Unit1 谷 歌 Google Anyone who has ever used the Internet has seen Google, and many people would just “Google it” when they try to find information about something on the Internet. As the world’
s most popular Internet search engine, Google is one of the greatest examples of online success.
上过互联网的人都见过谷歌， 许多人要在互联网上查找某方面的信息时， 他们都会去 “谷 歌” 一下。 作为全世界最有名的互联网搜索引擎， 谷歌是网络业界功成名就的最好范例之一。
It all began in January 1996 as a research project at Stanford University by Ph.D. student Larry Page. Trying to find a better way for web users to search for relevant pages, Page had an idea that this could be achieved by examining the relationships between web pages. He thought that web pages which had the most links to them from other web pages must be the most popular. The technique appeared to be successful.
谷歌始于 1996 年 1 月斯坦福大学博士生拉里?佩奇的一个研究项目。 为了找到一种能帮 助网络用户搜索到相关网页的更好方法， 佩奇设想可以通过检索网页之间的关系来实现。 他 认为其他网页链接最多的那些网页一定是最受欢迎的，这项技术结果看起来是成功的。
Page and his partner Sergey Brin set up their company on September 7, 1998 and registered the google.com the following week. The search e ngine quickly grew in popularity and in 2000 Google began to sell advertising on their website. After a few years of growth fueled by eager investors, Google went public. ManyGoogle employees became instant millionaires.
佩奇和他的合作伙伴谢尔盖?布林于 1998 年 9 月 7 日创建了自己的公司， 并在之后的一 周注册了 google.com 这一网址。这个搜索引擎很快声名鹊起，2000 年谷歌开始在自己的网 站出售广告。在投资者的热情资助下，经过几年的发展，谷歌上市了，谷歌的很多雇员一夜 之间成了百万富翁。
Google has recently acquired YouTube.com which is the Internet’s largest videosharing website and continues to add new features every day including tool ba rs, email, and advertising. Of course, with growth and success there also comes competition. Microsoft has recently tried to acquire Yahoo in order to compete with Google in the Internet search engine area.
谷歌最近收购了互联网最大的视频共享网站 YouTube.com， 而且每天都在不断增加一些 新功能，如工具栏、邮件和广告。当然，成长与成功也带来了竞争。微软最近就试图收购雅 虎以便能在互联网搜索引擎领域与谷歌抗衡。
Google has recently acquired YouTube.com which is the Internet’s largest videosharing website and continues to add new features every day including tool bars, email, and advertising. Of course, with growth and success there also comes competition. Microsoft has recently tried to acquire Yahoo in order to compete with Google in the Internet search engine area.
随着公司的壮大与知名度的提高， 谷歌在美国公司就业吸引力的排名也上升到第一。 他 们尝试打破传统的办公室设计， 努力把办公室变成员工感觉舒适、 并能充分发挥自己才华的 地方。
In addition to its growth and popularity, Google has also been named the number one company to work for in the United States. It tends to stay away from typical office designs and tries to make the office a place where employees are
comfortable and free to excel at their work. and has become the leader in terms of ad-based revenue on the web. The brain child of two students has become a billion-dollar company and one of the best-known trademarks in the world. Google’s history serves as a perfect model and inspiration for Internet entrepreneurs today.
现在，谷歌已拥有 YouTube、Blogger 和其他一些热门网站，并且成为网络广告收入方 面的领头羊。 当初两个学生的一个小点子已发展成为一家拥有十亿美元资产的大公司， 谷歌 也成为全球最著名的商标之一。谷歌的发展史为当今的网络企业家树立了一个完美的典范， 也提供了灵感 1. 这一切不是一朝一夕可以实现的。(achieve) All this cannot be achieved overnight. 2. 下午六点钟左右体育馆通常很忙。(tend to) The gym tends to get very busy at around 6 o’clock in the afternoon. 3. 这个地区现在不安全，还是远离它为好。(stay away from) This area is not safe at the moment, so it’s better to stay away from it. 4. 就销售而言，他们是该地区五大超市之一。(in terms of) They are one of the top five supermarkets in the area in terms of sales. 5. 这间房既要作卧室又得作客厅。(serve as) This room has to serve as both bedroom and living room. 6. 生产部负责监督这个项目的进展。(monitor) The production department is responsible for monitoring the progress of this project. 7. 上个月经理忙于一项对营销活动的研究工作。(be involved in) The manager was involved in a research on marketing activities last month. 8. 现在许多大公司都利用网站来推销他们的产品和服务。(promote) Many big companies now use websites to promote their products and services.
