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江苏牛津高中英语 Module6 unit2 P18-21 surround / s??raund; s?ˋra?nd/ n [Tn, Tn.pr] (a) ~ sb/sth (with sb/sth) (cause sb/sth to) move into position all round sb/sth; encircle sb/sth, esp so as to prevent escape (使某人[某物]) 包围某人[某物]; 围住某人[某物] (尤指使之无法脱逃) Troops have surrounded the town. : 部队已将该城包围. * They have surrounded the town with troops. 他们出动军队包围了该 城. * (fig 比喻) He likes to surround himself with beautiful things. 他喜欢生活在美的环境 中. (b) ~ sth/sb (by/with sth) (esp passive 尤用於被动语态) be all round sth/sb 包围 或环绕某物[某人]: Trees surround the pond. 树木围绕着池塘. * The house was surrounded by high walls. 房子的四周有高墙. * (fig 比喻) The new plan is surrounded by much speculation, ie Everyone is wondering about it. 新计画备受猜疑. * She has always been surrounded with fashionable friends. 她周围总有许多爱赶时髦的朋友. > surround n (usu decorative) border around an object (通常指装饰性的)物体的边缘: a fireplace with a tiled surround 周围镶有瓷砖的壁炉. surrounding adj [attrib 作定语] that is around and nearby 周围附近的: York and the surrounding countryside.约克城及其近郊. surroundings n [pl] all the objects, conditions, etc that are around (and may affect) sb/sth; environment 周围的物体﹑ 条件等(可为有 影响力的); 环境: living in pleasant surroundings 生活在舒适的环境中 * Animals in zoos are not in their natural surroundings. 动物园中的动物没有自然环境. suffer / ?s?f?(r); ˋs?f?/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (from/with/for sth) feel pain, discomfort, great sorrow, etc 感到疼痛﹑ 不 适﹑ 悲伤等; 受苦; 吃苦头: Do you suffer from (ie often have) headaches? 你常头痛吗? * She's suffering from loss of memory. 她患有遗忘症. * He suffers terribly with (ie is pained by) his feet. 他的脚痛得不得了. * He made a rash decision now he's suffering for it. 他做决定太仓促--现在可吃到苦头了. * Think how much the parents of the kidnapped boy must have suffered. 那个男孩儿给拐走了, 想想看他父母得多伤心哪. [Tn] experience or undergo (sth unpleasant) 经历或遭受(不愉快之事): suffer pain, torture, defeat 遭受痛苦﹑ 折磨﹑ 失败 * We suffered huge losses in the financial crisis. 我们在金融危机中损失惨重. [I] become worse; lose quality 变坏; 变差; 变糟: Your studies will suffer if you play too much football. 你要是总踢足球, 功课就糟了. * Her business suffered (eg made less profit) when she was ill. 她患病时, 生意受到了影响. [Tn] (fml 文) tolerate (sth); stand 忍受, 容忍(某事物); 经得起: How can you suffer such insolence? 你怎能忍受这样的侮辱呢? (idm 习语) not/never suffer `fools gladly not be patient with people whom one considers to be foolish 对自己认为很笨的人缺乏耐心: an arrogant, impatient woman who doesn't suffer fools gladly 不愿与笨人为伍的高傲而无耐性的女子. > sufferer / ?s?f?r?(r); ˋs?f?r?/ n person who suffers 受苦者; 受难者; 受害者; 患病者:

arthritis sufferers 关节炎患者.
suffering / ?s?f?r??; ˋs?f?r??/ n

1 [U] pain of body or mind (肉体或内心的)痛苦: There is so much suffering in this world. 这个世界上多灾多难. 2 sufferings [pl] feelings of pain, unhappiness, etc 痛苦﹑ 不幸等的感觉; 苦恼; 折磨: the sufferings of the starving refugees 饥饿中的难民所受的折磨. gymnast / ?d??mn?st; ˋd??mn?st/ n expert in gymnastics 体育家; 体操运动员. viewer view·er /?vju?? US -?r/ n [C] someone who watches television

