河南省新乡市新誉佳高级中学 2015 届高三英语二轮复习 专题卷阅读理解（08）
A Decision?making under Stress A new review based on a research shows that acute stress affects the way the brain considers the advantages and di
sadvantages, causing it to focus on pleasure and ignore the possible negative(负面的) consequences of a decision. The research suggests that stress may change the way people make choices in predictable ways. “Stress affects how people learn，” says Professor Mara Mather.“People learn better about positive than negative outcomes under stress.” For example, two recent studies looked at how people learned to connect images(影 像)with either rewards or punishments. In one experiment, some of the participants were first stressed by having to give a speech and do difficult math problems in front of an audience; in the other, some were stressed by having to keep their hands in ice water. In both cases, the stressed participants remembered the rewarded material more accurately and the punished material less accurately than those who hadn't gone through the stress. This phenomenon is likely not surprising to anyone who has tried to resist eating cookies or smoking a cigarette while under stress—at those moments, only the pleasure associated with such activities comes to mind. But the findings further suggest that stress may bring about a double effect. Not only are rewarding experiences remembered better, but negative consequences are also easily recalled. The research also found that stress appears to affect decision?making differently in men and women. While both men and women tend to focus on rewards and less on consequences under stress, their responses to risk turn out to be different. Men who had been stressed by the cold?water task tended to take more risks in the experiment while women responded in the opposite way. In stressful situations in which risk?taking can pay off big, men may tend to do better; when caution weighs more, however, women will win. This tendency to slow down and become more cautious when decisions are risky
might also help explain why women are less likely to become addicted than men: they may more often avoid making the risky choices that eventually harden into addiction. 64．We can learn from the passage that people under pressure tend to ________. A．keep rewards better in their memory B．recall consequences more effortlessly C．make risky decisions more frequently D．learn a subject more effectively 65．According to the research, stress affects people most probably in their ________. A．ways of making choices B．preference for pleasure C．tolerance of punishments D．responses to suggestions 66．The research has proved that in a stressful situation, ________. A．women find it easier to fall into certain habits B．men have a greater tendency to slow down C．women focus more on outcomes D．men are more likely to take risks B 1.A（2013 四川卷）
31. What you have just read is a _______. A. note B. report C. schedule D. poster
32. What is going to take place on 2 February, 2013? A. A big event to welcome a Chinese new year. B. A social gathering to raise money for wildlife. C. A party for close friends to meet and have fun. D. A meeting of Kwun Tong High School students. 33. How much do you have to pay in total if four of you go together? A. $20. B. $40. C. $60. D. $80.
34. Which of the following statements is true? A. Tickets are sold in Kwun Tong High School. B. It's unnecessary to take soft drinks with you. C. Free digital cameras are provided for everybody. D. Festival food will be served without extra charge. C
2.One day, Jack threw some papers on my desk. “What’s wrong?” I asked. “Next time you want to change anything, ask me first,” he said, and left. I had made just one small change. But it’s not that I hadn’t been warned. My colleagues had said he was responsible for the resignations of the two previous secretaries. As the weeks went by, I came to look down on Jack. After another of his episodes had left me in tears I stormed into his office. “what?” he said suddenly. “Jack, the way you’ve been treating me is wrong. I’ve never had anyone speak to me that way. As a professional, it’s wrong for me to allow it to continue,” I said. Jack smiled nervously, “Susan, I make you a promise that I will be a friend. I will treat you as you deserve to be treated, with respect and kindness.” Jack avoided me the rest of the week, and never questioned my work again. I brought cookies to the office one day and left some on his desk. Another day I left a note: ”Hope your day is going great. ” Over the next few weeks, there were no more Jack episodes. One year later I discovered I had breast cancer, and was scared. The statistics were not great for my long-term survival. One day, however, Jack visited me in the hospital and silently handed me a bundle with several bulbs inside. “Tulips(郁金香),” he said. I smiled, not understanding. “If you plant them when you get home, they’ll come up next spring. I think you will be there to see them when they come up. Next spring you will see the colours I picked out for you.” Tears clouded my eyes and he left. I have seen those red and white striped（有条纹的） tulips push through the soil every spring for over ten years now. This past September the doctor declared me cured. At a moment when I was praying for just the right word, a man with very few words said all the right things. After all, that’s what friends do. 31. Jack became angry that day because__________. A. he was feeling unwell B. Susan had failed to keep his office clean