Unit2 秘 书 Secretaries Secretaries may be known by a variety of other titles, like administrative assistants, clerks, or personal assistants. Although all of these titles share the common theme of administrative tasks, they may reflect different types of secretarial jobs. Secretarial positions are quite old. Greek and Roman businessmen and politicians, for example, used personal secretaries and clerks to manage their affairs.
秘书可能会有很多其他不同的头衔，例如行政助理、文员或私人助理。尽管所有这些头 衔都以行政工作为主旨，但它们却反映了不同种类的秘书工作。秘书岗位十分古老，例如， 古希腊和罗马的商人和政客们就曾雇用私人秘书和文员来管理他们的事务。
A secretary’s job is to keep an office running smoothly. Secretaries have a wide range of duties, depending on the offices that they work for. At a minimum, a secretary handles correspondence, keeps track of sched ules, manages a filing system, and operates office equipment like phones, fax machines, and copiers. Most secretaries answer phones and direct phone calls to the appropriate people. Some secretaries also handle supplies ordering for an office, and may deal with budgeting, bookkeeping, and personnel paperwork. A secretary is expected to have experience with computers and other electronics, as he or she will handle a great deal of electronic material, including correspondence.
秘书的工作就是使办公室顺利运转。 秘书的职责范围很广， 依据他们所在办公室的不同
而各异。就最低要求来说，秘书要处理信函，跟踪日程安排，管理文件系统，操作电话、传 真机、复印机等办公设备。许多秘书还要接听电话，并将其转给适当的人员。有些秘书还要 负责办公室用品的采购，他们也可能会处理预算、簿记和人事文档。秘书应当具备使用电脑 和其他电子设备的经验，因为他们将处理大量的电子资料，包括往来信函。
Good secretaries are extremely efficient and well organized. In addition to having clerical skills, they are skilled managers of time and people. Although they may not be as well-paid and respected as many higher-ranking people, they are often very important people in their offices. They anticipate the needs of office staff, solve problems quickly, and work so efficiently that many people do not realize how valuable they are until they leave the job. Good secretaries also have excellent people skills. They can be trusted in handling confidential material, top executives, and the day-to-day chaos that is often present in a busy office.
好的秘书工作效率极高，且有条不紊。除了具备文书技能之外，他们还善于管理时间和 人员。 尽管他们的薪水和受尊敬的程度也许不如其他更高级别的人员， 但在办公室中他们往 往起着十分重要的作用。他们能预估办公室人员的需求，迅速解决问题。他们工作效率非常 高，以至于许多人直到他们离开之后才意识到他们的价值所在。好的秘书还善于人际沟通。 他们也非常值得信赖， 可以委托他们处理机密文件， 与高层管理人士打交道并应付在繁忙的 办公室里经常会出现的混乱情况。
Employment prospects for secretarial positions are generally good, especially for skilled individuals. Many vocational schools offer courses for people who are interested in becoming secretaries. These courses include classes in typing, document management, filing, and other skills which a good secretary should bring to the job. Although it is possible to pursue a secretarial position without this education, it can be challenging in a world where professions are becoming more and more specialized.
