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谢孟媛 初级英文 文法讲义二


谢孟媛初级英文文法 二
Unit 1 比较
1. 2. 3. 4. 比较变化 形容词的比较级 形容词的最高级 副词的比较级、最高级

Unit 2 不定词 (to V)
不定词

Unit 3 动名词
动名词

Unit 4 分词
分词

Unit 5

形容词
形容词

Unit 6 副词
副词

Unit 7 动词
动词

Unit 1 比较
比较变化
为了表示性质、程度等差异,形容词在字形上所做的变化,称为比较。比较分为原级、比较级、最高 级。 (1)规则变化
变化 级 1. 原级+er, est 2. 原级字尾有 e+r, st 3. 原级为短母音+子音→重复字尾+er, est 4. 原级字尾为子音+y→去 y+ier, iest 5. 两音节以上的形容词→more, most+原级 原级 short nice hot easy beautiful 比较级 shorter nicer hotter easier morebeautiful 最高级 shortest nicest hottest easiest mostbeautiful

(2)不规则变化
原级 bad (坏的) ill (生病) good (好的) well (健康) many (指可数的) much (指不可数的) little (少的) far (远的) late (晚的;迟的) old (老的;旧的) 比较级 worse better more less farther further later latter older elder worst best most least farthest (表距离) furthest (表程度,数量,距离) latest (表时间) last (表顺序) oldest (表年纪;新旧) eldest (表长幼) 最高级

例:l. He was happy in his later life. (他晚年很快乐。) 2. As for French and German, the latter is more difficult for me than the former. (就法文和德文而言,我觉得后者比前者难。)

形容词的比较级
(1) 比较级…than… 例:1. Your article is longer than mine. (你的文章比我长。) 2. Mary is more beautiful than she/her. (口语)(玛丽比她漂亮。) (2) the+比较级…of the two… 例:1. Kevin is the older of the two boys. (Kevin 是两位男孩中年纪较大的。) 2. Jack is the more active of the twins. (Jack 是这对双胞胎中较活跃的。) (3) 修饰比较级 much, a lot, far+比较级→?得多了 even+比较级→?更加 a little+比较→?一点 例:1. He is much busier than I. (他比我忙碌得多了。) 2. This is a little cheaper than that. (这个比那个便宜一点。) 3. The price of the blue pants is far higher than that of the green pants.

(蓝裤子的价格比绿裤子的价格高得多。) 4. The weather in Kaohsiung is far hotter than that in Taipei. =The weather is far hotter in Kaohsiung than in Taipei. (高雄的天气比台北的天气更加炎热。) 注意:比较时,若主题相同或语意上清楚明白时,than 以下部分可省略。 例:They live a more pleasant life than (they did) before. (他们现在比以前过着更愉快的生活。) (4) 比较级…to… junior (年幼的)、 senior (年长的)、 major (大的)、 minor (小的)等形容词, 在表示比较的对象时, 不用 than 而用 to。 例:She is two years older than I / me. =She is senior to me by two years. (她比我大 2 岁。) (5) 比较级的惯用表现 a. 比较级 and 比较级 越来越?? 例:The story became more and more interesting. (这故事变得越来越有趣。) b. the 比较,the 比较级 越??越?? 例:l. The more, the better. (越多越好。) 2. The more we get, the happier we'll be. (我们得到越多就越快乐。) c. more than 超过 less than 少于 例:The man ismore than / over eighty years old. (这个人超过 80 岁。)

形容词的最高级
(l)~the 最高级+名词+ 地点 / of the three… / of all 例:1. Helen is the best student of all. (海伦是所有学生中最好的。) 2. Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. (圣母峰是世界上最高的山。) (2)原级、比较级、最高级互换 例:1. Taipei is the biggest city in Taiwan. (台北是台湾最大的城市。) =Taipei is bigger than any other city in Taiwan. =Taipei is bigger than all the other cities in Taiwan. =No other city in Taiwan is bigger than Taipei. =No other cities in Taiwan are as big as Taipei. 注意:加 other (其它的),其功用为避免和本身做比较。 2. New York is bigger than any other city in America. (纽约比美国任何其它城市大。) =New York is bigger than any city in Taiwan. (纽约比台湾任何城巿大。) (3)as 原级 as →像…一样 例:1. This jacket is as expensive as this sweater. (这件夹克和这件毛衣一样贵。) 2. Your hair is as long as mine. (你的头发和我的一样长。) 注意:否定句时,也可用 not so / as ~ as.. 例:This question is not as / so, difficult as it seems. (这问题并不像表面上的那么困难。)

