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2015高考英语一轮复习配套讲义文档:语法专项提升--冠词


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冠词的基本用法 1 . (2013· 新课标卷Ⅰ)India attained________independence in 1947 , after________long struggle. A./;a B.the;a C.an;/ D.an;the 2 . (2013· 重庆卷

)The parents were shocked by________news that their son needed ________operation on his knee. A.a;/ B.the;/ C.the;an D.a;an 3.(2013· 福建卷)The “Chinese Dream” is________dream to improve people’s wellbeing and ________dream of harmony,peace and development. A.the;a B.a;a C.a;the D.the;the 固定搭配中的冠词 4.(2013· 新课标卷Ⅱ)Four and ________half hours of discussion took us up to midnight, and________break for cheese,chocolate and tea with sugar. A.a;a B.the;the C./;the D.a;/ 5 . (2013· 浙江卷 )People develop________preference for a particular style of learning at________early age and these preferences affect learning. A.a;an B.a;/ C./;the D.the;an 6. (2012· 重庆卷)Sam has been appointed________manager of the engineering department to take________place of George. A./;/ B.the;/ C.the;the D./;the 1.冠词的泛指和特指是高考考查冠词的重中之重,我们可以借助口诀“一个;一些(泛 指);这个;这些(特指)”解决这类问题。 2.短语搭配中的冠词规律性不明显,是容易犯错误的地方,需要在平时学习中强化这 类短语的记忆,如 in space 中间无冠词;by the week/month/year“按??计算”等名词前面 需要加定冠词。 一、定冠词的用法 1.用在表示某世纪、年代、时期或朝代的名词前。 (2013· 陕西卷)Marco Polo is said to have sailed on the Pacific Ocean on his way to Java in the thirteenth century.据说,在十三世纪马可· 波罗去爪哇岛途中曾航行经过太平洋。 2.用在世界上独一无二的人或物、自然现象、表示方位或表示发明物等的名词前。 (2013· 山西部分重点高中高三联考)I don’t know who invented the iPhone, but I think it is a useful invention.我不知道是谁发明了 iPhone,但是我认为它是一个有用的发明。 注意:有些物体虽然也是独一无二的,但习惯上却不用冠词。如 space 太空, nature 自然,man 人类等。 (2013· 江西高考)Animals are obviously the lower form of life than man.动物显然是一种 比人类低级的生命形式。 3.用在上文已出现过或说话双方都熟悉的事物前,表示特指意义。 —Did you enjoy yourself yesterday? —Yes,as you know,the party went on in a pleasant atmosphere. ——你昨天玩得开心吗? ——是的,正如你所知,晚会是在愉快的气氛中进行的。 4.用在表示计量的名词前如 by the hour,by the dozen 等,但若名词为抽象名词则不加 冠词如 by weight,by height 等。例如 2011 年江西卷的 by the week。