秘书行业的就业前景通常很好，对有经验者尤其如此。许多职业学校为有意当秘书的 人们提供了培训课程。这些课程包括打字、文件管理、文件归档，以及一个好的秘书在工作 中所必须具备的其他技能。 虽然没有这些培训要获得秘书职位也是有可能的， 但这在一个越 来越专业化的社会里可能非常具有挑战性。 1. 在这所新医院上面已经花费了大笔资金。(a great deal of) A great deal of money has been spent on the new hospital. 2. 成功与否取决于你的努力和能力。(depend on) Success depends on your efforts and ability. 3. 很难时刻掌握科技方面的新发展。(keep track of) It is difficult to keep track of the new developments in science and technology. 4. 所有投诉都将由经理来处理。(deal with) All complaints will be dealt with by the manager. 5. 不要试着自己去做，这需要专业知识。 (specialized) Don’t try doing it yourself; it requires specialized knowledge. 6. 他作为最佳运动员获得了一个金杯。(award) He was awarded a gold cup for being the best athlete. 7. 为什么不关掉电视去锻炼一下身体？(turn off) Why not turn off TV and do some physical exercise? 8. 一年一度的庆典将在元旦后一周内举行。(annual)
The annual celebration will be held within the week after the New Year’s Day. Unit3 饭桌生意经 Deals over Meals
As a form of business entertaining, business meals are increasingly used to build up personal trust and confidence. Westerners do an extraordinary amount of business over meals, from a quick breakfast to “working lunches” to cocktail receptions and formal dinners.
作为商务宴请的一种形式， 商务聚餐被越来越多地用于增进彼此间的信任和信心。 从匆 忙的早餐到“工作午餐” ，从鸡尾酒会到正式的晚餐，西方人大量的商务活动都是在饭桌上 进行的。
Breakfast meetings rarely last more than an hour. They imply certain urgency and are often convenient during business travels. Lunch is usually best for getting to know a guest a bit better. People do not have to talk about business, of course. Afternoon tea, or coffee, is a relaxed way to spend 45 minutes or an hour talking about business. Dinner is a more formal business event. Generally, this is not a time to talk about business, but rather a time to get to know the other person and enjoy each other ’s company.
早餐会晤很少超过一个小时，带有一定的“紧迫”意味，在商务旅行中很方便安排。要 加深对客人的了解，午餐则是最好的形式。当然，午餐中并不是非谈生意不可。花上 45 分 钟或者一小时喝喝下午茶或咖啡，可以轻轻松松地谈生意。晚餐则比较正式，通常不宜谈生 意，这是个彼此了解并享受相互之间交往的时刻。
Business meals are multi- tasking jobs which can often turn out to be nightmares. If you want to make a lasting impression, then it pays to be on your best behavior at any such meal. Of course, you need to be knowledgeable in your field, but you also need the style and grace to see you through these events. During a typical business meal you must be a good listener, ask and answer questions intelligently, talk about your company confidently and appear pleasant and relaxed.
商务聚餐背负着重重任务，常有可能演变为噩梦连连。如果想给人留下持久的印象，在 任何此类应酬中都拿出最佳表现是非常有利的。当然，你得熟知所从事的领域，还得举止优 雅，才能顺利应付这些场合。在典型的商务应酬中，你必须认真倾听，机敏问答，并满怀自 信地谈论你的公司，同时表现得轻松自若、心情愉悦。
Your mastery of good table manners comes in handy. It gives you the confidence of knowing that you can conduct yourself properly. After all, you are trying to have a conversation with your guest, not concentrating on which fork to use. Choosing the correct silverware from the variety in front of you is not as difficult as it may first appear. Always start with the knife, fork or spoon that is farthest from your plate and gradually work your way in. A simple rule to remember is that liquids are to the right and solids are to the left.
掌握良好的进餐礼仪非常管用，它能让你充满信心，相信自己可以做到举止得当。毕竟， 你是要跟客人交流， 而不是专注于用哪只餐叉。 正确选择你面前的一堆银餐具并不像一开始 看起来那么困难。一定要先取用离你餐盘最远的刀叉和汤匙，然后逐渐地向内取用。要记住 一条简单的规则：液体放在右边，固体放在左边。
Polite dining at the table is one of the codes of behavior that people in the West consider important. By mastering these skills, you become a better representative of
your company, a wonderful host, and even more sought-after as a dinner guest.