副词的比较级、最高级
比较变化 a. 规则变化→和形容词一样,由字形的变化而来。
原级 副词字尾无 ly→加 er,est 副词字尾有 ly→加 more,most+副词 fast quickly 比较级 faster more quickly 最高级 fastest most quickly

b. 不规则变化
原级 badly (坏) ill (不好) well (好) much (多) little (少) far (远) 比较级 worse better more less farther further 最高级 worst best most least farthest (表距离) furthest (表程度)

◎副词的比较级+than 例:l. He can sing better than Lisa. (他可以唱的比莉萨好。) 2. I study harder than my friends. (我比我的朋友们更努力。) ◎the 副词的最高级+地点/ of the three→副词的最高级,the 可以省略。 例:l. My father gets up (the)earliest of us all. (我父亲是我们之中最早起的。) 2. Cathy dances (the) most beautifully. (卡西是跳舞跳得最美的。) 注意:形容词和副词的不同 例:Tom is the fastest boy of all. →形容词的最高级,the 不可省略。(汤姆是所有男孩中最快的。) Tom runs (the)fastest of all. →副词的最高级,the 可以省略。(汤姆是所有男孩中跑得最快的。) ◎疑问词+比较 例:l. Which fruit do you like better, apples or oranges? (你比较喜欢哪一种水果,苹果或是柳橙?) 2. Which do you like (the) best, apples, oranges or peaches? (苹果、柳橙和桃子,你最喜欢哪一种?) 注意:两者之间用比较级;三者 (或以上)用最高级。

Unit 2 不定词
不定词(to+原形动词),其身份不再是动词。它在句中扮演名词、形容词及副词的功能。 toV 1. 名词用法→当主词、受词、补语 例:To buy things in a flea market must be fun. (在跳蚤市场买东西一定很好玩。) 2. 形容词用法→修饰名词 例:I have a lot of things to buy. (我有很多东西要买。) 3. 副词用法→表目的、原因等。 例:I went there to buy notebooks. (我去那里买笔记本。) 不定词的名词用法 ◎不定词当主词
主词 The work To travel around the world 动词 is is fun. fun.

例:l. To answer this question is difficult for me. (对我而言回答这个问题是困难的。) 注意:不定词放句首当主词时,视为一件事,其后须接单数动词。 2. To solve pollution problems is difficult for people in Taiwan. →It is difficult for people in Taiwan to solve pollution problems. (对台湾民众而言,要解决污染问题是困难的。) 注意:不定词为首的主词,可用 it (假主词)代替,再将此事件放置在后说明。 3. To be patient with others is best for you. (你对别人有耐心是最好的。) →It is best for you to be patient with others.

※句型:It’s +形容词 (修饰事物)+for +人+ to +原形动词? It's +形容词 (修饰人)+of+人+ to +原形动词? 修饰"人"的形容词:good, nice, kind, brave, clever, careless, honest, bad, stupid, silly, selfish, polite…等 例:1. It's kind of you to help me. (你真好帮我的忙。) 2. It's stupid of him to speak ill of others. (他说别人坏话是愚蠢的。)' ◎不定词当受词
主词 I I 动词 like like 受词 baseball. to play baseball.

例:1. I decided to quit the job. (我决定辞掉工作。) 2. He hoped to be there on time. (他希望准时到那里。) 注意:有些动词,如 decide,hope,want,expect,volunteer 等,必用不定词当受词。 3. I want / would like to see a movie with my friend. (我想要和我的朋友一起看电影。) 4. You needn't go if you don't want to. (你不需要去,如果你不想去的话。) 注意:to 后面的动词和前面相同时,则动词可省略。 ◎不定词当补语 a. 当主词补语→可放在 be 动词或在连缀动词之后,补充说明主词。
主词 My work My work 动词 is is 主词补语 the thing. to prepare dinner.

例:l. My aim in life is to become a famous singer. (我人生的目标是成为名歌手。) 2. To see is to believe. (眼见为凭。) b. 当受词补语→即:主词+动词+受词+受词补语。
主词 He He 动词 calls wants 受词 me me 受词补语 Johnny. to do it.