The new series has gone down well with viewers.
someone who looks at something

In the painting, the woman has her back to the viewer.
a small box with a light in it used to look at slides (=colour photographs on special film) goodwill / ?gud?w?l; ˋɡ?dˋw?l/ n [U] friendly, co-operative or helpful feeling 好意; 善意; 友善; 亲善: a policy, spirit, etc of goodwill in international relations 国际关系中的亲善政策﹑ 精神等 * show goodwill to/towards sb 对某人表示善意 * Given goodwill on both sides I'm sure we can reach agreement. 若双方均有诚意, 我确信我们能达成一致意见. (financial value attached to the) good reputation of an established business (企业的) 信誉; 商誉; 商誉的经济价值: The goodwill is being sold together with the shop. 商店连同 其商誉一并出售. junior / ?d?u?n??(r); ˋd?unj?/ adj ~ (to sb) lower in rank or standing (than sb) (较某人)地位或身分低的: a junior clerk in an office 办公室的下级职员 * He is several years junior to Mrs Cooper. 他比库珀太太 小几岁. Junior (abbrs 缩写 Jnr, Jr, Jun) (esp US) (used after a name to refer to a son who has the same name as his father or to the younger of two boys having the same name in a school, university, etc 父子同名时, 用於儿子姓名之後, 两学生同姓时, 用於年幼者之名後, 以示区别): Sammy Davies, Jnr 小萨米?戴维斯. Cf 参看 minor 2. (Brit) of or intended for children from the ages of 7 to 11 (7 至 11 岁)儿童的: junior school 小学. Cf 参看 senior. > junior n 1 person who holds a low rank in a profession; person with an unimportant job (一职业 中)地位较低者; 从事次要工作的人: the office junior 办公室的一般职员. 2 [sing] (used with his, her, your, etc 与 his﹑ her﹑ your 等连用) person who is a specified number of years younger than sb else 比某人小若干岁: He is three years her junior/her junior by three years. 他比她小三岁. 3 (Brit) child who goes to junior school 小学生: The juniors' Christmas party is on Tuesday.

小学生的圣诞节联欢会於星期二举行. 4 (US) student in his third year of a four-year course at college or high school (四年制的 大学或中学的)三年级学生. 5 (US infml 口) way of addressing a son in a family 家庭中称呼儿子的用语: Come here, Junior! 到这儿来, 小儿子! vault


/ v??lt; v?lt/ n

arched roof; series of arches forming a roof 拱券; 拱顶: fan vaulting, ie vaults wherethe arches have ribs, like a fan 扇形拱券. =>illus at App 1 见附录 1 插图, page viii. (a) cellar or underground room used for storing things at a cool temperature 地窖; 地 下室: `wine-vaults 酒窖. (b) similar room beneath a church or in a cemetery, used for burials (教堂或坟场的)地下墓室: in the family vault 在家族的地下墓室中. similar room, esp in a bank and protected by locks, alarms, thick walls, etc, used for keeping valuables safe (设於地下的)金库, 保险库(尤指银行的). covering like an arched roof 拱券状覆盖物: (rhet 修辞) the vault of heaven, ie the sky 苍穹(天空). > vaulted adj having a vault or vaults; built in the form of a vault 有拱券的; 建成拱状的: a vaulted roof, chamber, etc 拱形屋顶﹑ 有拱券的会堂等. vault


/ v??lt; v?lt/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (over sth) jump in asingle movement over or onto an object with

the hand(s) resting on it or with the help of a pole (用手或竿支撑)跳跃: vault (over) a fence 用手支撑跳过篱笆墙 * The jockey vaulted lightly into the saddle. 那骑师用手一按 马背轻身跃上了马鞍. * (fig fml 比喻, 文) vaulting (ie boundless, overreaching) ambition 奢想. > vault n jump made in this way 撑物跳跃; 撑竿跳. vaulter n (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) personwho vaults 撑物跳跃的人: a pole-vaulter 撑竿跳高运动员. # `vaulting horse wooden apparatus for practice in vaulting (练习跳跃用的)鞍马. =>illus 见插图. apart / ??pɑ?t; ?ˋpɑrt/ adv to or at a distance 相距; 相隔: The two houses stood 500 metres apart. 这两所房子相 距 500 米. * The employers and the unions are still miles apart, ie are far from agreement. 雇主与工会之间仍有很大距离(远不能取得一致意见). to or on one side; aside 向一边; 在一边: She keeps herself apart from (ie does not mix with) other people. 她与别人保持距离(不与别人混在一起). separate(ly) 分开; 分离: You never see them apart these days. 他们近来形影不离. * He was standing with his feet wide apart. 他站在那儿, 两脚分开的距离很大. * These pages are stuck together I can't pull them apart. 这几页都粘在一起了--我揭不开. into pieces 成碎片: I'm sorry, the cup just came/fell apart in my hands. 很遗憾, 这个 杯子竟在我手上碎了. (idm 习语) be poles apart => pole1. joking apart=> joke. put/set sb/sth apart (from sb/sth) make sb/sth appear superior or unique 使某人[某事物]显得优越或独特:

His use of language sets him apart from most other modern writers. 他对语言的运用在现
代作家中别具一格. a race apart => race. take sb/sth apart criticize sb/sth severely 严厉批评某人[某事物]: He took my essay apart but I found his criticism helpful. 他把我的 文章狠狠地批评了一顿, 但我认为他的批评有好处. take sth apart separate sth into pieces 拆开某物: John enjoys taking old clocks apart. 约翰喜欢拆卸旧钟. tell/know A and B apart distinguish two people or things; recognize the difference between two people or things 能分辨两个人或两种事物; 能看出两个人或两种事物之间的区别. worlds apart => world. # apart from (also esp US aside from) prep 1 independently of (sth); except for 除了(某事物)以外...都﹑ 全﹑ 没﹑ 没有等; 除去: Apart from his nose (Cf 参看 His nose apart) he's quite good-looking. 他除了鼻子以外, 哪儿都很好看. 2 in addition to (sth) 除了(某事物)以外...也﹑ 还﹑ 只等; 不止: Apart from the injuries to his face and hands, he broke both legs. 他除了脸部和双手受伤以外, 两条腿也断了. mat