礼貌进餐是西方人认为重要的行为准则之一。通过掌握这些技巧，你会更好地代表公司 的形象，会成为一位令人愉悦的东道主，一位更受人欢迎的宾客。 1. 在工作中谨慎小心会大有裨益。(pay) It pays a lot to be careful in work. 2. 我的钱仅够在美国用一年。(see through) I have just enough money to see me through a year in the US. 3. 结果表明他从未在那个公司工作过。(turn out) It turned out that he had never worked in that company. 4. 瞪着眼睛看人是不礼貌的。(manners) It’s bad manners to stare at people. 5. 外面太吵，我没办法集中精神干活儿。(concentrate on) It’s too noisy outside for me to concentrate on my work. 6. 董事会选他为公司总经理。(select) The Board of Directors selected him to be the General Manager of the company. 7. 烤鸡是这家泰国餐厅里我最喜欢的菜。(favorite) Roast chicken is my favorite dish in this Thai restaurant. 8. 我们主菜后吃的甜点是冰淇淋。(course) We had ice cream for dessert after the main course. Unit4 工业设计 Industrial Design
I’d design an alarm clock with a moving snooze button that would be an easy target the first time I hit it. Then it becomes harder to locate after each attempt, so that it would keep ringing until I’m fully awake.
As industrial designers, our job is to design products—anything and everything that’s mass-produced, from Ferraris to toasters, from furniture to television sets. We dream up products through drawings, sketches, even doodles, presenting to the manufacturing client their vision of what a certain product should look like.
作为工业设计师，我们的工作就是设计产品——所有批量生产的各种各样的产品，从 法拉利汽车到烤面包炉，从家具到电视机。我们通过画图、素描、甚至涂鸦来构思产品，将 生产厂商想象的某种产品的样子呈现给他们。
One of our goals as a profession is to make the product attractive. The inside of an industrial designer ’s sketchbook usually looks like some kind of flattened mad scientists’ laboratories, filled with doodles of various types of products. We industrial designers also create ideas with our hands, using studio materials like clay and modeling foam to show what a product should feel like. Michelangelo “discovered” his sculptures inside blocks of marble; industrial designers find the shape of the latest Walkman inside a chunk of clay, or foam, or occasionally with the help of computer software. Whatever the studio material may be, designers may spend hours at a time forming it, touching it, holding it, carving and recarving the lines that will soon be an actual working product, touched and held by millions of users. When you take a brand- new product out of the box and touch it, the designer ’s hands and eyes have
already run over the surface, in one way or another, hundreds of times.
我们的职业目标之一是使产品具有吸引力。 一位工业设计师草图本里的内容常常看上去 就像平面化的科学狂人的实验室， 满是各种各样产品的涂鸦。 我们工业设计师们也用双手来 进行创意，用粘土、造型泡沫这些工作室里的材料来展现产品的手感。米开朗基罗在大理石 堆中“发现”了他的雕塑作品；工业设计师们在粘土堆、泡沫堆，或者偶尔在电脑软件的帮助 下找到了最新款随身听的形状。 不管用哪种工作材料， 设计师们每次都会花上好几个小时去 造型，去触摸，去把握，一遍又一遍地雕琢那些线条，不久，这些东西就会成为真正可以使 用的产品，被千万个消费者触摸、把玩。当你抚摸着刚从盒子里取出的全新产品时，它的表 面已经被设计师的双手和目光以这样或那样的方式抚摸和打量过成百上千次了。
We also try not to make the product a pain in the neck. Some products may look cool and work well—a wonderful collection of objects that subtly enhance your life, while other products may have annoying qualities that nearly outweigh their usefulness, like coffee tables with corners that draw blood and remote controls that look like maps of Manhattan. The difference is in the way they’re designed, in the way they look and feel. And it’s industrial design that makes all that difference.
我们也竭尽全力使产品不会令人生厌。有些产品外形又酷又好用——它们是一系列会 在潜移默化中提升你生活品质的奇妙物品。 而另一些产品， 其令人讨厌的设计几乎使其实用 性变得不值一提， 比如桌角伤人的咖啡桌， 以及看起来像曼哈顿地图一般令人迷惑的遥控器。 两类产品的区别在于其设计方式，在于其外观和手感，而造成这一切不同的正是工业设计。 1. 2. 3. 4. 我们一进大楼就找到了这个公司。(locate) We located the company as soon as we entered the building. 这两家工厂都生产电脑配件。(manufacture) Both factories manufacture computer parts. 我已经把报告的大部分写完了。(a chunk of) I’ve completed a chunk of my report. 你可以用锤子把这块金属弄平。(flatten)
You can use a hammer to flatten out this piece of metal. 5. 我们能否进一步增强营销方面的优势？(enhance) Can we further enhance our marketing advantages? 6. 他的粗心导致了任务的失败。(result in) His carelessness resulted in the failure of the task. 7. 公司非常关心员工们的未来。(be concerned about) The company is very concerned about the future of the employees. 8. 办公室窗帘的颜色必须与环境相配。(match) The color of the curtains in the office should match the environment.