例:l. He told me to give up smoking. (他告诉我要戒烟。) 2. She got her husband to clean up the house. (她叫她先生打扫房子。) 注意:有些动词,如 want, ask, teach, tell, get, show 等,用不定词当受词补语。 3. He asked me not to tell her the truth. (他要求我不要跟她说实话。) 比较:He didn't ask me to tell her the truth. (他没要求我跟她说实话。). 注意:否定不定词→ not+to +原形动词 不定词的形容词用法 不定词当形容词修饰名词或 something…等代名词时,采用后位修饰。即:名词 / something… + to + 原形动词 △修饰名词 例:l. I have letters to write. (我有信要写。) 2. My mother has a lot of housework to do every day. (我妈妈每天有很多家事要做。). △修饰 something…等 例:l. I’ll give you something to eat. (我会给你东西吃。) 2. Do you have anything to read ? (你有什么东西可读吗?) 注意:有些不定词之后会伴随着介系词。 例:1. They have a lot of things to talk about. (他们有许多事要谈。) 2. Please give me a ball-point pen to write with. (请给我一枝原子笔写字。) 不定词的副词用法 不定词可以用来修饰动词,形容词和副词,能够表示目的、原因等 ◎表目的→此时可用 in order to +原形动词代替

例:She went to London to study English. (她去伦敦学英语。) =She went to London in order to study English. 注意:go 和 come 通常其后不接不定词,而是用 and 连接。 例:Come and see me. (来看我。) ◎表原因→跟在表感情的形容词之后 例:1. I am glad to see you. (很高兴见到你。 ). 2. We are sorry to hear the news. (我们听到这消息很难过。) 含不定词的句型 ◎疑问词+to 原形动词→此为名词词组,可当主词、受词、补语。 例:1. Which way to go is a big problem. (要走哪一条路是个大问题。) (当主词) 2. I know how to operate the machine. (我知道如何操作这机器。) (受词) 3. He told me where to take the bus. (他告诉我哪里可以搭公交车。) (当补语) ◎too…to… (太??而不能) ※too+形容词 / 副词+ to 原形动词 例:l. You are too young to understand the whole thing. (你太年轻无法了解整件事。) 2. The water is too hot for me to drink. (对我而言水太热无法喝。) 3. He worked too slowly to finish it. (他工作得太慢无法完成这件事。) ◎…enough to… (够??可以??) ※形容词 / 副词+ enough+to 原形动词 例:1. My younger brother is old enough to go to school. (我弟弟年纪够大可以上学。) 2. Bob worked hard enough to pass the exam. (Bob 够用功可以通过考试。)

Unit3 动名词
动名词就是在原形动词后加上 ing,使其具有名词的特性,句子中可扮演主词,受词或补语的功能。 ◎动名词当主词:须具有名词特性的字 (或字群)才能当主词,所以动名词可当主词。 ※比较
主词 To do / Doing it right now 动词 Do is ※动名词或不定词放句首当 主词时,整个主词视为一件 事,其后须用单数动词。 it right now. (祈使句) important. (直述句)

例:1. Sleeping eight hours a day is good for health. (一天睡 8 小时有益健康。) =To sleep eight hours a day is good for health. =It is good for health to sleep eight hours a day. 2. Swimming at the beach is a lot of fun. (在海边游泳很好玩。) =To swim at the beach is a lot of fun. = It's a lot of fun to swim at the beach. 注意:It's no use crying over spilt milk. (覆水难收。) ◎动名词当受词:放动词或介系词后. (1)当动词的受词 例:1. You have to give up smoking. (你必须戒烟。) 2. I like watching basketball games on TV. (我喜欢看电视上的篮球比赛。) 注意 1:动词 like, love,hate, start, begin, learn…等之后可接 V-ing 或 to-V 当受词,在意义上没有差异。

