to avoid face-to-face encounters, and


in practice is used as a means of distributing quick memos.

159. "The human mind will always be superior to machines


With respect to Web-based communication, the myriad of

because machines are only tools of human minds."

educational sites, interactive and otherwise, is strong 人类的智慧将总是高于机器,因为机器只是人类智慧的工具。

evidence that the Web tends to enhance, rather than prevent,

meaningful communication. 技术进步对人类社会的影响之交流


The statement is clearly accurate insofar as machines are

tools of human minds.



As for the statement’s second claim, in certain respects

155. "Contemporary society offers so many ways of learning that

machines are superior.

reading books is no longer very important."


Up till now, the notion of human-made machine that develop

the ability to think on their own, and to develop so-called 当代社会提供了如此之多的学习手段以至于读书已经变得不 再那么重要了。 “emotional intelligence”, has been pure fiction. 技术进步对人类社会的影响(类似于影响和决定人类传统)



Books provide us knowledge, especially theoretical one.

166. "Over the past century, the most significant contribution of


Admittedly, we can learn a lot from others via the advanced

technology has been to make people's lives more comfortable."

means of communication, but this method has its limitations. 在上个世纪,技术最有意义的贡献就是使得人们的生活越来越 舒适了。


Some might argue that they can acquire the correspondent

knowledge through Internet. The complete knowledge of one

area is indeed available on the Internet; however, such



Everybody benefits from the contribution of the technology

sociological and environmental price of such progress may

to facilitate his or her private lives and works.

have outweighed its benefits.


Many preeminent innovations of technology over the past


In certain aspects, digital technology tends to diminish our

century have greatly improved the development of society

quality of life and create its own legion of human slaves.

and industry.


On the other hand, by relegating repetitive tasks to computers,


Admittedly, with the development of technology, some

digital technology has spawned great advances in medicine

problems arises---- green house effect, nuclear threats,

and physics, helping us to better understand the world, to

environmental pollutions, etc. However, such drawbacks of

enhance our health, and to prolong our lives. 技术对人类社会的影响

technology do not surpass the benefit it brings about. 技术进步对人类的影响


219. "Now that computer technology has made possible the rapid


accessing of large amounts of factual information, people are less

196. "Technology creates more problems than it solves, and may

likely than ever to think deeply or originally. They feel unable to

threaten or damage the quality of life."

compete with--much less contribute to--the quantity of

information that is now available electronically." 技术解决了问题,但是带来了更多的问题,并且可能会威胁或 损害生活质量。 既然电脑技术已经使人们及时接触大量真实信息成为可能,那 么人们就不太可能像以前那样去深刻地或者创造性地思考了。 对于通过电子手段获得的信息量,人们已经感觉跟不上了,并 且个人的作用已经减弱了。

While mechanical automation may have diminished our quality of

life on balance, digital automation is doing more to improve life

than to undermine its quality.


Admittedly, mechanical automation spawned entire industries,

The availability of large amounts of factual information through

creating jobs, stimulating economic growth, and supplying a

the Internet does not necessarily hinder people from thinking

plethora of innovative conveniences. Nevertheless, the

deeply or originally.



No one would doubt that computer technology has led us into

Computer Assisted Instruction has several advantages over

an age of information, putting us on an unprecedented

traditional ways of teaching.

advantageous position to access and use the boundless sea of


First of all, the computer has the ability to accommodate


individual differences in learning speed.


And there is no denying the possibility that we suffer from a


In addition, the computer provides students with a stress-free

new problem—information overload.

learning environment.


However, we should be clear that the task of human beings


A third advantage of CAI is that the computer can give a

today is not to compete with computer technology in terms of

student immediate feedback.

the quantity of information we can produce


The possibility of students being distracted from learning by


We should and we can make full use of the large amounts of

new teaching equipment should not be used as an excuse to

information available electronically for research purposes and

prevent teachers and students from benefiting from

make original contributions.

technological progress.

技术对人类的影响之多媒体教育 全球化之信息



233. "Although innovations such as video, computers, and the

237. "Computers and video technology can make facsimiles of

Internet seem to offer schools improved methods for instructing

original works such as paintings and historical documents

students, these technologies all too often distract from real

available to everyone. The great advantage of this new technology


is that it will enable anyone--not just scholars--to conduct in-depth

research without having access to the original works." 尽管诸如电视、电脑和互联网这样的发明似乎给学校教育提供 了进步的手段,但是所有这些技术往往也是在偏离真正的学 习。 电脑和影像技术可以让普通人接触到像绘画和历史文献这样 的原始资料的复制品。这项新技术最大的好处就是可以让任何


人,不仅仅是学者们,即使无法接触到这些原始资料也一样可 以进行深入的研究。

通常,我们从与我们意见相同的人身上学到的要比从那些与我 们意见相悖的人身上学的东西要多得多;(因为)意见不统一 会带来压力并且阻碍学习。

The speaker exaggerates the power of computers and video


Admittedly, under some circumstances disagreement with

technology in academic research.

others can be counterproductive to learning.


Undoubtedly, the new technology can make paintings and


Disagreement can also inhibit learning when two opponents

historical documents available to more people, thus

disagree on fundamental assumptions needed for meaningful

contributing to academic research.

discourse and debate.