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(2011· 江西高考)—It’s said John will be in a job paying over $60,000 a year. —Right,he will also get paid by the week. ——据说约翰将拥有一份年收入超过 60 000 美元的工作。 ——是的,而且会按周获得报酬。 5.最高级,序数词,西洋乐器,方位名词前。但 play erhu. A most wonderful film 6.用在下列专有名词前 1)江河,海洋名称前:the Great Canal, the Long River 2)专有名词为复数时:the Philippines, the West Indias 3)普通名词构成的专有名词前:the Great Wall, the United states 4)公共建筑,机关名称前:the People‘s Hall, the Department of Education 5)书报,会议前:the People‘s Daily, the 13th Party Congress 6)国民的总称前:the Chinese,the English 7)用在姓氏复数前,指全家人或夫妇:the Turners, the Smiths 8)用在形容词前表一类:the poor, the wounded 二、不定冠词的用法 1.用在单数可数名词前,表示“一”的概念。 (2012· 安徽高考)Carl is studying food science at college and hopes to open up a meat processing factory of his own one day. 卡尔正在大学学习食品科学,他希望有一天能够开办一家自己的肉类加工厂。 2.表示“某一个”,相当于 some,译为“某一”。 (2013· 山 东 省 十 二 校 高 三 联 考 )—Excuse me , is there a Mr Tailor living in the neighborhood?There is a parcel for him. —Sorry, but there is no such person here. ——对不起,这个小区住着一位名叫 Tailor 的先生吗?这里有他的包裹。 ——对不起,这儿没有这么一个人。 3.序数词前加不定冠词,表示“又一,再一”。 (2012· 全国卷Ⅱ)He missed the gold in the high jump,but will get a second chance in the long jump.他在跳高比赛中没有赢得金牌, 但是, 在跳远比赛中他还有一次(获得金牌的)机会。 4.a+most 表示“很”“非常”。 (2013· 昆明质量检测)—What do you think about the song What Makes You Beautiful? —It’s really a most wonderful song this year. ——你认为歌曲《什么使你最美》怎么样? ——确实是今年非常好的一首歌。 5.有些不可数名词如 knowledge,collection,understanding 等是由其动词转化而来, 它们后面加 of...时,前面需用不定冠词 a/an。 (2013· 兰州模拟)Social practice is an opportunity for students to gain a better understanding of how society operates. 社会实践对于学生来说是获得对社会更好理解的机会。 (2013· 东北育才中学二模)What happened just now shows a knowledge of first aid can make a real difference in an emergency. 刚刚发生的事情表明了解急救知识在紧急情况下确实能够起到作用。 6.a/an 相当于 every,表示“每一”。

师生行精品班专题讲义

—It's said John will be in a job paying over S60,000 a year. —Right, he will also get paid by the week.(2011· 江西高考) 7.用于某些抽象名词具体化。 A beauty, a failure/success/beer/drink/pleasure 三、零冠词的用法 1.不可数名词、复数名词表泛指时。 (2012· 浙江高考)The development of industry has been a gradual process throughout human existence,from stone tools to modern technology. 纵观人类存在的过程,从石器到现代技术,工业的发展是一个渐进的过程。 2.as/though 引导的让步状语从句中,如果作表语的名词置于句首,名词前不用冠词。 Clever boy as he is,he can’t solve such a difficult problem. 尽管他是聪明的孩子,但他也无法解决这么难的问题。 3.no 与 such 连用时应放在 such 之前,such 后的名词不用冠词。 (2010· 重庆高考) Everything comes with a price;there is no such thing as a free lunch in the world. 一切都是有代价的,因为天下没有“免费的午餐”。 4.称呼语及表示独一无二的头衔、职务的名词作宾语补足语及同位语时,不加冠词。 常用名词有 headmaster,king,president,chairman,monitor,head 等。 (2013· 成都第一次诊断)David Cameron was elected Prime Minister to lead Britain to a new time. 戴维· 卡梅伦被选为首相,他将带领英国走向一个新的时代。 5.学科名词,球类运动名词,三餐名词,国名,称呼语,年份,月份,季节名词前 但:a big dinner, the united states, in the 1990s,in the summer of last year 2014 年各地模拟试题 1.(2014· 潍坊五校联考)________relation between China and Russia has developed steadily since Vladimir Putin was reelected________president last May. A.The;the B.A;the C.The;/ D.A;/ 2.(2014· 日照模拟)Music is________universal language and it is one of________ways to learn about another culture. A.the;the B.a;/ C.the;/ D.a;the 3 . (2014· 福 建 三 明 三 校 联 考 )At the meeting the chairman appealed to us to take ________full advantage of the chance of hosting the coming Olimpics to create________better Beijing. A.a;a B.the;/ C./;/ D./;a 4. (2014· 河南省普通高中适应性检测一)I have learned that it’s taking________long time to become________person I want to be. A.the;a B.a;the C.the;the D./;a 5.(2013· 皖北协作区高三联考)—________Beijing of 2012 saw its first snowfall in the month of November. —Oh,it came as ________surprise to us. A.The;the B.The;a C./;a D./;the 6. (2014· 大连双基测试)Jogging every morning is________good habit.Stick to it, and you’ll make________great progress. A.a;/ B.a;a C.the;a D./;/ 7.(2014· 江西九校第二次联考)University is________most worthwhile time of discovery and learning,and it is also ________very enjoyable and valuable experience for every one of us.