例:They begandancing / to dancefaster and faster. (他们开始跳得越来越快。) 注意 2:动词 stop,remember,forget, try…等之后可接 V-ing 或 to-V 当受词,但意义通常不同。 例:1. The man stopped talking. (那人停止说话。) The man stopped to talk to a newsboy. (那人停下来和报童说话。) * I'm tried. I have to stopworking. ~to take a rest. 我累了,我必须停止工作。 ~下来休息。 2.She remembered meeting him somewhere. (她记得在某处曾见过他。)---已见过 She remembered to meet him at the station. (她记得要在车站和他碰面。)---尚未过见 ※Remember to preview your lesson before class and review your lesson after class. (记得课前预习,课后复习。) 3. Lucy forgot sending me a card. (Lucy 忘记曾寄给我一张卡片。)---寄过 Lucy forgot to send me a card. (Lucy 忘了要寄卡片给我。)---未寄 ※Don't forget to send me a card on Christmas. (别忘了在圣诞节寄张卡片给我。) 4. Try to solve the problem before ten o'clock. (设法在十点前解决这个问题。)---要人尽力去做某事 Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door. (如果前面没有人听到,试敲一下后门。)---即敲一敲门,试试是否有人应门 ◎下列动词之后只能接 V-ing。 mind、enjoy、finish、practice、miss、quit、understand、avoid 、give up、can't help、can't stand、 It's no use、It's no good 例:1. Would you mind waiting for me?(你介意等我一下吗?) ※ I made up my mind to wait for her. (我决定要等她。) 2. These students practice speaking English every day. (这些学生每天练习英语。) 3. I can't help laughing at him. (我忍不住嘲笑他。) (2)当介系词的受词—介系词之后必接 V-ing。 例:l. He is interested in playing hide-and-seek. (他喜欢玩躲猫猫。) 2. We are thinking about buying a washing machine. (我们考虑要买台洗衣机。) ◎动名词当补语—动名词可位于 be 动词之后当补语。 例:l. My work is washing cars. (我的工作是洗车。) 2. One of my hobbies is collecting stamps. (我的嗜好之一是集邮。) 注意:在其它句型中的 V-ing 形式 1. go+V-ing/go+n. + V-ing 例:gogolfing 打高尔夫球 gofishing 去钓鱼 gohunting 打猎 gobowling 打保龄球 goskating 溜冰 goswimming 去游泳 gohiking 去健行 goshopping 逛街 gosailing 去航行 例:gomountain climbing 去爬山 gobike riding 骑车兜风 gowindow shopping 去逛街 (只逛不买) gobird watching 去赏鸟 2. do +a lot of / a little + V-ing 例:1. I am busy, but I still do a little painting. (我很忙,但我仍然偶尔会画画。) 2. Do you have to do a lot of traveling in your work? (你的工作必须经常旅行吗?) 3. busy,trouble…等+ V-ing →本型中的 V-ing 前面常省略掉介系词 in 例:l. My mom was busy cooking dinner. (我妈那时忙着做晚餐。) 2. I had trouble finding out the answer to the question. (我无法找出这问题的答案。) 4. There is no + V-ing…(?是没有办法做到的。) 例:1. There is no telling what will happen next. (无法得知接下来会发生什么事。) 2. There is no knowing who did it. (无法知道那件事是谁做的。) 练习: 1. I remember seeing Mr. Smith in my office before. 2. I'll remember to see Mr. Smith tomorrow.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Would you mind going to London on business? Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one. I can't help feeling worried about his health. I apologize for not keeping my promise.

Unit 4 分词
分词可分为现在分词及过去分词。 现在分词 形式→原形动词+ing 功用→(1)表"行动进行" 例:The girl is talking with Joe. (那女孩正和 Joe 讲话。) (2)表"主动" 例:The girl talking with Joe is Jane.(正和 Joe 讲话的那女孩是 Jane。) 过去分词 形式→一为规则变化 (原形动词+ ed);一为不规则变化。 功用→(1)表"动作完成" 例:David has just used the pen. (David 刚用过那枝笔。) (2)表''被动" 例:1. This is the pen used by David. (这是 David 用过的笔。) 2. The pen was used by David. (这枝笔被 David 用过。) 现在分词的形容词用法 (1)现在分词+名词→单独的现在分词,没有受词或 (副词词组)相伴时,放在名词之前修饰名词。 例:1. Don't wake the sleeping baby. (别吵醒睡眠中的宝宝。) 2. The rising sun is very beautiful. (日出非常美丽。) (2)名词+现在分词→现在分词后有受词或修饰语句相伴时,放在名词之后修饰名词。 例:I saw a man working in the garden. (我看到一个人在花园工作。) I saw a girl playing the piano on the stage. (我看到一个女孩在舞台上弹钢琴。) I sawa child sleeping on the grass. (我看到一个小孩睡在草地上。) 过去分词的形容词用法 (1)过去分词+名词→单独的过去分词,没有受词或副词片语相伴时,放在名词之前修饰名词。 例:1. I found the lost pen. (我找到那支遗失的笔。) 2. She bought a used car. (她买了一辆二手车。) 注意:过去分词的形容词用法,代表两种含义。 1. 表"被动" 例:a spoken language (说的语言) a decayed tooth (蛀牙) a wounded soldier (受伤的士兵) a boiled egg (煮熟的蛋) ※boiling water (沸腾的水) boiled water (开水) 2. 表"完成" fallen leaves(已经飘落的叶子) ※falling leaves (正在飘落的叶子) the risen sun(已经升起的太阳) ※the rising sun (正在升起的太阳) a faded flower (退休的老师) a retired teacher(凋谢的画) (2)名词+过去分词→过去分词后有受词或修饰语句相伴时,放在名词之后修饰名词。 例:1. This is a picture painted about 200 years ago. (这是一幅两百年前画的图画。) 2. We have some story books written in easy English. (我们有些用简单英文写成的故事书。)