However, not anyone can conduct in-depth research once


However, it is through debate that human knowledge

research sources are available.

advances whether at the personal, community or global level.


Besides, the facsimiles made by the new technology—no


matter how accurate they are—can never replace the original

4. "No field of study can advance significantly unless outsiders


bring their knowledge and experience to that field of study." 在任何一个研究领域当中,除非有该领域之外的人引进他们的




Outsider: a person does not belong to a particular group 第五类 学习

There is no doubt that different disciplines are interrelated and that 1. "We can usually learn much more from people whose views we

the knowledge of one field can shed light on the studies of other

share than from people whose views contradict our own;


disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning."



Knowledge of statistics was introduced into the fields of

28. "Students should memorize facts only after they have studied

sociology and history, contributing to the researchers in those

the ideas, trends, and concepts that help explain those facts.


Students who have learned only facts have learned very little."


Literary critics borrow new ideas formulated by philosophers 学生们在记忆知识的时候应该先学习有助于解释那些知识的 理念、 潮流和概念。 仅仅死学知识的学生是学不到什么东西的。

to further their studies.


When biology and chemistry met, biochemistry came into



If we learn only facts, we learn very little.

2. 闭门造车,旁观者清

Postponing the memorization of facts until after one learns

ideas and concepts holds certain advantages.



Conceding that students must learn ideas and concepts, as

14. "It is necessary for everyone to read poetry, novels, mythology

well as facts relating to them, in order to learning anything

and other types of imaginative literature."

meaningful, I nevertheless disagree that the former should

always precede the latter. 每个人都应该阅读诗歌、 小说、 神话以及各种各样的想象文学。


The speaker misunderstands the process by which we learn

Reading imaginative literature is beneficial for everyone.

ideas and concepts, and by which we develop new ones. Strict adherence to the speaker’s advice would surely lead to


Imagination is a precondition of any creative work.



Reading imaginative literature enriches one’s imagination.

ill-conceived ideas, concepts and theories. 局部和整体之触类旁通


Reading imaginative literature is also a pleasant way of




42. "Because learning is not a solitary activity but one that


requires collaboration among people, students of all ages will

benefit academically if they work frequently in groups."


2. 由于学习不是一种孤立的行为而是需要人们之间合作的,所以 各种年龄的学生如果经常小组学习的话就会在学术上受益匪 浅。

However, there is high likelihood that book knowledge may

not apply to the particular situation one faces here and now.


Therefore, it is always necessary to test the knowledge gained

from books through practice. 直接经验和间接经验



Younger students may learn patience, tact, experience and


deliberation from elder ones.

59. "Too much emphasis is placed on role models. Instead of


Senior students may absorb inspiration, vigor, ambition, and

copying others, people should learn to think and act independently

enthusiasm from junior ones. Teamwork spirit is crucial for student’s career success.

and thus make the choices that are best for them."



人们在榜样上投入了太多的注意力。与其模仿别人,还不如学 习独立思考和做出最适合自己的选择。


57. "The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is much


richer and broader than what can be learned from direct


Children need role models to help them develop their


personality and character.

2. 通过书本获得的知识要比通过直接体验获得的知识要更加丰 富和广泛。

In addition, role models in the workplace contribute to the

forming and maintaining of corporate culture.


Finally, independent thinking and action does not necessarily

ensure the best choices.

The statement oversimplifies the issue of learning. 模式化和独立思考


The knowledge to be gained from books is important in that it

transcends the limitation of personal experience both in time


and in space.

73. "In most professions and academic fields, imagination is more

important than knowledge."


exhaustive empirical observation—that is, by acquiring facts 在大多数职业和学术领域中,想象力要比知识更加重要。

and information.

Without imagination, one can hardly succeed in any field.



Imagination in business is the ability to perceive opportunity.



In science, imagination leads to invention and discoveries.


Without imagination, there would be no art.

117. "The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is richer


and broader than what can be learned from direct experience."

-----------------------------从书本中获得的知识要比通过直接经验获得的知识内容更加 丰富,范围更加广阔。

92. "In any academic area or professional field, it is just as

important to recognize the limits of our knowledge and

understanding as it is to acquire new facts and information."

Knowledge gained from books is broader but not necessarily 在任何学术或者职业领域中,承认我们知识和理解的不足同获 取新的知识同等重要。

richer than what can be learned from direct experience.


Systematically arranged, knowledge gained from books, the

results of countless other people’s direct experiences, is On the one hand, the speaker’s assertion accords with the


broader than what one can learn from his or her direct

everyday experience of working professionals.



Moreover, additional knowledge we gain by collecting more


However, direct experience, though limited by time and space,

information often diminishes—sometimes to the point where

provides on with an opportunity to gain a more accurate and

marginal gains turn to marginal losses. On the other hand, the speaker’s assertion seems

vivid understanding of a matter.