/ m?t; m?t/ n (a) piece of material, made of straw, rushes, fibre, etc, used to cover part of a floor 蓆; 垫: a `doormat 门口蹭鞋垫. (b) thick pad, usu of foam, rubber, etc, used in gymnastics or wrestling for competitors to land on (用於体操或摔交运动的)厚垫子. small piece of material placed under a hot dish, or a glass, vase, etc to protect the surface underneath (用以垫热碟﹑ 杯子﹑ 花瓶等的)小垫: a cork `table-mat 软木碗盘 垫 * a beer mat 啤酒杯垫. mass of things tangled thickly together 一丛; 一团; 一簇: a mat of weeds, hair, threads 一团杂草﹑ 毛发﹑ 线. > mat v (-tt-) [I, Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (cause sth to) become thickly tangled or knotted (使某物)缠结: matted hair 缠结在一起的毛发. mat 2 = matt. matt, mat (US also matte) / m?t; m?t/ adj (of surfaces, eg paper, photographs) not shiny or glossy; dull (指纸张﹑ 像片等)无光泽的, 粗面的: Will this paint give a gloss or a matt finish? 这 种颜料有无光泽? Cf 参看 gloss1 1. specialist spe·cial·ist W3S3 /?spe??l?st/ n [C] someone who knows a lot about a particular subject, or is very skilled at it = expert specialist in

an attorney who is a specialist in banking law
a doctor who knows more about one particular type of illness or treatment than other


a heart specialist
severe / s??v??(r); s?ˋv?r/ adj (-r, -st) ~ (on/with sb/sth) strict or harsh in attitude or treatment; imposing stern discipline 严格的; 严厉的; 苛刻的; 纪律严明的: a severe look, punishment, measure 严厉的样子﹑ 惩罚﹑ 措施 * a severe critic of modern drama 严厉批评现代戏剧的评论家 * be severe with one's children 对子女很严 * Was the judge too severe on the thief? 这个法官对小偷 是不是太严厉了? very bad, intense, difficult, etc 非常恶劣﹑ 紧张﹑ 困难等: a severe storm 猛烈的风暴 * severe pain, injuries, etc 剧痛﹑ 重伤 * a severe attack of toothache 牙齿的剧痛 * The drought is becoming increasingly severe. 旱灾日趋严重. demanding great skill, ability, patience, etc (对技巧﹑ 能力﹑ 耐心等)要求很高的: a severe test of climbers' stamina 对攀登者耐力的严峻考验 * severe competition for university places 考大学的激烈竞争 * The pace of the race was too severe to be maintained for long. 比赛的速度极快, 很难持久. (of style, appearance, clothing, etc) unadorned; simple (指风格﹑ 外貌﹑ 衣物等)无 装饰的, 简单的, 朴素的: Her plain black dress was too severe for such a cheerful occasion. 她穿着黑色连衣裙, 在这种欢乐的场合未免太素了. > severely adv: punish sb severely 严厉惩罚某人 * severely handicapped 严重伤残 * dress very severely 穿得很朴素. severity / s??ver?t?; s?ˋv?r?t?/ n 1 [U] quality of being severe 严格; 严厉; 苛刻; 剧烈; 朴素: punish sb with severity 严厉 惩罚某人 * the severity (ie extreme cold) of the winter 冬天的严寒. 2 severities [pl] (fml 文) severe treatment or conditions 严厉的对待; 艰苦的环境: the harsh severities of life in the desert 沙漠生活的艰苦. spirits [pl] person's feelings or state of mind 精神状态; 情绪; 心境: in high spirits, ie cheerful 情绪高 * in low/poor spirits, ie depressed, gloomy 情绪低 * raise sb's spirits, ie make sb more cheerful 鼓舞某人的情绪 * Have a glass of brandy to keep your spirits up. 来杯白兰地提提神吧. appreciation / ??pri????e??n; ??pri??ˋe??n/ n [U] understanding and enjoyment 欣赏: She shows little or no appreciation of good music. 她对於好音乐鲜有或没有欣赏的能力. [U] grateful recognition of an action 感激; 感谢: Please accept this gift in appreciation of all you've done for us. 多蒙鼎力协助, 无任感谢. 谨备薄礼, 敬请哂纳. [C] (fml 文) (esp written) statement of the qualities of a work of art, person's life, etc (尤指书面的)鉴定, 鉴别, 评价, 评论: an appreciation of the poet's work 对诗人作品的 评论. [U] increase in value 增值; 涨价: The pound's rapid appreciation is creating problems for exporters. 英镑急速升值给出口商造成困难. sorrow

