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高考语法


被动语态
构成:be +动词过去分词 注意: 在被动语态中,主语是动作的承受者, 做被动语态时,注意主语与谓语的关系 1)不知道动作的执行者是谁 e.g. The watch is made in China. 2)没有必要指出动作的执行者是谁 e.g.more trees must be planted every year. 3) 需要强调动作的承受者 Chines

e is speaked by more and more people in the world. 4)句子的主语是动作的承受者 e.g. many houses were washed away by the flood.

时态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 过去将来时

谓语动词的被动式 am/is/are + done/v-ed was/were + done /v-ed will/shall be + done/v-ed am/is/are + being+ done/v-ed was/were + being +done/v-ed has/have + been +done/v-ed had + been + done/v-ed would/should + be done

例句 You are required to do this. The story was told by her. The problem will be discussed tomorrow. The road is being widened. The new tool was being made. The novel has been read. He said that the work had been finished. He said that the trees would be planted soon.

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有些动词形式上是主动结构,但表示被动的意思:

① 具有及物意义的不及物动词的被动意义 在主语是物的句子里,有些动词的主动形式可以表示被动意义。常用的这 类动词有 sell, read, feel, write, wear, wash, open, clean, cook, keep, cut, fill, blow, measure, lock, run, record, begin, shut 等等。例如: The book sells well. 这本书很畅销。 Your composition reads well. 你的作文读起来很不错。 This pen writes smoothly. 这支钢笔好用。

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② 动名词主动形式表示被动意义 通常是物作 want, need, require 等动词的主语时(也可以是人)表示事物 (或人)客观上需要……,用动名词一般式的主动形式作宾语表示被动意 义。例如: The classroom wants/needs/requires cleaning. 教室需要打扫。 这种用法的动名词改用不定式一般式的被动形式后也可表同样意义。 例如:The classroom wants to be cleaned ③ look, sound, taste,smell 等系动词用主动表示被动 e.g. Uniforms look ugly on us. Moon cooks taste delicious. 真题 (1) --- Do you often plant trees in spring? --- Yes. Many trees ____ in our school every year.(2009 长沙) A. plant B. have planted C. are planting D. are planted (2)09 黑龙江 Old men here are_____ well in the home for the eldly and they are having a happy life. A. looked after B. looked over C. looked for D. looked down 3)09 浙江 Look at these photos. All of them______ last year in Beijing. A. are taken B. were taken C. can be taken D. may be taken 4) Usually John ___ to school in his father ’s beautiful car.(2009 河南) A. has taken B. has been taken C. is taken D. is taking 5)--- Do you have any problems if you ____ this job? --- Well, I’m thinking about the working day. (2009 南京) A. offer B. will offer C. are offered D. will be offered 6) --- Do you often plant trees in spring? --- Yes. Many trees ____ in our school every year.(2009 长沙) A. plant B. have planted C. are planting D. are planted 7)Many houses ___ in the big fire a few days ago. What a shame!(2009 上海) A. were damaged B. damage C. were damaging D. damaged 8)The new library building ____ last week.(2009 广东) A. was completed B. is completed C. completed D. has completed

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