The best way to learn is to put what we gain from books into

self-contradictory, for how can we know the limits of our knowledge until we’ve thoroughly tested those limits through

practice. 直接经验和间接经验



164. "Sometimes imagination is a more valuable asset than

122. "We owe almost all our knowledge not to people who have

experience. People who lack experience are free to imagine what

agreed, but to people who have disagreed."

is possible and thus can approach a task without constraints of

established habits and attitudes." 我们所掌握的知识差不多都是源于持不同意见者而非意见相 同者。 有时候想象力是比经验更有价值的财富。缺少经验的人得以自 由的想象任何可能性,并且由此可以达成一个目标而不受既定 习惯和态度的限制。 统一和分歧之知识 I fundamentally agree with the speaker’s assertion; however, as


138. "Only through mistakes can there be discovery or progress."

the speaker implies, it is impossible not to overstate the

comparative value of imagination. 失败是成功之母



One need only observe young children as they go about their


To begin with, the contention accords with our everyday

daily lives to appreciate the role that pure imagination can

experience as humans from early childhood through

play as an aid to accomplishing tasks. The speaker’s contention also finds ample empirical support




This same principle also applies on a societal level. Consider,

in certain forms of artistic accomplishment and scientific

however, how we progress in our scientific knowledge.



The value of trial-and-error is not limited to the sciences. In


Of course, there are many notable exceptions to the rule that

government and politics, progress usually comes about

imagination unfettered by experience breeds remarkable

through dissension and challenge—that is, when people point

insights and accomplishments.

out the mistake of those in power.


On the other hand, it is important not to take this assertion


about artistic and scientific accomplishment too far.






177. "The study of an academic discipline alters the way we

179. "What most human beings really want to attain is not

perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same

knowledge, but certainty. Gaining real knowledge requires taking

world as before, but with different eyes."

risks and keeping the mind open--but most people prefer to be

reassured rather than to learn the complex and often unsettling 对于一门学科的研究会改变我们对世界的看法。在学习这门学 科之后,我们看到的世界一如既往,但是我们本身的角度和眼 光已然不同。 大多人真正想要得到的不是知识而是结论。获得真正的知识需 要冒险和不停歇的思考----但是大多数人更愿意获得确定的答 案而不是去学习复杂而不确定的真理。

truth about anything."


Through the earnest pursuit of knowledge—particularly in

history and literature—we reveal to ourselves the flaws and

foibles of other humans whose lives we study and read about.


Only after we have gained real knowledge can we be


Through education we begin to see flaws not only in people

competent for a better comprehension of the world.

but also in ideologies that we had previously embraced on


People’s unremitting pursuit of knowledge is not for the sake

pure faith.

of knowledge, but largely for the sake of their settled life


While education helps us see the flawed nature of our

goals and acquiring a degree of certainty about their goals. 独立思考

previously cherished ideas, paradoxically it also helps us see

ideas we previously rejected out of hand in a different


light—as having some merit after all.


Education in the arts alters forever the way we perceive the

aesthetic world around us.

180. "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws

and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."


现代社会的很多问题是法律和立法系统无法解决的,因为道德 行为是无法用法律约束的。

学生和学者们在诠释学术研究对象时使用的方法更多的是一 种个性化(因人而异)而非一种培训(模式化)。不同的诠释 来自于具有不同个性的人在看待相同的目标、事实、数据或者 事件的时候以及他们在看待不同事情的时候。

I agree with this assertion insofar as it relates to constraints on

certain personal freedoms. However, when it comes to the conduct

of business, I think that moral behavior not only can but must be Disagree: The key factor in their interpretation is a person’s

legislated for the purpose of alleviating societal problems.


Morality laws that impinge upon freedom of choice about our

training and educational background, rather than personality.

personal lives—to control what we do with and to


Assuming that by personality the speaker embraces such

ourselves—simply do not work in a democratic society.

personal attributes as individual temperament, disposition and


Morality laws impinging on personal freedoms are not made

general mood, and outlook, it seems to me that personality

any more useful or effective by purporting to serve the

has little bearing on how students and scholars interpret the

greater good of society, because on balance their costs far

materials with which they work. In sharp contrast, one’s educational background and training

outweigh their benefits.



In sharp contrast to personal behavior, the behavior of

can serve as a strong influence on how one interprets

businesses can and must be controlled through legislation. 道德和法律

historical events involving human affairs, statistical data, and

especially art.



Educational training and background also affects how

181. "The way students and scholars interpret the materials they

students and scholars interpret seemingly objective statistical

work with in their academic fields is more a matter of personality


than of training. Different interpretations come about when people


Finally, when it comes to how students and scholars interpret

with different personalities look at exactly the same objects, facts,

art, training and educational background play an especially

data, or events and see different things."

significant role. 个体和整体之学术方法论



200. "The most elusive knowledge is self-knowledge, and it is

183. "As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more

usually acquired through solitude, rather than through interaction

comprehensible, but more complex and more mysterious."

with others."

随着我们获得越来越多的知识,事情并没有变的更加透彻,相 反是变的更复杂更神秘。

Elusive: Abstruse, hard to comprehend

Self-knowledge: knowledge or understandings of one s own

capabilities, character, feelings, or motivations

As our knowledge of the world accumulates, we arrive at a higher

Solitude: alone, seclusion 最艰深难懂的学问都是自知之明的,这些学问通常都是独立发 展起来的而不是通过和其他人的交流。

stage of civilization although the world may appear more complex

and more mysterious.


The world in the eyes of primitive tribes was much simpler and thus more “comprehensible” in a sense and certainly

Both solitude and interaction with others contributes to

more backward.

self-knowledge. To lead a happy life, the first thing is to know ourselves. “An


If we compare the known part of the world to the space


within a circle, the unknown part of the world around the

unexamined life is not worth living.”

circle grows as the circle of our knowledge expands.