(3)名词+现在分词+修饰语句 名词+现在分词+修饰语句→在句中还可扮演主词、受词及补语的功用。 a. 当主词 例:l. The woman sitting in the middle is Bob's mother. (坐在中间的女人是 Bob 的母亲。) 2. Some of the people waiting for the bus became angry. (等公交车中的有些人变得很生气。) b. 当受词 例:1. I know the boy running in the park. (我认识在公园跑步的男孩。) 2. Do have you any friends living in Japan? (你有任何住在日本的朋友吗?) c. 当补语 例:l. The subway is the railway running under the ground. (地铁是在地下行驶的铁路。) 2. A nurse is a person taking care of sick people. (护士是照顾病人的人。) (4)名词+过去分词+修饰语句 名词+过去分词+修饰语句→在句中还可扮演主词、受词及补语的功用。 a. 当主词 例:The language spoken in America is English. (美国说的语言是英语。) b. 当受词 例:I look at a lot of pictures taken in Kenting. (我看了许多在垦丁拍的照片。) c. 补语 例:This is a dress made for her. (这是为她做的洋装。) 比较:形容词用法的现在分词及过去分词。 1. 现在分词当形容词用,表 a.动作进行 b.主动 2. 过去分词当形容词用,表 a.动作完成 b.主动 例:l. The girl drawing the picture is my sister. (画这幅画的女孩是我姊。) 2. The picture drawn by my sister is nice. (这幅我姊姊所画的画不错。) 分词的其它用法 (1) S + V +现在分词→现在分词可直接放在动词后,当补语使用 a. keep +现在分词:表"动作的持续或重复"。 例:l. He keeps standing for three hours. (他一直站了三小时。) 2. The dog kept barking all night. (那只狗整晚叫个不停。) b. come (stand, sit?等)+现在分词→现在分词可作为 come,stand,sit,lie 等表静止或运动的动词之补语,表 示两个动作同时进行。 例:1. The children came running to meet us. (小朋友跑来迎接我们。) 2. Jack stood looking at the monkeys. (Jack 站着看猴子。) (2) S+V+O+现在分词→现在分词可作为感官动词 hear,see,feel…及 keep, leave 等动词的受词补语。 例:1. I saw her crossing the road. (我看见她穿越马路。) 2. Don't leave her waiting outside in the rain. (别让她在外面雨中等待。) (3) S+V+O+过去分词→过去分词可作为 make, have, see, hear, feel, want, wish, would like…等动词的受词补 语。 例:1. I could not make myself understood in English. (我的英文别人听不懂。) 2. She heard her name called. (她听到有人叫她的名字。) 3. I had my hair cut. (我剪头发了。) 比较:动名词及现在分词 动名词及现在分词的形皆为原形动词+ing ,但其功用不同。 ◎动名词:动名词是一个动词,在使用时具有名词的特性,可当主词,受词及补语。 ◎现在分词:进行式为 be 动词+现在分词,表一个动作正在进行。另外,现在分词也有形容词的功用,可 修饰名词或当有些动词的受词补语。 例:1. Tom's hobby is painting. (动名词) (Tom 的嗜好是画画。) 2. Tom is painting. (现在分词) (Tom 正在画画。)

Unit 5 形容词
1. 形容词的用法 叙述用法 →放 be 动词或连缀动词之后,补充说明主词。 例:1. He is old and sick. (他又老又病。) 2. Mark became hungry after two hours' work. (在工作两小时后,Mark 变得很饿。) 3. Sea water tastes salty. (海水尝起来咸咸的。) 限定用法 →修饰名词 ◎形容词+名词 例:1. a useful book (一本有用的书) 2. physical education (体育) 注意:若有两个或以上的形容词修饰同一个名词,其次序是:
限词 this that an this five a few useful tall oblong 数量 品质 表性质、状态的形容词大小、 形状→颜色、新旧→材料、 地点 gold red strong black silk Korean 材料 地点 watch tie boys boxes

expensive

◎something…等+形容词 an important thing (一件重要的事) something important (某件重要的事) 例:1. He eats nothing sweet. (甜的东西他一概不吃。) 2. Something terrible is about to happen. (某件可怕的事即将要发生。) 注意:
国名 China Japan Korea France Germany Spain 某国的(形容词) Chinese Japanese Korean French German Spanish 语言 Chinese Japanese Korean French German Spanish 全国人民(复数) the Chinese the Japanese the Koreans the French the Germans the Spanish

2. 表示数量的形容词
many ? 可数复数名词 much ? 不可数名词 (许多) ? →a lot of / lots of

? ?

例:l. Did he make many mistakes on the test? (他考试犯了许多错误吗?) 2. Is there much wine in the bottle? (瓶子里有许多酒吗?)
a few ? 可数复数名词 a little ? 不可数名词 (一些) ? ? some

? ?