Unit5 国际贸易 Trade Every time we walk into a store, restaurant, theater or any other place of business to buy something, we trade. Basically, international trade does not differ from trade with other people in our country. The key to understanding trade is to remember why it takes place. The reason people trade, regardless of where they live, is that they believe they will be better off by trading. When we consider the alternative—each of us producing everything for ourselves—trade simply makes more sense.
交易。从根本上说，国际贸易同我们在国内进行的贸易并无差别。理解贸易的关键是牢记贸 易发生的原因。不管是哪里的人，他们进行贸易的理由是因为他们相信通过贸易可以获益。 当我们想想另一种选择，即我们每个人都自给自足，那么贸易的意义就更容易理解了。 The process of importing and exporting creates a greater variety of goods and services because it permits countries to specialize in what they do best. By specializing in the goods it can produce most efficiently, a country can increase production and have the opportunity to make more sales and profits. Profits can turn into increased wages for the work force and additional investment in plants and equipment. The process also provides consumers with more goods at lower prices. 通过进出口可以创造出更加多样化的商品和服务， 因为各个国家都可以专注于自己最有 优势的产品。一个国家通过专门生产自己生产效率最高的商品，就能提高产量，就有机会来 提高销量， 并增加利润。 更多的利润则可转化为员工更高的工资和对工厂及设备更多的投资。 进出口也会为消费者提供更多廉价的商品。 The benefits of trade can be explained using the economic principles of absolute and comparative advantage. For example, suppose there are a lawyer and a legal assistant. If it takes the lawyer less time to prepare briefs or to type letters than it does the assistant, in economic language, the lawyer has an “absolute advantage” both in preparing legal briefs and in typing letters. If we stopped here, we might be inc lined to say that the lawyer should produce both, because the lawyer is better at both. 我们可以用绝对优势和相对优势的经济学原理来解释贸易带来的好处。 假设有一名律师 和一名法律助理， 如果这个律师准备案情摘要或打印信件所花费的时间比法律助理少， 那么 用经济学术语来说，该律师在准备案情摘要和打印信件方面都拥有“绝对优势”。如果到此为 止，我们就有可能会说这个律师两件事都应该做，因为他这两方面都更在行。 According to comparative advantage, the lawyer should specialize in his or her strongest skill—the law, and the legal assistant—typing letters. If they do, they actually will produce more than if each of them had tried to do both tasks alone. Specializing in what they do best and then trading their products for the other things they need will make both parties better off. 按照相对优势的原理， 该律师应专注于发挥其最强项——打官司， 而法律助理则应专注 于打印信件。如果各取所长，他们实际的工作效率会比各自都做这两项工作要高。通过专门 从事各自最擅长的事情，然后以自己的产品去换取所需，双方均可获益。 Through international trade, countries exchange goods they produce most efficiently for goods other countries produce most efficiently. The more consumers there are in the market, the greater the ability of each country to specialize in what it does best. It is important to note that both the lawyer and the legal assistant would benefit from specialization and trade. Likewise, international trade is a win-win situation for all countries that participate. 通过国际贸易，不同国家得以用自己最高效生产的产品去换取别国最高效生产的产品。 市场上的消费者越多，每个国家专营自己优势产品的能力就越强。需要着重强调的是，律师 和法律助理都会从专业化分工和贸易中获益。 同样， 国际贸易对所有参与国来说都是一个双 赢的局面。 1. 他们的境况比我们的好。(better off) They’re better off than we are. 2. 为那件事哭泣没有意义。(make sense) Crying for that matter does not make any sense./Crying for that matter makes no sense. 3. 据说游泳对身体健康有极大好处。(benefit)
It is said that swimming brings great benefit to our health. 4. 他认为自己的想法是绝对的真理。(absolute) He believed his idea to be absolute truth. 5. 老师不太相信乔治的借口。(be inclined to) The teacher wasn’t inclined to believe George’s excuse. 6. 我方何时能收到你方的确认函？(confirmation) When can we receive your letter of confirmation? 7. 如果你能接受合同中的条款，请在此签名。(terms and conditions) If you can accept the terms and conditions of the contract, please sign your name here. 8. 根据你方要求，现寄上衬衫样品。( in accordance with) In accordance with your request, we are sending you the shirt samples.