One way to know ourselves is to examine ourselves alone.


There is no need to feel frustrated about the increasingly


However, interaction with others can also help us see more

more complex and more mysterious world that we confront

clearly who we are. 少数和多数之自知之明的学问

because our knowledge in total keeps growing and

correspondingly we are becoming better equipped to cope

with the problems that emerge.


204. "We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory

without experiencing it is to learn nothing at all."


我们通过直接经验来学习,如果没有通过体验来接受一个理论 就等于根本没学。


The defects of the work of other scholars and scientists are

where we can possibly make our contributions. In a large sense, what is called “original” work is usually but



an improvement on the work done by previous scholars and


Even though experience is a most lively and vivid way that

scientist. 他山之石可以攻玉,科学是承前继后的过程

we learn things, it is by no means the only way.


Admittedly, by putting a theory into practice, we can either


improve it or prove its truth.

229. "The best way to learn a new subject or skill is to study small


However, there is no need for us to experience every theory

segments or details in great depth rather than to start by trying to

before accepting and benefiting from it. 直接经验和间接经验

develop a sense of the whole." 学习一门新学科或者新技术的最好方法是深入的学习某一个 小的部分或者细节,而不是一开始就试图去从整体来把握。


217. "In order to produce successful original work, scholars and

scientists must first study the successful work of others to learn

To learn a new subject, one should start by developing a sense of

what contributions remain to be made." 为了创作出成功的原创著作,学者和科学家们必须研究别人的 著作以了解这些著作仍然保持着哪些贡献。

the whole rather than focusing on segments or details.


A sense of the whole subject enables us to identify the

specific areas where we can make original contributions.


A sense of the whole subject provides necessary background

Naturally, to make new contributions in any field of study,

knowledge for any in-depth exploration into particular areas

scholars and scientists should first master the existing work done

of that subject.

by their fellow scholars and scientists.


Studying small segments or details in great depth would in


No one can produce any original work without first

turn contribute to our understanding of the whole subject. 整体和局部的关系

assimilating the contributions of former generations in his or

her field.



第六类 政治

24. "People in positions of power are most effective when they

exercise caution and restraint in the use of that power."

8. "It is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to 当掌握权力的人们试图小心而节制的使用权力时,他们是最有 效率的。 对于政治领导者来说,向人民大众隐瞒信息通常是必要的,甚 至有益的。 1. People without caution and restraint tend to abuse the power

withhold information from the public."

granted to them. Agree 2. 1. In order to gain the opportunity for effective public and make better use of the power. leadership, a would-be leader must first gain and maintain 3. political power. In the game of politics, complete restraint. forthrightness is a sign of vulnerability and naiveté neither of , 过犹不及 Leaders should not be tied up by too much caution and Caution and restraint help people have better understanding

which earn a politician respect among his or her opponents. -----------------------------2. Fully disclosing to the public certain types of information 43. "To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the would threaten public safety and perhaps even national highest ethical and moral standards." security.


Nevertheless, legitimate political leadership indeed requires

一个公仆如果想成为一位杰出的领导者就必须保持最高的伦 理和道德标准。

forthrightness with the citizenry as to the leader’s motives

and agenda. 少数和多数的关系之 true lies, the truth is out there. 1. -----------------------------defined as that which achieves the goal of profit maximization for a firm’s shareholders or other owners. 78 In the business realm, successful leadership is generally


In the political realm the issue is no less complex. Definition

45. "Government officials should rely on their own judgment

of successful political leadership and of ethical or moral

rather than unquestioningly carrying out the will of the people

leadership are tied up in the means a leader uses to wield his

whom they serve."

or her power and to obtain that power in the first place. 政府官员应该依靠自己的判断而不是不管三七二十一的遵从 人民的意愿。


Personal morality is unrelated to effective political leadership.

However, public morality and successful leadership are more

closely connected. 政治家题目




Admittedly, it is hard to get a good rapport of all the people.

44. "Government should not fund any scientific research whose


However, in a democratic society, government is elected by

consequences, either medical or ethical, are unclear."

the people, and therefore should take the responsibility to

serve for the people and realize their will. 政府不应该资助任何后果不明的科学研究,无论是医学方面还 是伦理方面的。


Without the support of the people, government is bound to

perish. 少数和多数,政府



Financial support is to the uncertain scientific research what


steam is to locomotive.

56. "Governments should focus more on solving the immediate


The consequences of uncertain researches may turn out to be

problems of today rather than trying to solve the anticipated

as substantial as those with clear perspectives.

problems of the future."


Admittedly, there are some dangers or wastes when the result 政府应该把更多的注意力放在解决当务之急,而不是试图解决 将来预期的问题上。

of a scientific research is unclear. 政府和科研



Whether solving the immediate problems of today is more


In some cases, politicians and other government experts

important than solving the anticipated problems of the future

might be more informed and have better judgment and

depends on the nature of the problems to be solved.

perspective than do members of the general public.


To win the favor of the general public, governments


However, there is no guarantee that the politicians and

throughout the world tend to focus on solving the immediate

experts would always put the interest of the public before

problems of today.

their own selfish interests.