例:1. These were a few children in the yard at that time. (那时有些小朋友在院子里。) 2. I gave her a little trouble. (我给她添了一些麻烦。)
few ? 可数复数名词 little ? 不可数名词 (很少;几乎没有) ? not many ? not much

例:l. He is a man of few words. (他是个不太爱说话的人。) 2. There is little hope of his recovery. (他几乎没有复元的希望。)

some (一些) any (任何)

? ?

用于肯定句 用于否定句,疑问句

例:l. He collects some foreign stamps. (他收集了一些外国邮票。) 2. There is not any tea in the cup. (杯子里没有茶了。) 注意:劝人吃东西,请人帮忙,或期待对方回答 Yes 时,问句里也用 some。 例:1. Would you like some wine?(想要些葡萄酒吗?) 2. May I have some more coffee?(我可以再要些咖啡吗?) 3. 数词 基数 序数 基数 序数 1. one first (1st) 11. eleven eleventh (11th) 2. two second (2nd) 12. twelve twelfth (12th) 3. three third (3rd) 13. thirteen thirteenth (13th) 4. four fourth (4th) 15. fifteen fifteenth (15th) 5. five fifth (5th) 20. twenty twentieth (20th) 6. six sixth (6th) 21. twenty-one twenty-first (21st) 7. seven seventh (7th) 30. thirty thirtieth (30th) 8. eight eighth (8th) 40. forty fortieth (40th) 9. nine ninth (9th) 90. ninety ninetieth (90th) 10.ten tenth (l0th) 100. one hundred hundredth ( 100th) 数的读法 △整数 例:1. 12,345 → twelve thousand three hundred and forty-five 2. 3,874,516 → three million eight hundred and seventy-fourthousand five hundred and sixteen △小数:小数点为 point 例:1. 3. 14 → three point one four 2. 27. 08 → twenty-seven point zero eight △分数:
分子 ? 基数 分母 ? 序数

。若分子超过 1,则分母加 s。

例:1.

1 → one third 2. 3

3 2 →two and three fourths 4

△年月日 例:1. 2000 年→(the year) two thousand 2. 1984 年 7 月 4 日→July four(th), nineteen eighty-four △时刻 例:1. 6:15→six fifteen/a quarter past six 2. 7:30→seven thirty/half past seven 3. 8:59→eight fifty-nine/one to nine △温度 例:1. 摄氏 25°C→twenty-five degrees centigrade/Celsius 2. 华氏 93°F→ninety-three degrees Fahrenheit △电话号码 例:2834-7509→two eight three four, seven five zero nine 数词的惯用表现 △hundreds/thousands/millions of…数以百/千/百万计的?? 例:l. He has one hundred kinds of stamps. (他有 100 种邮票。) 2. Hundreds of children gathered in the playground. (数以百计的小朋友聚集在运动场。)

△in + one's/the +数词的复数形 例:l. She is in her twenties/teens. (她 20 几岁/ 10 几岁。) 2. There was an antiwar movement in the nineteen-sixties. (在 1960 年代有一项反战运动。) △数词-单数名词=形容词 例:1. It's only a ten-minute walk from here to the station. (从这里走路到车站只要十分钟路程。) 2. The young man married a 70-year-old woman. (那年轻人娶了一位 70 岁的女士。)

Unit 6 副词
1. 副词的功用 △修饰一般动词 例:He drives his car carefully. (他小心开车。) △修饰形容词 例:He is a very careful driver. (他是一位很小心的驾驶。) △修饰另一个副词 例:He drives his car very carefully. (他开车非常小心。) 2. 副词的种类 (1)情状副词 形成 △形容词加 ly 例:quick-quickly (快) careful-carefully (小心) △形容词字尾为 le →去 e 加 ly 例:terrible-terribly (可怕) comfortable-comfortably (舒适) △形容词字尾为子音+y →去 y 加 ily 例:happy-happily (快乐) heavy-heavily (重的) △形容词字尾为 ll→加 y 例:full-fully (满) dull-dully (迟钝) △形容词字尾为 ue →去 e 加 ly 例:true-truly (真实) due-duly (适当) △形容词,副词同形 例:early (早),late (晚),enough (足够),fast (快),first (第一),last (最后)等。 △不规则变化 例:good-well (好) 位置 △动词+副词=副词+动词 例:She danced beautifully. = She beautifully danced. (她舞得很美。) △动词+受词+副词=副词+动词+受词 例:All of us accepted the invitation gladly. = All of us gladly accepted the invitation. (我们所有人都很乐意接受这邀请。) △动词+介系词+受词+副词=副词+动词+介系词+受词=动词+副词+介系词+受词 例:She walked into the classroom quietly. = She quietly walked into the classroom. = She walked quietly into the classroom. (她安静地走进教室。) △be 动词+副词+ V-ing 例:He was anxiously waiting for her arrival. (他焦急地等着她的到来。 )

