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Non-restrictive attributive clauses 非限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句与先行词之间不用 逗号隔开; 非限制性定语从句与先行词之间一 般用逗号隔开。
My cousin whose father is a teacher wants to be an actor.
My cousin , whose father is a teacher , wants to be an actor.

1.A.This is the place where I lived ten years ago .

B. The school,where I once studied,was built thirty years ago. 2.A.He is a man who I can ask for help.
B.His father , who works in Beijing, came back yesterday 限制性定语从句和先行词关系密切,如果去 掉从句,剩余部分意义不完整;非限制性定 语从句只是先行词的附加说明,如果去掉从 句,意义仍然完整。

1.I have a sister who works in a hospital.
我有一位在医院工作的姐姐。 (不只一位姐姐) 我有一位姐姐,她在医院工作。 (只有一位姐姐)

有时同一个限制性从句变为非限制性从句会 改变全句的意思

2. I have a sister , who works in a hospital. 3.All the magazines here which have beautiful pictures in them were written by him.
里面有漂亮图画的那些杂志是他写的。 (杂志有带图画和不带图画两类)

4.All the magazines here , which have beautiful pictures in them, were written by him. 所有的杂志都是他写的,里面都有漂亮的图画。

非限制性定语从句中通常使用下列关系 代词和副词

关系代词:which / who / whom / whose /as

关系副词:when / where
(非限制性定语从句中不用关系词that; 非限制性定语从句中关系词不能省略)

Fill in the blanks with proper relative words.
who 1.The famous basketball star, _____is an American,came to China yesterday. 2.In those days,she used to go to Mr black,with whom _____she had a wonderful time. which cost me a lot. 3.I bought a car yesterday,_____ which 4.Xi’an, ______I visited last year, is a nice old city. 5.He will come to see me next July, when ___ he won’t be so busy. where 6.The school,_______I once studied,was built thirty years ago.

7.John said he’d been working in the which office for an hour,_______ was true.

Which和as引导非限制性定从时的用法区别: 1.which引导的非限制性定从不能置于句首, 而as非限定从可放在句首,句中或句末。

2.由as构成的常见搭配如:as we all know,as is known to all,as is said above 等表“正如…”之意,而which 不能。 3.As 引导的从句在意义上一般不与主句意义 相背离。

as 引导的非限制性定语从句一些固定句型: 1.as has been said before 如上所述 2.as may be imagined 正如可以想象出 来的那样 3.as is well known 众所周知 4.as was expected 正如预料的那样 5.as has been already pointed out 正如已经指出的那样 6.as we all can see 正如我们都会看到 的那样

Eg.As is known to everybody,the moon travels around the earth once every month. As is reported in the newspaper,talks between two countries are making progress.

What’s the difference between “which” and “as” when they refer to a whole sentence?
Structure: “as” can be used in front of the sentence As was expected, we won the game. We won the game, as was expected. Meaning: “as” always means: 正如…一样

More examples He missed the show,which was a great pity. He invited me to dinner, which made me happy.

非限制性定语从句中关系代词which/as可指整个主句的 意思或一部分意思。As引导的定语从句既可以位于句末, 也可以位于句首或句中。

As everyone knows,China is a country with a long history.正如大家所知,中国是一个有着悠久 历史的国家。
She is a teacher, as is clear from her manner.


3.非限制性定从还能将整个主句作 为先行词,对其进行修饰,这是从 句谓语动词用第三人称单数。

? Are these sentences attributive clauses? He told me a story, which is already known to all. He came late, which made the teacher angry. He missed the movie, which was a great pity. “which” can be used to refer to __________________.

He is such a clever boy ____ can solve all the questions.
This is such an interesting book ____ interests all students.

I bought the same car ___ he is driving.

1. He is a hard working student, ___ we all know. 2. He has won first prize, ____ we all expected. 3. ____ we hoped, he came to help us. 4. ___ was planned, the work was finished on time.
“as” can be used to refer to a whole sentence.

Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, D _____, of course, made the others envy(嫉妒) him. A. who B. that C. what D. which

Cathy said the work would be D done by October, _____ personally(就我个人而论) I doubt(怀疑) very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which

Other examples
1.I am doing different types of exercises, all of _______are quite helpful to my health. which whom 2.Many people , some of ______are not overweight , are going on diets. 3.There are 54 students in my class, three of ________come whom from US.

在of which/whom之前可以使用表达数量 或定位的数词或代词。

The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every A year, 80% ________ are sold abroad. (2004, 辽宁卷) A. of which C. of them B. which of D. of that

I have many friends, some D _______ are businessmen.
A. why C. who of B. from which D. of whom

C I walked in our garden, _______ Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. A. which C. where B. when D. that

Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer what it was 20 years ago, ______ it was so poorly . A A. when B. which C. what D. that

Jim passed the driving test, A _______ surprised everybody in the office. (2005,浙江卷) A. which C. this B. that D. it

Complete the following passages with who,whose ,which,where,or when
I have a good friend,(1)_____ who is really thin.Twice a week he goes to the gym,(2)_____ where he exercises and lifts weights举重.But the fact is that he’s still quite thin,(3)______makes him unhappy. which Now he is thinking about taking some pills,(4)_____ which he thinks will make him become stronger. Does anyone know if it’s safe to take these pills?

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