However, a government’s failing to prepare for future


Furthermore, empirical evidence also indicates that

challenges will cause disasters to its country in the long run.

politicians and government experts do make grave mistakes


Furthermore, a government should always take into

that harm the interests of the public.

consideration the possible future effects of the actions it takes 少数和多数之决策权

today. 时间之当务之急和百年大计



83. "Government should preserve publicly owned wilderness areas

79. "Major policy decisions should always be left to politicians

in their natural state, even though these areas are often extremely

and other government experts, who are more informed and thus

remote and thus accessible to only a few people."

have better judgment and perspective than do members of the 政府应该保留国家领土中公共拥有的荒凉地区,即使这些地区 往往人迹罕至。 主要的决策权应该全部交给政治家和其他的政府专家,他们更 加见多识广并且比一般的老百姓具有更好的判断能力和洞察 力。

general public."

When our environment is under growing threat from human

civilization, government should take action to preserve publicly

owned wilderness areas in their natural state.

The title statement goes against the basic tenets of modern


Even a few people could cause serious damage to a remote


wilderness area.



The destruction of even a remote wildness area could result in

97. "It is unfortunate but true that political decisions and activities

unforeseeable effects on the larger environment.

affect all aspects of people's lives."


Without government’s protection, even the remotest wildness 尽管很不幸,但是这却是真实存在的事实,政治决策和活动影 响着人们生活的方方面面。

area will finally disappear. 政府之领土


85. "Government funding of the arts threatens the integrity of the



Throughout the civilization history of humanity, politicians

have long been in control of the affairs of society. 政府资助艺术会威胁到艺术的完整性。


Actually, as the society becomes more and more

commercialized, politics is playing a more important role in

In spite of the harm that government funding might do to the

influencing various aspects of people’s lives.

integrity of the arts, government support is still necessary for the


The influence from politicians are not necessarily an

flourishing of the arts.

unfortunate thing. 政治和生活


Admittedly, government funding might directly or indirectly

influence artists’ decisions and choices.



However, history has demonstrated that government support

could also contribute to the prosperity of arts.


Furthermore, when money has come to dominate

contemporary society, it is all the more imperative for

105. "The true strength of a country is best demonstrated by the

government to fund arts. 政府之艺术

willingness of its government to tolerate challenges from it's own




一个国家真正的力量可以最好体现在他的政府愿意容忍来自 于自己国民的挑战。

可以供转播的政府运作(审判、辩论、会议等等)越多,对社会 的好处就越多。

In the long run, political tolerance adds to the strength of a



On the one hand, access to government proceedings via


Democratic governments tend to be more tolerant than

television carries several significant benefits. First,

authoritarian ones.

videotapes are valuable supplements to conventional means


A government that tolerates challenges from its citizens has

of record keeping. Secondly, this sort of exposure provides

more opportunity to improve its performance.

the viewer a valuable sense of perspective, an appreciation


The real strength of a country lies in the dynamic and

for other forms of government, and so forth. Thirdly, in high

interactive relationship between the government and its

schools and universities, television proceedings can be useful

people. 精英和大众之开明政府

curriculum supplements for students of government, public

policy, and even public speaking.



On the other hand, people cannot ignore the risks imposed by

more and more televised government proceedings. Watching

108. "In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television

televised proceedings as a substitute for active participation

and view government at work. Watching these proceedings can

in the political process can, on a mass scale, undermine the

help people understand the issues that affect their lives. The more

democratic process by way of its chilling effect on

kinds of government proceedings-trials, debates, meetings,

participation. 政府和大众之电子政府

etc that are televised, the more society will benefit."

-----------------------------在很多国家中,现在通过电视来观看政府的运作已经成为可 能。观察这些过程有助于人们了解那些影响他们生活的决策。

123. "It is possible to identify a person's politics within a very

short time of meeting him or her. Everything about people-their


clothes, their friends, the way they talk, what they eat-reflects their

对于一个英明的政治领导者来说,总是坦白是不可能的。彻底 的诚实对于一个政治家来说是无用的美德。

political beliefs."

通过和一个人短时间的接触来了解它的政治信仰是有可能的。 和人们有关的一切--人们穿什么样的衣服、 结交什么样的朋友、 如何说话、吃什么东西--都能够反映出他们的政治信仰。

In order to evaluate this contention it is necessary to examine the

nature of politics, and to distinguish between short-term and

long-term effectiveness.


On the one hand are three compelling arguments that political

A person’s words and behavior could directly reflect his or her

leader must sometimes be less than truthful in order to be

political beliefs.

effective in that leadership. The first argument lies in the fact


What one wears and eats indicates the way of life he or she

that politics is a game played among politicians—and that to


succeed in the game one must use the tools that are part and


We can also identify a person’s ideals, qualities and values from the type of friends he or she associates with. “Birds of a

parcel of it.


Secondly, it is crucial to distinguish between

feather flock together.”

misrepresentations of fact—in other words, lies—and mere


Of course, it is also necessary to watch a person’s deeds if we

political rhetoric.

want to know for sure what he or she truly believes in. 政治是无处不在的


Thirdly, politics is a business born not only of idealism but

also of pragmatism; after all, in order to be effective a


politician must gain and hold onto political power, which

means winning election.