C. he felt Susan changed too much about the papers D. Susan had changed something without his permission 32. Susan stormed into jack’s office to tell Jack that__________. A. he wasn’t worthy of respect B. he should apologize to her right away C. she would treat him the way he treated her D. one should show others respect and kindness 33. Which of the following describes Susan? A. Moody but firm. B. Shy and demanding C. Confident and friendly. D. Tough and troublesome. A. Jack cares about his employees 34. From the passage, we can conclude that__________. B. Jack gets along well with his employees C. Jack is always particular about his work D. Jack doesn’t care about the feelings of others 35. We can infer from the passage that__________. A. a friend in need is a friend in deed B. a few words can be as meaningful as many C. a friend who says little must be a good friend D. we must treat disrespectful people with disrespect D 3. D. My family and I lived across the street from Southway Park since I was four years old. Then just last year they city put a chain link fence around the park and started bulldozing (用推土机推平) the trees and grass to make way for a new apartment complex. When I saw the fence and bulldozers, I asked myself, “Why don’t they just leave it alone?” Looking back, I think what sentenced the part to oblivion (别遗忘 ) was the
drought (旱灾) we had about four years ago. Up until then, Southway Park was a nice green park with plenty of trees and a public swimming pool. My friends and I rollerskated on the sidewalks, climbed the tress, and swam in the pool all the years I was growing up. The park was almost like my own yard. Then the summer I was fifteen the drought came and things changed. There had been almost no rain at all that year. The city stopped watering the park grass. Within a few weeks I found myself living across the street from a huge brown desert. Leaves fell off the park tress, and pretty soon the trees started dying, too. Next, the park swimming pool was closed. The city cut down on the work force that kept the park, and pretty soon it just got too ugly and dirty to enjoy anymore. As the drought lasted into the fall, the park got worse every month. The rubbish piled up or blew across the brown grass. Soon the only people in the park were beggars and other people down on their luck. People said drugs were being sold or traded there now. The park had gotten scary, and my mother told us kids not to go there anymore. The drought finally ended and things seemed to get back to normal, that is, everything but the park. It had gotten into such bad shape that the city just let it stay that way. Then about six months ago I heard that the city was going to “redevelop” certain worn-out areas of the city. It turned out that the city had planned to get rid of the park, sell the land and let someone build rows of apartment buildings on it. The chain-link fencing and the bulldozers did their work. Now we live across the street from six rows of apartment buildings. Each of them is three units high and stretches a block in each direction. The neighborhood has changed without the park. The streets I used to play in are jammed with cars now. Things will never be the same again. Sometimes I wonder, though, what changes another drought would make in the way things are today. 53. How did the writer feel when he saw the fence and bulldozers? A. Scared. B. Confused.
54. Why was the writer told not to go to the park by his mother? A. It was being rebuilt. C. It because crowded. B. It was dangerous. D. It had turned into a desert.
55. According to the writer, what eventually brought about the disappearance of the park? A. The drought. C. The beggars and the rubbish. B. The crime. D. The decisions of the city.
56. The last sentence of the passage implies that if another drought came, ______. A. the situation would be much worse B. people would have to desert their homes C. the city would be fully prepared in advance D. the city would have to redevelop the neighborhood A 【要点综述】 本文主要讲述的是压力对人做出决定的影响以及男女在面对压力时决定 方式的不同。 64. A 细节理解题。 根据文章第四段“In both cases, the stressed participants remembered the rewarded material more accurately and the punished material less accurately than those who hadn't gone through the stress.”可知 A 为正确答案。 65. A 推理判断题。根据文章标题和实验内容，可知作者要说明的是“The
research suggests that stress may change the way people make choices in predictable ways.”(第二段)。所以选 A。 66. D 细节理解题。根据文章第七段 “Men who had been stressed by the
cold?water task tended to take more risks in the experiment while women responded in the opposite way.”可知 D 为正确选项。 B 31.【答案】D
【文章大意】本文主要为我们讲述了作者和 Jack 之间由开始的冲突不断，到后来作者 患癌后 Jack 对她的鼓励，才发现 Jack 是一个真正的朋友。 31【答案】D 【 解析】根据文章中“Next time you want to change anything, ask me first,” he said, and left. I had made just one small change.可知答案为 D。 32【答案】D 【 解析】Susan 冲到 Jack 的办公室是觉得 Jack 对她太没有礼貌，不尊重她。 33【答案】C 【 解析】A.易怒但倔强；B.害羞且苛求 C.自信，友好 D.坚韧，爱惹麻烦。根据文意可 知答案为 C。 34【答案】A 【 解析】 结合全文可知 Jack 其实是一个关心同事的人。 这一点可以从作者生病后 Jack 的表现看出。 35【答案】B 【 解析】根据文章中最后一句 a man with very few words said all the right things. After all, that’s what friends do.可知答案为 B。
D 本文是一篇夹叙夹议的文章。 53 答案：C 考点： ： 解析：推理判断题。根据第一段叙述了解到作者从四岁开始住在 Southway Park 对面。 从第二段了解到作者小时候和朋友在公园里玩耍。而现在公园被围了起来，事实上，作 者是很失望、沮丧，自己不能去玩了，而且树都被砍掉了。
54 答案：B 考点： ： 解析：推理判断题。仔细阅读第四段，可以了解到，公园被废弃了，里面住着流浪汉， 甚至有人贩毒，所以母亲叮嘱我们不要去那里，因为危险。
55 答案：D 考点： ： 解析：推理判断题。从第五段，可以明显的了解到：干旱结束了，但是政府仍然对公园 不管不问，而是要重新规划这块废弃地，在作者眼中是“the city had planned to get rid of the park” 。故选择 D。
56 答案：A 考点： ： 解析：推理判断题。最后一段作者描述了目前自己居住的街道的变化，变得更加拥挤了。从 而作者有了另一种思考：如果再来一次干旱，是否会造成如这次干旱一样的一些变化。从而 可推测作者是隐射，环境会变的更加糟糕。