注意:字尾为 ly 的情状副词可用于一句的句首。 例:Slowly and carefully he opened the box. (他慢慢地小心翼翼地打开盒子。) 注意:连缀动词,如 fell,taste…等,其后须接形容词。 例:1. The old man looked angry. (那老人看起来很生气。) The old man looked at me angrily. (那老人生气地看着我。) 2. We felt sad for his death. (我们为他的死感到难过。) The doctor felt the pulse carefully. (医生细心地诊脉。) 3. Mark appeared calm. (Mark 似乎很冷静。) Mark appeared suddenly at the door. (Mark 突然出现在门口。) (2)频率副词→ always (总是), usually (通常), often (经常), sometimes (偶尔), seldom (不常), ever (曾经), never (绝不) 位置 △→be 动词/助动词之后 △一般动词之前 例:Jim is always late to school. =Jim always goes to school late. (Jim 上学总是迟到。) △简答句或简述句时,在 be 动词或助动词之前 例:l. Mr. Wang usually goes to the office by bus, but Mrs. Wang never does. (王先生通常搭公交车上班,但王太太从不搭公交车上班。) 2. Did you ever talk to foreigners in English? No, I never did. (你曾用英语和外国人交谈吗?不,从没有。) 注意:频率副词除 always 外,也可以用于句首。 例:Sometimes we eat dinner in that restaurant. (偶尔我们在那家餐厅吃晚餐。) 注意:询问频率用 How often (多久一次) 例:How often do the buses run between the station andyour school?→ Once an hour. (从车站到你们学校之间公交车隔多久来一班?一小时一班。) (3)地方副词→ there (那里),here (这里),downstairs (楼下),upstairs (楼上),inside (在内),outside (在外), under the tree (在树下)…等。 △小地方+大地方 例:Her parents lived on a small farm in a remote country. (她父母住在偏远乡下的一个小农场上。) △地方副词很少用于句首,如用于句首,通常用以表示对比或强调 例:l. The young girls are going upstairs. (那些年轻女孩们正往楼上走去。) 2. Upstairs they are having a party, and downstairs people are playing loud music. So I cannot study in my apartment. (楼上正在开派对, 而楼下又有人大声的放音乐。 所以我无法在我的公寓里读书。 ) (4)时间副词 △句首/句尾 例:Last week you promised me to do it. →You promised me to do it last week. (上星期你承诺我要做这件事。) △小时间+大时间 例:The wedding took place on Wednesday evening last week. (婚礼在上星期三晚上举行。) 注意:若有几个不同类的副词同时出现,其次序为:地方副词+情状副词+频率副词+时间副词 例:1. My sister went upstairs quietly a minute ago. (我姊姊不久前安静地上楼去。) 2. A time bomb exploded at the station yesterday. (一颗定时炸弹昨天在车站爆炸。) (5)程度副词→ so (如此地)、too (太)、very (非常)、quite (相当地)、enough (够) △用于所修饰的形容词或副词前。 例:so comfortable (如此舒适)、too tired (太累)、very carefully (非常小心) △enough 用于所修饰的形容词或副词之后。 例:tall enough (够高),kind enough (够仁慈) 例:It's warm enough for you to play out of doors. (天气够暖和你可以到外面玩。) 3. 特别注意的副词

very/much △very 修饰原级和最高级 much 修饰比较级和最高级 例:l. He is a very good boy. (他是位非常棒的男孩。) 2. He is a much better boy than you. (他是位比你棒的男孩。) 3. He ismuch the best boyof all. = He isthe very best boy of all. (他是所有男孩中最棒的。) △much 及 very much 可修饰动词,但 very 不可以。 例:I don't like the idea (very) much. 我不是很喜欢这想法。 △现在分词(V-ing)及过去分词(p. p.)可当形容词用。

?修饰现在分词 ? very ? ?修饰过去分词 ? much, very much
※列入字典当形容词的过去分词则用 very。 例:1. English is an very interesting subject. (英文是非常有趣的科目。) 2. I am much (= very much) interested in English. (我对英语很感兴趣。) 3. I am very pleased to teach all of you English. (我非常高兴教大家英语。) maybe/may be maybe (或许)为副词;may 为助动词,be 为动词,意指"可能是。 例:1. Maybe he is right. (也许他对了。) 2. He may be right. (他可能对了。 sometime/some time △sometime (某个时候),some time (一些时间) 例:1. I saw him sometime last year. (我在去年某个时间见过他。) 2. I'll call on you sometime. (改天我会去拜访你。) 3. I'll do this if I can spare some time. (如果我能挪出一点时间,我会做这件事。) everyday/every day everyday (每天)当形容词用;every day (每天)当副词用 例:l. Wear your everyday clothes. (穿便服吧。) 2. She helps her mom with kitchen work everyday. (她每天帮她母亲做厨房工作。) 注意:某些副词可修饰整个句子 例:Unfortunately, John failed to pass the exam. (不幸地,John 未能通过考试。)

Unit 7 动词
?be动词(连缀动词) ? 表" 状态;存在" 动词? ?一般动词 ? 表"动作"
1. 连缀动词 (+形容词)

?1? 变得 ?