On the other hand, although in the short term being

167. "It is impossible for an effective political leader to tell the

less-than-truthful with the public might serve a political

truth all the time. Complete honesty is not a useful virtue for a

leader’s interest in preserving power, would-be political


leaders who lack requisite integrity ultimately forfeit their




195. "The goal of politics should not be the pursuit of an ideal, but

rather the search for common ground and reasonable consensus."

-------------政治的目的不应该是追求一种理想,而是寻求共同点和合理的 一致。

169. "Those who treat politics and morality as though they were

separate realms fail to understand either the one or the other."



It is wrong-headed to equate moral behavior in politics with the simple notions of honesty and putting the other fellow’s needs ahead of one’s own—or other ways which we typically measure the morality of an individual’s private behavior.



Reasonable consensus and a political idea need not be

mutually exclusive. The speaker’s position flies in the face of human nature and



In order to gain the opportunity for moral leadership

the nature of politics. A third problem with the speaker’s position is that it begs the

politicians must engage in certain compromises along the



question: What are the proper ideals for politicians? They


Successful political leadership, if it is to endure, ultimately

have little to do with consensus, and everything to do with

requires a certain measure of public morality—that is serving the society with its best interests as the leader’s overriding

justice and fairness.


Finally, lacking idealism a political leader will tend to seek

concern. 那些把政治和道德看成是两码事的人是既不懂政治也不懂道 德的。

compromise and reasonable consensus for its own sake. 统一和分歧之政治


202. "Unlike great thinkers and great artists, the most effective 政治和道德的关系

political leaders must often yield to public opinion and abandon

principle for the sake of compromise."



不同于伟大的思想家和艺术家,最杰出的政治领袖通常都必须 为了妥协而屈从于大众的意见并且放弃原则。


Government is responsible for preventing its people from

potential harmful effects of the mass media. 抽象题目

For political leaders, practicality should take precedence over




Great thinkers and great artists do not have to appeal to the 第七类 文化

opinions of the public.


However, for political leaders, winning the favor of the

public is key to effective leadership.

6. "The most effective way to understand contemporary culture is


In addition, political policies are often made based on the

to analyze the trends of its youth."

compromise of different interest groups and the dictates of 了解当代文明最有效的途径就是去分析当代年轻人的潮流。

the situation. 少数和多数之政治领袖


It is more or less true to say that contemporary culture is to

224. "Censorship is rarely, if ever, justified." 审查很少能够做到公正。

analyze the trends of its youth.


We live in an age when old people are marginalized in


Censorship can contribute to the interests of the public.


What we call mass culture produced by the mass media is, as


It is true that government officials often use censorship to

a matter of fact, a reflection of the trends among the youth.

protect their vested interests.


There is urgent need for the younger generation and the older


What is also true is that the mass media tend to abuse their

generation to fill the gap between them and to build a more

freedom of expression in order to maximize their commercial

balanced contemporary culture. 文明潮流和年轻人潮流的关系。




10. "Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the

of fiction shape and focus reality rather than report on it literally,

financial support they need in order to thrive, because it is

their creations have a more lasting significance."

primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved 想象作品,比如小说、戏剧、电影、神话和传奇要比真实的叙 事作品更能精确而有意义的展现人类的经历。因为虚构作品的 政府必须要确保主要城市发展所需的财政支持,因为一个国家 的文化传统主要是在城市中得以保存和发展。 作者们重点刻画现实而不是通过文学手段报道现实,所以他们 的创作具有更加深远的意义。

and generated."



Admittedly, most fictional works rely on historical settings


Subsidizing cultural traditions is not a proper role of

for plot, thematic, and character development.



Only imaginative works can bring an historical period


Secondly, subsidizing cultural traditions is not a necessary

alive—by way of creative tools such as imaginary point of

role of government. Philanthropy is alive and well today, and


so government need not intervene to ensure that our cultural


Only imaginative works can provide meaning to historical

traditions are preserved and promoted.

events—through the use of devices such as symbolism and


Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the speaker unfairly


suggests that large cities serve as the primary breeding


Examples of important films underscore the point that

ground and sanctuaries for a nation’s cultural traditions. 城市和国家的关系之文化传统

creative accounts of the human experience hold more lasting

significance than bare factual accounts.



49. "Imaginative works such as novels, plays, films, fairy tales,


and legends present a more accurate and meaningful picture of

human experience than do factual accounts. Because the creators


63. "To truly understand your own culture--no matter how you

I agree that in certain cases the two are mutually exclusive. For the

define it--requires personal knowledge of at least one other culture,

most part, however, modernization does not reject tradition; in fact,

one that is distinctly different from your own."

in many cases the former can and does embrace the latter. In the first place, oftentimes so-called “modernization” is

A. 为了真正理解你自己的文化----无论你如何地定义它----都至少 需要了解另外一种文化,并且该文化与你自己的文化是截然不 同的。

actually an extension or new iteration of tradition, or a

variation on it. This is especially true in language and in law.


In other areas modernization departs from tradition in some

respects, while embracing it in others.



Admittedly, in certain instances, tradition must yield entirely


Staying within one culture makes one take for granted

to the utilitarian needs of modern life. This is true especially

everything that the culture provides.

when it comes to architectural artifacts.