/ ?s?r?u; ˋsɑro/ n [U] ~ (at/for/over sth) feeling of sadness or distress caused esp by loss, disappointment or regret; grief 悲伤; 悲痛; 懊丧; 悔恨: express sorrow for having done wrong 因做错了事而表示懊悔 * to my great sorrow 令我悲痛万分 * to the sorrow of all those who were present 使所有在场的人感到难过 * sorrow at sb's death 因某人去世而感 到的悲伤 * in sorrow and in joy, ie when we are sad and also when we are happy 无论是 在悲伤还是在快乐的时候. [C] particular cause of this feeling; misfortune 悲伤的原因; 懊丧的原因; 不幸: the sorrow(s) of war 战争带来的灾祸 * He has had many sorrows in his life. 他生活中颇多不 幸. * Her death was a great sorrow to everyone. 她死了, 大家万分悲痛. (idm 习语) drown one's sorrows => drown. more in ,sorrow than in `anger with more regret than anger for what was done, etc (对做过的事等)感到懊悔, 倒并不生气: It was more in sorrow than in anger that he criticized his former colleague. 他批评以前的同 事, 并非出於气愤而是为他惋惜. > sorrow v [I, Ipr] ~ (at/for/over sth) (fml 文) feel, express or show sorrow; grieve 感到﹑ 表示或显得悲哀或懊悔; 悲叹; 惋惜: sorrowing over his child's death 因他孩子夭 折而悲伤 * sorrowing at his misfortune 哀叹他的不幸. sorrowful / -fl; -f?l/ adj (esp fml 尤作文雅语) feeling, showing or causing sorrow 感到﹑ 显得或引起悲哀或懊悔的: a sorrowful occasion 使人心酸的场合 * Her face was anxious and sorrowful. 她满面悲愁. sorrowfully/-fElI; -fElI/ adv: weeping sorrowfully 伤心地落 泪. sorrowfulness n [U]. accomplish / ??k?mpl??; US ??k?m-; ?ˋkɑmpl??/ v [Tn] succeed in doing (sth); complete successfully; achieve 完成(某事物); 做成功; 实现: accomplish one's aim, a task 达到目的﹑ 完成任务 * a man who will never accomplish anything 永远一事无成的人. (idm 习语) an accomplished `fact thing that has been done and is no longer worth arguing about because it cannot be changed 既成事实. > accomplished adj 1 ~ (in sth) skilled 有技巧的; 熟练的: an accomplished dancer, cook, poet, etc 有才艺 的舞蹈家﹑ 厨师﹑ 诗人等 * be accomplished in music 擅长音乐. 2 well trained or educated in social skills such as conversation, art, music, etc 在谈吐﹑ 美 术﹑ 音乐等方面受过良好训练或教育的: an accomplished young lady 年轻的才女. thankful thank·ful /?θ??kf?l/ adj [not before noun] [Language: Old English; Origin: thancful, from thanc; THANKS2] grateful and glad about something that has happened, especially because without it the situation would be much worse thankful for

I'll be thankful for a good night's sleep after the week I've had.

thankful (that)

She was thankful that Chantal was there.
thankful to do sth

I was thankful to make any sort of progress at all. >thankfulness n [U] →be thankful for small mercies/favours at small 1 (13)
adapt / ??d?pt; ?ˋd?pt/ v (a) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tnt] ~ sth (for sth) make sth suitable for a new use, situation, etc; modify sth 使某事物适合於新的用途﹑ 情况等; 修改某事物: This machine has been specially adapted for use underwater. 这机器是为水下使用而特别改装的. * These styles can be adapted to suit individual tastes. 这些式样均可改动以适应个人不同的爱好. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (for sth) (from sth) alter or modify (a text) for television, the stage, etc (为电视﹑ 舞台等)改编或改写(稿本): This novel has been adapted for radio (ie translated and changed so that it can be presented on the radio) from the Russian original. 这部小说已由俄文原着改编成无线电广播节目(经翻译及改写後可於无线电中播放). [I, Ipr, Tn.pr] ~ (oneself) (to sth) become adjusted to new conditions, etc 适应(新 环境等) Our eyes slowly adapted to the dark. 我们的眼睛慢慢地适应了黑暗的环境. * She : adapted (herself) quickly to the new climate. 她很快地适应了这种新的气候. > adaptable adj (a) (approv 褒) able to adapt oneself/itself 能适应的; 适应性强的: He is not very adaptable, ie does not adapt easily to new circumstances, etc. 他的适应性不强. (b) able to be adapted 可改编的; 可改写的. adaptability / ??d?pt??b?l?t?; ??d?pt?ˋb?l?t?/ n [U]. adaptation / ??d?p?te??n; ??d?pˋte??n/ n ~ (of sth) (for/to sth) 1 [U] (esp biology 尤用於生物学) action or process of adapting or being adapted 适应; 适应性; 适应性变化. [C] thing made by adapting sth else, esp a text for production on the stage, radio, etc 改制物; (尤指为舞台演出﹑ 无线电广播等而源自其它材料的)改编本: an adaptation for children of a play by Shakespeare 为儿童改编的莎士比亚剧本. adaptor n 1 device that connects pieces of equipment that were not originally designed to be connected 适配器, 转接器(用以转接不可直接连接的器材). 2 type of plug that enables several electrical appliances to be connected to one socket 转 接器(可使几个用电器连接於同一插座上的一种插头). 3 (also adapter) person who adapts sth 改编者. broadcast / ?br??dkɑ?st; US ?br??dk?st; ˋbr?d?k?st/ v (pt, pp broadcast) (a) [Tn] send out (programmes) by radio or television (用无线电或电视) 播送 (节目) : broadcast the news, a concert, a football match 播送新闻﹑ 音乐演奏﹑ 足球比赛. (b) [I] send out radio or television programmes 播送(无线电或电视)节目: The BBC broadcasts