师生行精品班专题讲义

A.a;a B.the;/ C./;a D.a;the 8.(2013· 江西重点中学高三 3 月联合考试)As________rule,parttime workers such as babysitters or English tutors are paid by________ hour. A.the;an B.a;an C.a;the D.the;/ 9.(2014· 山东省十二校高三联考)—Excuse me,is there________Mr Tailor living in the neighborhood?There is a parcel for him. —Sorry,but there is no such________person here. A./;a B.a;a C./;/ D.a;/ 10 . (2014· 安徽合肥四校高三年级联考 )In recent years , ________problems of college network management and education have become________great concern in society. A.the;a B.the;/ C./;the D./;a 11.(2014·乌鲁木齐高三模拟)There is no ______ exact definition(定义) of ______ word happiness. Happy people are happy for all sorts of reasons, A. an; a B. the; the C. 不填; the D. 不填; 不填 12.(2014· 辽宁东北育才双语学校模拟)—Kathleen, ______ Mr. Heller is waiting for you outside. —Just a second. I’m on ______ phone. A. a; the B. 不填; the C. a; 不填 D. 不填; 不填 13.(2014· 平顶山模拟)It is ______ world of wonders, ______ world where anything can happen. A. a; the B. a; a C. the; a D. the; 不填 14. (2014· 山东师大附中模拟) In ______ old society many young women died by so strange and cruel ______ custom. A. 不填; a B. 不填; the C. the; a D. an; a 15.(2014·河北保定市模拟)It is acknowledged that ______ shortest distance between persons is ______ sincere smile. A. a; the B. the; a C. a; 不填 D. the; 不填 16.(2014·河北衡水中学模拟)The story shows that ______ knowledge of ______ first aid can make______ real difference. A. the; the; 不填 B. a; 不填; a C. 不填; the; a D. a; 不填; 不填 17.(2014· 邯郸市教学质量检测)Rock climbing is ______ great fun. You will get close to ______ nature and take adventures at the same time. A. 不填; 不填 B. a; 不填 C. a; the D. 不填; the 18. (2014· 江苏省苏南四校联考) Being able to afford ______ drink would be______ comfort in those tough times. A. the; the B. a; a C. a; 不填 D. 不填;a 19. (2014 · 清江中学模拟)Everybody has ______ responsibility to save water, if future generations are to enjoy______ similar standard of living to the one we enjoy now. A. the; 不填 B. a; a C. 不填; the D. a; the 20.(2014· 河南濮阳高三模拟)When my father was in high school, he developed ______ interest in art and later became a serious student of ______ art there. A. an; 不填 B. an; the C. the; 不填 D. the; an

第二节:完型填空(共 20 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 30 分) A
I once had a friend who grew to be very close to me. Once when we were sitting at the 36 of a swimming pool by reminiscing(回忆) the past, she filled her 37 with some water and held it before me, saying, “ You see this water carefully 38 on my hand? It symbolizes love.”

师生行精品班专题讲义

This was how I 39 it: As long as you keep your hand open and allow it to remain there, it will always be there. However, if you try to 40 your hand and try to possess(占有,控制) it, it will run out through the fingers. This is the greatest 41 that sometimes people make when they meet love… they try to possess it, they 42 …and just like the water running out of your hand, love will leave you. For love is meant to be free, you cannot change its 43 .If there are people you love, allow them to be free. Give and don’t expect. Advise, but don’t order. Ask, but 44 demand. It might sound 45 , but it’s a lesson that may take a lifetime to truly practice. It is the secret of true love, in which I’m barely 46 it! Well it is just a piece of advice but it helps a lot. To truly practice it, you must sincerely feel no expectations from those you 47 , and yet an unconditional caring. 36.A.bottom 37.A.stomach 38.A.used 39.A.saw 40.A.raise 41.A.mistake 42.A.check 43.A.nature 44.A.often 45.A.difficult 46.A.practicing 47.A.respect B.entrance B.big B.stayed B.received B.close B.honor B.borrow B.quantity B.sometimes B.simple B.hiding B.invite C.edge C.pocket C.moved C.offered C.wave C.success C.give C.value C.always C.safe C.losing C.notice D.gate D.hand D.watched D.discovered D.shake D.price D.demand D.size D.never D.exact D.reading D.love