Goods must be transported from where they are produced to where their consumers are.. There are five major modes of transport for goods, namely, rail transport, water transport, road transport, pipeline transport and air transport. Each mode of transport is characterized by different carriers. 货物必须从产地运往消费者所在地。目前有五种主要的货物运输方式，即：铁路、 水路、公路、管道和航空运输。每种运输方式都有其不同的运载工具 Railroads carry an important part of the total freight. The advantage of rail transport lies in its ability to meet different needs. Railroads can carry the heaviest and the lightest products and can run at different speeds. For special types of goods railroads provide adapted cars. Thus for perishable refrigerator cars are used, for oil products there are tank cars, for different other materials dumper cars are used. The freight rates of railroads compare favorably with the other modes of transport. 铁路在整个货物运输中占据了重要的地位。 铁路运输的优势在于这种运输方式能满足不 同的需求。 货物无论轻重均可通过铁路运输， 速度亦可变化。 特殊货物可使用改装车厢运输。 冷藏车厢用来运输易腐货物，油罐车厢运输油品，其他各种原料可使用自卸车厢。相对于其 他运输方式，铁路运输的运费是比较优惠的。 Waterway carriers offer a low-cist means of shipping bulky products which have a low transportation value in relation to weight. They are especially used when speed of transportation is not what matters the most. Container ships are commonly used for the transport of goods between countries. Ore-carriers specially designed for transporting ore, while tankers are used for crude oil transport. 水路运输工具为大宗货物提供了廉价的运输方式，相对于其重量而言，这些大宗货物的 运输价值较低。如果运输速度不是最主要考虑因素的话，人们特别愿意使用水路运输方式。 集装箱货轮常用于国家之间运输货物， 特别设计的矿石货船用于运输矿石， 而运输原油则使 用油轮 Moor-freight carriers are less advantageous for the transport of bulky, low-value goods. However, they can perform door-to-door delivery, as they can reach even the most faraway places. Thus repeated handling and transshipment can be avoided, which is one of the advantages of transport by road. Tank lorries are used for liquids, refrigerator lorries for perishables ,and vans for furniture and valuables.
公路货车不太适合运输体积大、价值低的货物。不过，它们能实现门到门的递送，因为 连最偏僻的地方它们都能去， 这样避免了反复的搬运和转运， 而这也正是公路运输的一个优 势。人们使用罐车运输液体，用冷藏车运输易腐货物，而厢式货车则用来运输家具及昂贵的 商品 Pipelines carry liquids, gases, or solid/liquid mixtures over great distances. They can be laid on land or under water. In comparison with other carriers, they offer an economical way to transport crude oil and natural gas, especially when the volume is large. But the cost of construction and maintenance requires a large amount of investment. 管道可远距离运输液体、气体或固液态混合体，可铺设于地上或水下。与其他运输工具 相比，用管道运输原油和天然气经济实惠，运输量大时尤其如此。然而，管道建设及维护却 需要大量的资金投入。 Air freight is used for goods where the higher cost of transport by air gives way to other considerations. For example, speed is the most important factor for the transportation of perishable, medicines and spare parts ,while safety is the key to the transport of goods of high value. 当其他考虑优先于高昂的航空运费时，则可选择航空货运。例如，运输易腐货物、药品 或机器备件时，速度是最重要的因素；而对于昂贵商品的运输，安全性则最为关键。