all over the world. 英国广播公司向全世界播送节目.
[I] speak or appear on radio or television (在无线电或电视上)讲话或出现: He broad-casts on current affairs. 他发表时事广播演说. [Tn] make (sth) widely known 宣布(某事物): broadcast one's views 表明自己的观点. [I, Tn] sow (seed) by scattering 撒播(种子). > broadcast n radio or television programme (无线电或电视的)广播节目: a party political broadcast, eg before an election 某党派的政治广播节目 (如选举前) * a broadcast of a football match 足球比赛的广播节目. broadcaster n person who broadcasts 广播员: a well-known broadcaster on political/religious affairs 政治[宗教]事务的着名广播员. broadcasting n [U] sending out programmes on radio or television (无线电或电视节目) 广播: work in broadcasting 从事广播工作 * [attrib 作定语] the British Broadcasting Corporation, ie the BBC 英国广播公司. advocate / ??dv?ke?t; ˋ?dv?ket/ v [Tn, Tf, Tg, Tsg] speak publicly in favour of (sth); recommend; support 拥护; 提倡; 支持: I advocate a policy of gradual reform. 我拥护逐步改革的政策. * Do you advocate banning cars in the city centre?你支持禁止汽车在市中心通行这一主张 吗? > advocate / ??dv?k?t; ˋ?dv?k?t/ n ~ (of sth) person who supports or speaks in favour of a cause, policy, etc (对一事业 ﹑ 方针﹑ 政策等的)支持者, 拥护者, 鼓吹者, 提倡者: a lifelong advocate of disarmament 为裁军奋斗终生的人. person who pleads on behalf of another, esp a lawyer who presents a client's case in a lawcourt 律师. Cf 参看 barrister, solicitor. (idm 习语) devil's advocate => devil. admirable / ??dm?r?bl; ˋ?dm?r?bl/ adj deserving or causing admiration; excellent 令人钦佩的; 极 好的: an admirable performance 优美的表演 * His handling of the situation was

admirable. 他对这情况的处理令人钦佩. > admirably / -?bl?; -?bl?/ adv.
rebuild / ?ri??b?ld; riˋb?ld/ v (pt, pp rebuilt / ?ri??b?lt; riˋb?lt/)[Tn] build or put (sth) together again 重建 (某事物) 重新组装 ; (某物) rebuild the city centre : after an earthquake 地震後重建城市中心区 * We rebuilt the engine (ie took it to pieces and put it together again) using some new parts. 我们用了一些新零件重新装配了这台发 动机. (fig 比喻) form (sth) again; restore 再形成(某事物); 恢复: rebuild sb's confidence, hopes, health 恢复某人的信心﹑ 希望﹑ 健康 * After his divorce, he had to rebuild his life completely. 他离婚後得完全重新安排生活. unbearable

/ ?n?be?r?bl; ?nˋb?r?bl/ adj that cannot be tolerated or endured 难以忍受的; 不能容忍的:

I find his rudeness unbearable. 我觉得他粗暴无礼难以忍受.> unbearably / -?bl?; -?bl?/ adv: unbearably hot, painful,selfish 热得﹑ 痛得﹑ 自私得叫人受不了. go after sb chase or pursue sb 追逐或追踪某人: He went after the burglars. 他追赶那些 盗贼. go after sb/sth try to get or obtain sb/sth 设法得到某人[某事物]: He goes after (ie tries to attract sexually) every woman he meets. 他对女人见一个追一个. * We're both going after the same job. 我们俩都谋求得到这份工作. alcohol
/ ??lk?h?l; US -h??l; ˋ?lk??h?l/ n [U] (a) colourless liquid that can cause drunkenness, contained in drinks such as beer, wine, brandy and whisky 酒精. (b) this liquid used as a solvent and fuel 乙醇. [U] drinks containing this 含酒精的饮料; 酒: prohibit the sale of alcohol 禁止售酒 * I never touch (ie drink drinks that contain) alcohol. 我从不喝酒. [U, C] chemical compound of the same type as alcohol 醇. > alcoholic / ??lk??h?l?k; US -?h??l-; ??lk?ˋh?l?k/ adj 1 of or containing alcohol 酒精的; 含酒精的: ,alcoholic `drinks 含酒精的饮料 * Home-made wine can be very alcoholic. 自制的酒有的酒性很烈. 2 [attrib 作定语] caused by drinking alcohol 由喝酒引起的: be in an,alcoholic `stupor 醉 得不省人事. n person who drinks too much alcohol or suffers from alcoholism 饮酒过度的 人; 酒鬼; 酒精中毒的人. alcoholism / -?z?m; -??z?m/ n [U] (disease caused by) continual heavy drinking of alcohol 酒精中毒(症). temporary / ?tempr?r?; US -p?rer?; ?t?mp?ˋr?r?/ adj lasting or meant to last for a limited time only; notpermanent 暂时的; 临时的; 一时的; 非永久的: temporaryemployment 临时工作 * a temporary bridge 临时桥 * This arrangement is only temporary. 这只是暂时的安排. Cf 参看 impermanent. > temporarily / ?tempr?r?l?; US ?temp??rer?l?; ?t?mp?ˋr?r?l?/ adv. temporariness n [U]. depth

/ depθ; d?pθ/ n [C, U] (a) distance from the top down 深, 深度 (从上至下的距离) the depth of the well, : mine, box, trunk 井﹑ 矿井﹑ 盒﹑ 行李箱的深度 * Water was found at a depth of 30 ft. 在 30 英尺深处找到了水. * At what depth does the wreck lie? 沉船位置的深度是多少? =>illus at dimension 见 dimension 之插图. (b) distance from the front to the back 宽, 宽 度(从前至後的距离): shelves with a depth of 8 ins 8 英寸宽的搁板. (c) distance from the surface inwards 深, 深度(从表面向内部的距离): the depth of a wound, crack, etc 伤口 ﹑ 裂缝等的深度. [C, U] (a) (of colours, darkness, etc) intensity (指颜色﹑ 黑暗等)浓度, 强度. (b) (of sounds) lowness in pitch (指声音)低沉. [U] (a) (of feelings, etc) sincerity; intensity (指感情等)诚挚, 真诚, 强烈: the depth of her love 她爱情的真挚. (b) ability to understand or explain difficult ideas 领悟或解释深奥 意念的能力: a writer of great depth and wisdom 极具领悟力和智慧的作家. (c) having or showing this ability 上述能力的体现: a novel that lacks depth 缺乏深度的小说. (idm 习语) ,in `depth thoroughly 完全地; 彻底地; 深入地: to study a subject in depth 深入研究一科目 * [attrib 作定语] an ,in-depth `study 深入的研究. in the ~(s) of sth when or where sth is deepest, most severe, etc 在最深处; 在最严峻的时刻: in the depth of winter 在隆冬 * in the depths of despair 在绝望的深渊 * in the depth of the country, ie a long way from a town 在偏远的乡村. (be/get) out of one's depth (a) (be/go) in water too deep to stand in 在深得不能站立的水中: If you can't swim, don't get out of your depth. 不会游泳就不要到水深没顶的地方去. (b) (be/become) unable to understand a subject or topic 不能理解: When they start talking about economics, I'm out of my depth. 他们一谈起经济学, 我就一窍不通了. plumb the depths of sth => plumb. # `depth charge bomb used against submarines that explodes under water 深水炸弹. Cf 参看 mine2 2. soul / s?ul; sol/ n [C] spiritual or non-material part of a person, believed to exist after death 灵魂: commend one's soul to God 将灵魂付托给上帝 * Do you believe in the immortality of the soul? 你相信灵魂不朽吗? * Christians believe that a person's soul survives the death of his