B
Women make better drivers than men for many reasons. If you ask me, I’d like to say, men know that women are better drivers but do not have the 48 to admit the truth. Unlike men, women stop for 49 when they have no idea where they are going. Women don’t drive around for hours pointlessly(漫无目标地) wastin g a tank of 50 only to find themselves heading in the 51 direction. Have you ever been in a car with a man who is lost? He tells you to 52 when you begin to open your mouth. And every five minutes or so he takes a turn going forty-five miles per hour only to find out he’s made 53 incorrect turn. Speeding is what men do best. But traffic is not a race. Men get 54 speeding tickets than women. Not because women trick to get out of tickets but only because they don’t speed. Women don’t risk putting lives in danger. 55 , they have more responsibility for life. 48. A. courage 49. A. conditions 50. A. enthusiasm 51. A. proper 52. A. make up 53. A. all B. ability B. directions B. energy B. good B. speak up B. every C. strength C. invitations C. water C. unsafe C. shut up C. other D. interest D. introductions D. gas D. wrong D. turn up D. another

师生行精品班专题讲义

54. A. more 55. A. Above all

B. fewer B. In other words

C. better C. On the other hand

D. worse D. In return

B
The composing career (作曲生涯) of Albert Roussel got off to a changeable start, and received one of its biggest successes from a lie. Roussel became an orphan (孤儿) at the age of eight and went to live with his grandfather. He built on the music he had learned from his mother, entertaining himself by reading through the family music collection and playing operatic selections and popular songs on the piano. Three years later Roussel’s grandfather died, and his mother's sister took him in. Her husband arranged for young Albert to take piano lessons. Summer vacations at a Belgian seaside added a second love to his life — the sea. He studied to be a soldier in the navy, but still made time to study music. In the French Navy, he and two friends found time to play the music of Beethoven and other composers. Roussel also began composing. At the Church of the Trinity in Cherbourg on Christmas Day 1892, he had his first public appearance as a composer. That success encouraged Roussel to write a wedding march, and one of his fellow naval officers offered to show it to a famous conductor, Edouard Colonne. When Roussel’s friend returned with the manuscript (手稿), he reported that Colonne had advised Roussel to give up his naval career and devote his life to music. Not long afterward, at the age of 25, Roussel did just that. He applied the qualities that he had developed in the navy to his composing and became a major force in twentieth century French music. As for Edouard Colonne’s inspiring advice that Roussel should devote his life to music, Roussel's naval friend later admitted that he had made it up and that he had never even shown Roussel’s manuscript to the conductor. 60. What information can we get from the second paragraph? A. Albert’s grandfather died when Albert was eight years old. B. Albert's aunt arranged for him to take piano lessons. C. Albert gave up studying music after he studied to be a soldier in the navy. D. Albert came to love the sea after summer vacations at the seaside. 61. From the third paragraph we know that ______. A. In the French Navy, Roussel and two friend began composing. B. Roussel’s first public appearance at the church was successful. C. Roussel showed the wedding march to Edouard. D. Edouard Colonne advised Roussel to devote his life to naval career. 62. Which of the following is true according to the text? A. The composing career of Roussel started stably. B. Roussel learned basic music knowledge from his aunt. C. A white lie helped Roussel achieve success. D. Roussel was cheated and hurt by his naval friend. 63. Who told a lie according to the text? A. Roussel’s grandfather. B. Albert’s naval friend. C. Roussel's aunt. D. Edouard Colonne.

完形: CDBAB

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