Knowledge of another different culture provides one with an

opportunity to compare alternative ways of life and make



172. "Important truths begin as outrageous, or at least


In an age of globalization, one should learn to tolerate

uncomfortable, attacks upon the accepted wisdom of the time."

cultural differences. 旁观者清 重要的真理一开始都是令人难以容忍的,或者至少是令人不快 的,而且都是在反对当时的权威思想。


147. "Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must

choose between them."

It is customary fate of new truth to begin as heresies. 传统和现代化是水火不容的。人们必须二者选一。 Copernicus’ heliocentric theory in the 16th century was a


direct attack upon the accepted wisdom of the time, a


geocentric view of the universe postulated by Aristotle and


However, in other instances great advances in science are


made by putting together current theories or other ideas in


When Darwin first declared that the wide variety of animal

new ways. 创新并不意味着一定要想一些人们从未想过的东西;它意味着 用新方法来重组老观点。

species was due to a process of development over many

millennia, he challenged the traditional Christian belief and

outraged the religious fundamentalists. 新旧问题


In former socialist countries, it took a long and painful time

for people to give up the old idea of state-owned economy


and to accept the idea of market economy.

176. "The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to


upset. Therein lies the value of each."

173. "Originality does not mean thinking something that was 科学的作用是解惑;艺术的目的是创新。只有这样他们才各得 其所。

never thought before; it means putting old ideas together in new


Disagree: The notion that so-called “originality” is actually variation or



In many cases artists set about to reassure, not to upset.

synthesis of existing ideas finds its greatest support in


In other cases, artists set about to upset.

linguistics and in law.


The final objective of science, in my view, is to discover


Even in the arts—where one might think that true originality must surely reside—so called “new” ideas almost always

truths about our world, our universe and ourselves.

Sometimes these discoveries serve to reassure, and other

embrace, apply, or synthesize what came earlier.

times they serve to upset.


When it comes to the natural sciences, however, some new


ideas are truly original while others put established ideas


together in new ways.



It seems self-contradictory to require academic leaders to ignore

207. "Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them,

established boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions.

societies or groups of people have a diminished sense of who they


There is no doubt that academic leaders should be


independent thinkers.

2. 礼节和典礼有助于定义一个文化。如果没有这些,社会或者团 体就会逐渐地迷失自我。

However, an academic leader in any field is supposed to

represent an established paradigm in that field. What might also be important is the academic leader’s ability


to organize the scholars of his field to promote academic


I agree with the speaker insofar as one purpose of ritual and ceremony in today’s world is to preserve cultural identity.

development. 挑战权威之创新和离经叛道


Nevertheless, preserving cultural identity cannot be the only


purpose of ritual and ceremony.

241. "An individual's greatness cannot be judged objectively by


Nor are ritual and ceremony the only means of preserving

his or her contemporaries; the most objective evaluators of a

cultural identity.

person's greatness are people who belong to a later time." 一个人的伟大是无法为他的同代人所客观判定的,而是应该由 后人来评判。


Agree with concession An individual’s contemporaries may be emotionally

227. "To remain vigorous, any academic field needs to be led by


truly independent thinkers who are willing to ignore established

connected with him or her. It takes time for the significance of an individual’s deeds to

boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions." 为了保持活力,所有的学术领域都需要真正的独立思想家的领 导,他们可以无视既定的限制而挑战经久不衰的理论。


be recognized. Admittedly, there are still plenty of cases in which people’s


greatness were instantaneously recognized and judged

objectively by their contemporaries.



they have a responsibility to establish standards by which works of


art can be judged."

第八类 艺术

尽管评论艺术的批评家们倾向于否认存在任何评价艺术作品 的客观标准,但他们还是有责任建立用于评判艺术作品的标 准。

82. "Government should never censor the artistic works or

historical displays that a museum wishes to exhibit."

Disagree 政府根本就不应该审查一家博物馆计划展出的艺术作品或者 历史陈列。


Works of art are created for people to appreciate rather than

for critics to judge.


Setting standards for works of art tends to hinder artists’




Museum exhibitions are an influential way of public


Unfortunately, the reality is that too often critics have turned


the public into passive audience of arts. 独立题目


If the artistic works or historical displays of a museum cause

destructive social conflicts, then government should step in to


prohibit such exhibitions.

101. "Governments should provide funding for artists so that the


Admittedly, government should always take care not to abuse

arts can flourish and be available to all people."

its authority. 政府之艺术 政府应该为艺术家提供资助以便于艺术能够繁荣发展并且是 所有人都能够享受艺术。


96. "Although, critics who write about the arts tend to deny the

existence of any objective standards for evaluating works of art,

Government’s funding for artists is a double-edged sword.



On the one hand, without government’s funding, many artists 艺术

could hardly survive in real life.


On the other hand, government’s funding could create


dependent artists who serve not the interests of the public but

143. "Artists should pay little attention to their critics.* Criticism

those of the government.

tends to undermine and constrain the artist's creativity."


It is crucial that government does not interfere with the

artists’ freedom of expression while granting them financial

*those who evaluate works of art, such as novels, films, music,

aids. 政府和艺术

paintings, etc.