body. 基督徒相信人的灵魂在躯体死後依然存在.
[C, U] decency and honesty of feeling; emotional, moral and intellectual energy, eg as revealed in works of art 高 尚的情操; 精神; 精力; 魄力; 道义; 智力: He is a man without a soul. 他是个无情无义的人. * a very polished performance, but without soul 技 巧精湛的表演, 但没有内涵 * This music has no soul. 这音乐没有气魄. [sing] the ~ of sth perfect example or pattern (of some virtue or quality) (某种美德 或品质的)完美典型, 化身: He is the soul of honour/discretion. 他是荣誉的化身[为人极为 谨慎]. [C] spirit of a dead person 鬼魂; 亡灵; 幽魂: lost souls still walking the earth 仍在大地 上行走的迷惘的幽灵 * All Souls' Day, ie 2 November 万灵节(11 月 2 日). [C] (a) person 人: There wasn't a soul to be seen, ie No one was in sight. 一个人影儿 都看不见. * Don't tell a soul, ie Don't tell anybody. 谁也别告诉. (b) (with adjs, indicating familiarity, pity, etc 与形容词连用, 表示亲密﹑ 怜悯等) person, child, etc 人; 家伙: a dear old soul 可爱的人儿 * She's a cheery little soul, ie a cheerful girl, etc. 她是个活泼开 朗的孩子. * She's lost all her money, poor soul. 她的钱全没了, 真可怜. [U] (also soul music) type of popular modern Black American music, derived from gospel, blues and jazz, that expresses strong emotion 灵乐(美国现代黑人通俗音乐, 源自 福音音乐﹑ 布鲁斯音乐和爵士乐, 表达浓烈的情感) the sound of soul 灵乐之韵 * [attrib : 作定语] a soul singer 灵乐歌手. [U] (US infml 口) Black American culture and racial identity; qualities enabling a person to be in harmony with himself and others 美国黑人文化及其种族特性; 开朗随和的性格特 点. (idm 习语) bare one's heart/soul => bare2. body and soul => body. heart and soul => heart. keep body and soul together => body. the life and soul of sth => life. sell one's soul => sell. upon my soul! (dated 旧) (used as an exclamation of shock or surprise 用以表示震惊或惊奇). > soulful / -fl; -fl/ adj having, affecting or showing deep (usu sad) feeling 热情的; 深情 的; (通常指)悲伤的: a soulful expression 伤感的表情 * soulful music 充满激情的音乐. soulfully / -f?l?; -fl?/ adv: soulfully playing the guitar 深情地弹奏着吉他. soulfulness n [U]. soulless / ?s?ull?s; ˋsoll?s/ adj 1 (of a person) without higher or deeper feelings (指人)无高尚心灵的, 无深厚感情的. 2 (of life, a job, etc) boring and unimportant (指生活﹑ 工作等)枯燥而不重要的: his soulless work in the factory 他在工厂里干的枯燥无味的工作. soullessly adv. # `soul brother (fem 阴性作 `soul sister) (infml 口 esp US) (used esp by young Black Americans 尤为美国黑人青年用语) black person (esp one who thinks and feels in the same way as oneself) 黑人(尤指与自己意趣相投的). `soul-destroying adj (of work, etc) very repetitive and dull (指工作等)单调无味的, 无 聊得折磨人的: soul-destroying jobs in the factory 工厂里极乏味的工作. `soul food (US) food traditionally associated with Black Americans in the southern US 美 国南方黑人常吃的食物.

`soul mate person with whom one has a deep lasting friendship and understanding 知己; 执友. `soul music = soul6. `soul-searching n [U] deep examination of one's conscience and mind 深刻反省; 自省: After days of soul-searching he finally came to the decision to leave home. 他经过几天的 反躬自问, 最终决定离家而去. `soul-stirring exciting, moving, etc 激动人心的; 感人至深的; 动人心魄的: soul-stirring music 动人心魄的音乐. ski

/ ski?; ski/ n either of a pair of long narrow strips of wood, plastic, etc fixed to a person's boots so that he can glide smoothly over snow 滑雪板: a pair of skis 一副滑雪板 * bind on one's skis 缚上滑雪板 * [attrib 作定语] a ski suit, slope, club 滑雪衣﹑ 斜坡﹑ 俱乐 部. > ski v (pt, pp ski'd or skied, pres p skiing) [I, Ipr, Ip] move over snow on skis, esp as a sport 滑雪 (尤指作 为运动) go skiing in Switzerland 去瑞士滑雪 * ski into a village 滑 : 雪滑进一村庄 * ski past, along, down, etc 滑雪滑过﹑ 滑去﹑ 滑下.... skier / ?ski??(r); ˋski?/ n person who uses skis 滑雪的人. skiing n [U] activity or sport of moving on skis 滑雪; 滑雪运动: [attrib 作定语] a skiing course, instructor, resort 滑雪课程﹑ 教练﹑ 胜 地 * skiing equipment, clothes 滑雪用具﹑ 服装. =>illus 见插图. # `ski-bob n vehicle used for races on snow and resembling a bicycle with skis instead of wheels 滑雪车(状如自行车, 有滑雪板, 无轮). `ski-jump n jump made by a skier after sliding down a long ramp 滑雪跳跃. ramp for making such jumps 供滑雪跳跃的斜坡. competition in which such jumps are made 滑雪跳跃比赛.