?become ? 形容词 / 名词 ?get, grow, come, go ? 形容词

例:1. Come home before it gets dark. (天黑前回家。) 2. My dream will come true in the future. (我的梦想未来会实现。) 3. She went red with anger. (她气得满脸通红。) (2)??起来

?look (看起来),sound (听起来),smell (闻起来), ? ? ? ? 形容词 / like (像) ? 名词 ?taste (尝起来),fell (感觉起来) ?
例:1. It sounds great. (听起来很棒。) It sounds like a true story. (那好像是真实的故事。) 2. The cloth feels soft. (这块布摸起来很柔软。)

The cloth feels like silk. (这块布摸起来像丝。) 注意:feel like + V-ing (想要);feel like (大概是??似的) 例:1. I don't feel like taking a walk now. (我现在不想去散步。) 2. It feels like rain. (大概快下雨了。) (3)保持??(状态)→keep,stay 例:l. She kept calm during the earthquake. (地震时她保持冷静。) 2. The weather is going to stay fine for a few days. (晴天将会持续两三天。) 2. 授与动词 (有两受词,一为人,一为物)

?受词(人) ? 受词(物) 句型:s ? 授与动词 ? ? ?受词(物) ? 介词 ? 受词(人)
例:She asked me a question. = She asked a question of me. (她问我一个问题。 ) ※授与动词所搭配的介词 △to → give (给),lend (借出),show (展示),pass (传递),pay (付钱),sell (卖),send (寄),teach (教), tell (告诉)??等。 △for → buy (买), make (制造), cook (烹煮), get (得到), find (找出), play (演奏), sing (唱歌)??等。 △of→ ask (问) 例:1. Will you lend me your pen? =Will you lend your pen to me? (请你把你的钢笔借我好吗?) 注意:borrow (借入),其后只能接受词(物)。 例:I borrowed many story books from my friend. (我向朋友借了许多故事书。) 2. His mother bought him a CD player. =His mother bought a CD player for him. =His mother bought it for him. (他妈妈买了 CD 音响给他。) 3. 使役动词“叫??(人)做??(事)” △make, have (叫??)+受词+原形动词 △get (叫??)+受词+ toV. △let (让??)+受词+原形动词 △help (帮忙??)+受词+原形动词/toV 例:1. Our parents made us brush our teeth three times a day. (我们的父母强迫我们一天刷三次牙。) 2. I'll get them to try it again. (我要叫他们再试一次。) 3. He helped me (to) paint the wall green. (他帮我把墙漆成绿色。) 4. 感官动词

?feel (感觉),see (看),watch (看),look at (注视), ? ? ? ? 受词 ? 原形动词 / V ? ing ?notice (注意),hear (听),listen to (倾听) ?
例:1. I looked carefully but saw nothing. (我注意看了,但什么也没看见。) 2. I saw him mow / mowing the lawn. (我看见他在修剪草坪。) 3. I noticed herstand / standing behind me. (我注意到她站在我后面。) 5. 情绪动词[使??(人)感到??] 句型:主词 (事物)+ 情绪动词+受词 (人)。 →主词 (事物)+be 动词+情绪 V-ing + to +受词 (人)。 →主词 (人)+be 动词+情绪 p. p. +介词+受词 (事物) 。

? ?现在分词? V ? ing ? ? 修饰事物 ※情绪动词 ? 情绪形容词 ? ? ? ?过去分词? p. p. ? ? 修饰人
例:l. The computer game interests young people. (这计算机游戏引起年轻人的兴趣。) →The computer game is interesting to young people. →Young people are interested in the computer game. →Young people take/have interest in the computer game. 注意:情绪动词之过去分词所搭配的介词如下:

?interested in (对??感兴趣) ? ?surprised at (对??感讶异) ?excited about (对??感兴奋) ? ? be动词 ? ?embarrassed about (对??感困窘) ? worried about (对??感担心) ? ?bored with (对??感无聊) ? ? ?satisfied with (对??感到满意)
例:l. Tom is boring, so nobody wants to be with him. (Tom 很无趣,所以没人想和他在一起。) 2. I am bored with his endless tales. (他冗长的故事令我厌烦。)


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