艺术家不必太在乎他们的批评者。批评总是在破坏和压制艺术 家的创造力。

131. "The arts (painting, music, literature, etc.) reveal the

otherwise hidden ideas and impulses of a society."

艺术(绘画、音乐、文学等等)揭示了那些隐藏的理念和社会 的脉动。

Although the critic can help us understand and appreciate art,

more often than not, critique is either counterproductive to

achieving the objective of art or altogether irrelevant to that

While this assertion has merit, I think it unfairly generalizes about


art. Consider two particular art forms: architecture and painting.


To support the statement the speaker might point out the


In more important architecture, one consistently sees a

ostensible functions of the art critic.

reflection of society’s ideas and urges.


The values of these functions are in especially suspect.


However, in more important paintings of the most recent century one sees instead the artists’ personal and



idiosyncratic vision of an aesthetic ideal.


144. "It is the artist, not the critic,* who gives society something

emphasis as mathematics, science, reading and other mainstream

of lasting value."


*a person who evaluates works of art, such as novels, films, music,

艺术(音乐、舞蹈、视觉艺术等等)对与学生们的教育至关重 要,因此应该和数学、自然科学等主流学科一样受到重视。

paintings, etc.



Arts will ignite the sparks of human minds, and will spur us


to quarry the beauty of the nature.


On the other hand, mainstream subjects can help students to

Artists and critics are supplement to each other.

form critical logical mind that is crucial for making a


It is the creative minds of artists that add hue to our quotidian

disinterest decision.



It is an effective way to improve the learning efficiency by


However, a constructive criticism could help artists promote

introducing the arts to the science and engineering students.

their working level and tell people how to be a good




All of the greatest feats in history, which gave society

190. "As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or

something of lasting value, are those created by artists and

lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources

evaluated by critics. Appropriate critical evaluation might entice the people’s attention towards those works.

to support the arts is inappropriate--and, perhaps, even

cruel--when one considers all the potential uses of such money."


一旦人们陷于饥饿、失业或者缺乏谋生的基本技能,运用公共 资源去扶持艺术是很不恰当的----并且甚至是残忍的----尤其明 知这些资金所有可能的用途。

158. The arts (music, dance, visual arts, etc.) are vitally important

to students' education and should therefore receive as much


knowledge of music theory. In fact, listening to music is The implicit rationale behind the speaker’s statement seems


simply an encounter—an experience to be accepted at face

to be that cultural enrichment pales in importance compared

value for its aural impact on our spirit and our emotions.

to food, clothing, and shelter.


Next consider the art forms of painting and sculpture. If the


It might also be tempting to agree with the speaker on the

test for meritorious art were its ability to be clearly

basis that arts patronage is neither an appropriate nor a

understood by every observer, then our most valuable art

necessary function of government.

would simply imitate the mundane physical world around us.


On the other hand are compelling arguments that public


Finally, consider art forms such as poetry, song, and prose, in certain cases stanzas and verses need not be “understood” to

support for the art is desirable, whether or not unemployment

and hunger have been eliminated. One such argument is that

have merit, as much as they need be experienced for the

by allocating public resources to the arts, we actually help A second argument against the speaker’s position has to do

images and emotions they evoke.


with the function and ultimate objectives of art.




243. "The true value of a civilization is reflected in its artistic

218. "In order for any work of art--whether film, literature,

creations rather than in its scientific accomplishments."

sculpture, or a song--to have merit, it must be understandable to 一个文明的真正价值是反映在艺术创造中的而不是它的科学 成就。 任何的艺术作品为了有价值, 例如电影、 文学、 雕塑或者歌曲, 都必须让大多数人易于理解。

most people."

We praise a civilization both for its artistic creations and for its

scientific accomplishments.


First consider musical art form. It would be absurd to assert


Western civilization serves as a typical example of a balanced

that the objective of music is to challenge the listener’s

development of arts and science.



By contrast, the Chinese civilization has bequeathed the

Which interest should take precedence should be determined on a

world a rich legacy of artistic creations, but its scientific

case-by-case basis--and should account not only for practical and

accomplishments are insignificant.

historic considerations but also aesthetic ones.


A dynamic civilization should aim at promoting the


In determining whether to raze an older building, planners should of course consider the community’s current and

prosperity of both the arts and science.

anticipated utilitarian needs. 艺术和科学 Competing with a community’s utilitarian needs is an interest


-----------------------------第九类 历史

preserving the historical record, the weight of which should

also be determined on a case-by-case basic. Also competing with a community’s utilitarian needs is the


26. "Most people would agree that buildings represent a valuable

aesthetic and architectural value of the building itself—apart

record of any society's past, but controversy arises when old

from historical events with which it might be associated. 过去和现在之建筑物

buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be

better used for modern purposes. In such situations, modern


development should be given precedence over the preservation of

48. "The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals.

historic buildings so that contemporary needs can be served."

The most significant events and trends in history were made

possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose 大多数人都同意一个社会的建筑物代表了它有价值的历史纪 录,但是当现代规划者们觉得这些以前的建筑物所占据的土地 可以被更有价值的使用于新目的时,就产生了争议,现代发展

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GRE作文题库所有244道题目的写作提纲GRE作文题库所有244道题目的写作提纲GRE 写作 Issue 问题题库分析和提纲 第一类 社会 2. "Competition is ultimately more ...
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