`ski-lift n device for pulling or carrying skiers up a slope 载送滑雪者上坡的装置. `ski-plane n aircraft fitted with skis instead of wheels, enabling it to land on snow 雪上 飞机(装有雪橇﹑ 可在雪地降落的飞机). accompany / ??k?mp?n?; ?ˋk?mp?n?/ v (pt, pp -nied) [Tn] walk or travel with (sb) as a companion or helper; escort 伴随或跟随(某人); 陪 伴: I must ask you to accompany me to the police station. 我得要求你陪我去一趟警察分 局. * He was accompanied on the expedition by his wife. 他那次远行有妻子陪同. * Warships will accompany the convoy. 军舰将护送船队. [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (by/with sth) (a) be present or occur with sth 与某事物同时存在或发生: fever accompanied with delirium 发烧而说胡话 * strong winds accompanied by heavy rain 狂风夹着暴雨. (b) provide sth in addition to sth else; supplement sth 兼带; 附有: Each application should be accompanied by a stamped addressed envelope. 每份申请书均须附回邮信封﹑ 贴上邮票﹑ 写好地址. [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (at/on sth) (music 音) play an accompaniment for sb 给某人伴奏: The singer was accompanied at/on the piano by her sister. 那位演唱者的姐姐用钢琴给她 伴奏. instructor in·struc·tor /?n?str?kt? US -?r/ n [C] someone who teaches a sport or practical skill

a driving instructor ski instructors AmE someone who teaches in an American college or university and who has a rank
below assistant professor

a social studies instructor see usage note teacher
(all) on one's `own (a) alone 独自: I'm all on my own today. 今天我是独自一人. * She liveson her own. 她独自过日子. (b) without help or supervision; alone 独力地; 单独地: He can be left to work on his own. 工作可交给他一个人去做. * Although her father is in the firm she got the job on her own. 尽管她父亲在公司里, 但她那份工作却是靠自己得到 的. (c) (infml 口) excellent; exceptional 出色的; 非凡的; 卓越的: When it comes to craftsmanship, Sally is on her own, ie is better than anyone. 说到手艺, 萨莉是独一无二的. =>Usage at alone 用法见 alone. downhill / ?daun?h?l; ˋda?n?h?l/ adv towards the bottom of a hill; in a downward direction 向山下; 向下. (idm 习语) ,go down`hill get worse (in health, fortune, social status, etc); deteriorate (健康状况﹑ 运气﹑ 社会地位等)走下坡路, 每况愈下; 恶化: This part of the town used to be fashionable, but it's starting to go downhill. 该市这一地区一度很繁华, 如今已江河日 下. > downhill adj

1 [attrib 作定语] going or sloping towards the bottom of a hill 下山的; 下坡的; 向山下倾 斜的: a ,downhill `race 下山比赛. 2 (infml 口) easy compared to what came before (与前相较)容易的: The difficult part is learning the new computer codes after that it's all downhill. 困难的部分是学会计算机的新 编码--其余就轻而易举了. procedure / pr??si?d??(r); pr?ˋsid??/ n [C, U] (regular) order or way of doing things, esp in business, law, politics, etc 程序(尤 指工商﹑ 法律﹑ 政治等事务的): (the) agreed/correct/established/normal/usual procedure 商定的[正确的/确定的/正常的/一般的]程序 * Stop arguing about (questions of) procedure and let's get down to business. 别再为程序(问题)争辩了, 咱们着手议正事吧. * parliamentary procedure 议会议事程序. [C] ~ (for sth) action or series of actions (to be) completed in order to achieve sth 办 事程序; 手续; 步骤: Registering a birth or death is a straightforward procedure. 登记出生 或死亡的手续很简单. * Obtaining a refund from the company is a complicated procedure. 向公司索取退款手续很复杂. * What's the procedure for opening a bank account? 在银行 开个帐户要办什麽手续? > procedural / pr??si?d??r?l; pr?ˋsid??r?l/ adj of procedure(s) 程序上的; 手续的: The

business of the committee was delayed by procedural difficulties. 委员会的事务因程序上
有困难而耽搁了. directly / d??rektl?, da?-; d?ˋr?ktl?, da?-/ adv in a direct line or manner; straight 径直地; 直接地; 坦率地; 直爽地: He looked directly at us. 他正视着我们. * directly in front of me 在我的正前方 * She's directly responsible to the Minister. 她直接受部长领导. * She speaks very directly to people. 她对人说话非常直 率. * directly opposite 正好相反. (a) at once; immediately 立即; 马上: Come in directly. 立刻进来吧. (b) in a short time 不久; 很快地: I'll be there directly. 我很快就到. > directly conj as soon as 一俟; 一...就...: I went home directly I had finished work. 我 一干完活就回家了. head for... move towards (a place) 向 (某处) 行进: The boat was heading for some rocks. 那船正驶向礁石. * He headed straight for the bar. 他径直朝酒吧间走去. * (fig 比喻) Is the world heading for disaster? 世界正面临灾难吗?